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dtrd bile perciti: dsemoniacall persons, and such as speak strange languages, are of this ranke; some Poets, such as laugh ahvayes, and think themselves Kings, Cardinall*, &c. sanguine they are, pleasantly disposed most part, and so continue. * Baptista Porta confines r ear and Sorrow to them that are cold; but Lovers, Sybills, Enthusiasts, he wholly excludes. So that I think I may truly conclude, they are not ahvayes sad and fearful, but usually so: and that "without a cause, titnent de non timendis, (Gordonius:) quaq; mamenti non sunt, "although not all alike (saith Altomarus) ''yet all likely fear, 'some with an extraordinary and a mighty fear," Areteus.

'Many fear death, and yet in a contrary humour, make away themselves," Galen, lib. 3. de loc. affec.'cap.l. Some are afraid that heaven will fall on their heads: some they are damned, or shall be. "f They are troub'ed with scruples of consciences, distrusting God's mercies, think they shall goe certainly to Hell, the Devill will have them, and make great lamentation," Jason Pratensis. Fear of Devils, deaths that they shall be so sick, of some such or such disease, ready to tremble at every object, they shall die themselves forthwith, or that some of their dear friends or near allies are certainly dead; imminent danger, losse, disgrