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Camerarius records in his life, Melancthon himself was much troubled with it, and therefore could speak out of experience. Montanus consil. 22. pro delirante Judao, connrmes it, k grievous symptomes of the minde brought him to it. Randolotius relates of himself, that being one day very intent to write out a Physitian's notes, molested by an occasion, he fell into an hypocondriacall fit, to avoid which he drank the decoction of wormwood, and was freed. 'Melancthon (" being the disease is so troublesome and frequent) holds it a most necessary and profitable study, for every man to know the accidents of it, and a dangerous thing to be ignorant," and would therefore have all men in some sort to understand the causes, symptomes, and cures of it.
Causes of Melancholy from the whole Body.
AS before, the cause of this kind of Melancholy is inward or outward. Inward, "" when the liver is apt to ingender such an humour, or the spleen weak by nature, and not able to discharge his office." A melancholy temperature, retention of Haemrods, monthly issues, bleeding at nose, long diseases, agues, and all those six non-naturall things increase it. But especially ° bad dyet, as Piso thinks, pulse, salt meat, shellfish, cheese, black wine, &c. Mercurialis out of Averroes and Avicenna condemns all herbs: Galen, lib. 3. de loc. affect, cap. 1. especially Cabbage. So likewise fear, sorrow, discontents, &c. but of these before. And thus in brief you have had the generall and particular causes of Melancholy.
Now go and brag of thy present happinesse, whosoever thou art, brag of thy temperature, of thy good parts, insult, triumph, and boast; thou seest in what a brittle state thou art, how soon thou maist be dejected, how many severall waies, by bad diet, bad ayre, a small loss, a little sorrow or discontent, an ague, Sec. how many sudden accidents may procure thy mine, what a small tenure of happinesse thou hast in this life, how weak and silly a creature thou art. "Humble thy self therefore under the mighty hand of God." J Pet. 5. 6. know thy self, acknowledge thy present misery, and make right use of it. 2uistat
k Habuit sxva animi symptoms ta quae impediunt concoctionem, Sec. t Usitatissimus morbus cum sii, uule est hujus visceris accidentia considerare, nec lev* periculum liujus causas morbi ignornntibus. 'Jecur aptum r.d generandum ta1em humorem, splen natura imbeciUior. Piso, AUomarus, Guiancrius. • Me» lanchol Iam, quae fit a reduudanua humoris in toto corporc, virtus imprimis ge merat qui com Uumorcm paric
C c 2 vidtat
videat ne cadat. Thou dost now flourish, and last bona animi, corporis, & fortune, goods of body, minde, and fortune, nescis quid scrus secum tesper ferat, thou knowest'tiot what stormes and tempests the late evening may bring with it. Be not secure then, “be sober and watch," p fortunam reterenter habe, if fortunate and rich : if sick and poor, 'moderate thy self. I have said.
MEMB. I. SUBSEC. I Symptomes, or Signs of Melancholy in the Body. DARRHASIUS, a painter of Athens, amongst those OlynthiI an captives Philip of Macedon brought homne to sell, * bought one very old man; and when he had him at Athens, put him to extreme torture and torment, the better by his example to express the pains and passions of his Prometheus, whom he was then about to paint. I need not be so barbarous, inhuinane, curious or cruell for this purpose to torture any poor inelancholy man, their syimptoines are plain, obvious and familiar, there needs no such' accurate observation or far fetcht object, they delineate themselves, they voluntarily bewray themselves, they are too frequent in all places, I meet them still as I go, they cannot conceal it, their grievances are too well known, I need not seek far to describe them.
Symptomes therefore are either ? universall or particular, saith Gordonius, lib. med. cap. 19. part. 2. to persons, to'species; “ some signes are secret, some manifest, soine in the Body, some in the minde, and diversly vary, according to the inward or outward causes,” Cappivaccius : or from stars accord. ing to Jovianus Pontanus, de reb. cxlest, lib. 10. cup. 13. and cælestiall influences, or from the humours diversly mixt, Ficinus li. l. cap. 4. de sanit. tuenda : as they are hot, cold, naturall, unnaturall, intended or reinitted, so will Ætius have me. lancholica deliria inultiformia, diversity of melancholy signs. Laurentius ascribes them to their' severall temperatures, delights, natures, inclinations, continuance of time, as they are simple or 'mixt with other diseases, as the 'causes are divers, so must the signs be, alinost infinite, Altoinarus cap. 7.'art. med. And as wine produceth divers effects, or that herb Tortocolla in · Lau.
· P Ausonius. * Seneca cont. lib. 10. cont. 5. Quædam universalia, par
ticularia, quædamn manifesta, quædam in corpore, quædam 'in'cogitatione & animo, quædam à stcllis, quædam ab humoribus, quze ut vinum corpus Varie disponit, &c. Diversa phantasmata pro varietate cause externa, internæ. Lib. 1. de risu. fol. 17. Ad ejus esum alii sudant, alii voinunt, stent, bibunt, saltant, ali rident, tremunt, dorm unt, &c.
rentius, "which makes some laugh, some weep, some sleep, some dance, some sing, some howle, some drinke, £kc." so doth this our melancholy humour, work several! signes in severall parties.
But to confine them, these generall Symptomes may be reduced to those of the Body or the MinUe. Those usuall signs appearing in the Bodies of such as are melancholy be these, cold and dry, or they are hot and dry, as the humour is more or lessc adust. From ' these first qualities arise many other second, as that of ' colour, black, swarty, pale, ruddy, &c. soipe are impense rubri, as Montaltus cap. 16. observs out of Galen, li. 3. de locis ajfectis, very red and high coloured. Hippocrates in his book u de insania K melan. reckons up these gignes, that they are " x lean, withered, hollow-eyed, looke pld, wrinkled, harsh, much troubled with winde, and a griping in their bellies, or belly-ake, beleh often, dry bellies and hart}, dejected Iookes, flaggy beards, singing of the ears, vertigo, light headed, little or no sleep, and that interrupt, terrible and fearfull dreames," * Anna soror, qua me suspensam insomnia terrent? The same Symptomes are repeated by Melanelius in bis booke of Melancholy collected out of Galen, Ruffus, jEtius, by Rhasis, Gordonius, and all the Juniors, " y qontinuall, sharp, and s inking belehings, as if their meat in their stomack were putrefied, or that they had eaten fish, dry bellies, absurd and interrupt dreams, and many phantastical visions about their eys, vertiginous, apt to tremble, and prone to Venery." 'Some add palpitation of the heart, cold sweat, as usuall Symptomes, and a leaping in many parts of the body, saltum in multis corporis partialis, a kinde of itching, saith Laurentius on the superficies of the skin, like a flea-biting sometimes. 'Montaltus cap. 21. puts fixed eyes and much twinkling of their eyes for a sjgn, and so doth Avicenna, oculos habentes palpitantcs, tvauh, vehementerrubicundi, k'c. lib. 3. fen. I. Tract. 4. cap. JJ. They stut most part, which he took out of Hippocrates' Aphorisms. h Rhasis makes "head-ach and a binding heaviness for a principall token, much leaping of winde about the
• T. Bright. cap. 20. 'Nigrescit hie humor aliquando suporcalefactus, aliquando supt rfrigefactus. Melanel. e Gal. u Interpret F. Calvo. • Oculi his excavantur, venti gignumur circum pracordia Se acidi rucius, sicci fere ventres, Vertigo, tinnitus aurium, somni pusilli, somnia terribilia & interrupt. * Virg. Alii. I Assidune eseq: atidx ructationes qu ae cibum viru!entum cu
teniumq: nidorem, ct si nil tale iiv.estum sit, referam ob cruditatem. Ventres tiisce aridi, somnus plerumq; parcus Sc interruptus, somnia absurdissima, turbulent, corporis tremor, capit.s gravedo, strepitus circa aures Sc visiones ante oculos, ad venerem prodigi. 'Altomarus, Brucl, Piio, Montaltus. 'Frequentes habent oculorum nictationes, aliqui tauten fixis oculis plerumq; sunt. 1 Cent. lib. 1 Tract. 9. Signa hujus morbi sunt plurimus saltus, souitus aurium. capitis gravedo, lingua titubat, oculi excavantur, &c.
, C c 3 skinnr, skinne, as well as stuffing, or tripping in speech, &c. hollow eys, grosse veines, and broad lips." To some too, if they be far gone, mimicaH gestures are too familiar, laughing, grinning, fleering, murmuring, talking to themselves, with strange mouthes and faces, inarticulate voices, exclamations, &c. And although they be commonly leane, hirsute, unchearfull in countenance, withered, and not so pleasant to behold, by reason of thes3 continuall fears, griefs, and vexations, dull, heavie, lazie, restlesse, unapt to go about any businesse; yet their memories are most part good, they have happy wits, and excellent apprehensions. Their hot and dry brains make them they cannot sleep, Ingentes habent Sf crcbras vigUias (Areteus) Mighty and often watehings, sometimes waking for a moneth, a year together. c Hercules de Saxonia faithfully averreth, chat he hath heard his mother swear, she slept not for seven moneths together: Trincavelius, Tom. 2. cons. 16. speaks of one that waked 50 days, and Skenkius hath examples of two years, and all without offence. In naturall actions their appetite is greater then their concoction, multa appetunt, pauca digerunt, as Rhasis hath it, they covet to eat, but cannot digest. And although they "d do eat much, yet they are lean, ill liking," saith Areteus, "withered and hard, much troubled with costivenesse," crudities, oppilarions, spitting, belching, &c. Their pulse is rare and slow, except it be of the r Carotides which is very strong; but that varies a wording to their intended passions or perturbations, as Struthius hath proved at large, S'ptgmatica artis I. 4. c. 13. To say truth, in such Chronick diseases the pulse is not much to be respected, there being so much superstition in it, as 'Craro notes, and so many differences in Galen, that he dares say they may not be observed, or understood of any man.
Their urine is most part pale, and low coloured, urina pauca, acris, biliosa, (Areteus) Not much in quantity; But this in my judgement, is all out as uncertain as the other, varying so often according to several persons, habits, and other occasions not to be respected in Chronick diseases. "8 Their melancholy excrements in some very much, in others little, as the;spleen plays his part," and thence proceeds winde, palpitation of the heart, short breath, plenty of humidity in the stomack, heaviness of heart and heartake, and intolerable stupidity and dulness of spirits. Their excrements or stool hard, black to some and
* In Pantheon cap. de Melancholia. * Alvus arida nihil dejiciens cihi
^apaces, nihilominus tamen extemiati sunt. • Nic Piso Inflatio carotidum,
Sec. 'Andrxas Dudith Rahamo. cp lib. 3. Crat. cpist. multa in putsibu*
superstitio, ausim ctiam dicere, tot differentias quae describuntuf ^Jaleno, neq; ^ntelligi a quoquam ncc obscrvari posse. « T. Bright. cap. 20V ■
littlt. little. If the heart, brain, liver, spleen, be misaffected, as usually they are, many inconveniences proceed from them, many diseases accompany, as Incubus, h Apoplexy, Epilepsie, Vertigo, those frequent wakings and terrible dreams, 'intempestive laughing, weeping, sighing, sobbing, bashfulnesse, blushing, trembling, sweating, swouning, &c. kAU their senses are troubled, they think they see, hear, smell, and touch that which they do not, as shall be proved in the following discourse.
Symptomes or Signes in the Minde.
jrear ,I A RCULANUS in 9. Rhdsis ad Almansor. cap.
'J ii 16. will have these symptomes to be infinite, as in deed they are, varying according to the parties, "for scarce is there one of a thousand that dotes alike," t Laurentius c. 16. Some few of greater note I will point at; and amongst the rest, Fear and Sorrow, which as they are frequent causes, so ifVthey persever long, according to Hippocrates'" and Galen's Aphommes, they are most assured signes, inseparable companions, and characters of melancholy; Of present melancholy, and habituated, saith Montaltus cap. 11. and common to them all, as the said Hippocrates, Galen, Avicenna, and all Neotericks hold. But as hounds many times run away with a false cry, never perceiving themselves to be at a fault, Sq do they. For Diocles of old, (whom Galen confutes) and amongst the Juniors, n Hercules de Saxonia, with Lod. Mercatus cap. 17. A 1. demelan. take just exceptions at this Aphorisme of Hippocrates, 'tis not alwayes true, or so generally to be understood, "Fear and Sorrow are no common Symptomes to all melancholy; upon more serious consideration, I finde some (saith he) that are not so at all. Some indeed are sad, and not fearful; some fearfull and not sad; some neither fearfull, nor sad; some both." Four kindes he excepts, fanatical persons, such as were Cassandra, Nanto, Nicostrata, Mppsus, Proteus, the Sybills, ■whom fAristofle confesseth to have been deeply melancholy. Baptista Porta seconds him, Physiog. lib. 1, cap. 8. they were
h Post 40. aetat. annum, saith Jacchinus in 15. 9. Rhasis. Idem Mercurialis consil. 86. Trincavelius, Tom. 2. cons. 17. 'Gordonius. modo rident, modu Bem, silent, &c. k Fcrnelius consil. 43. tc }j. Montanus consil. 230. Galen de locis affectis, lib. 3. cap. 6. 'Aphorism & lib. de Mclan. " ' Lib. 2. cap. 6. de locis affect. timor & mcestkia, si diutius perseverent, &c. "Tract. postlmmode Melan. edit. Veneiiis 16 20. per Bolzettain Bibliop. Mihi diligemius hancrem consideranti, patet quosdam essi;, qui non laborant maerore fi timorc. f Prob. lib. 3.
C c 4 atrd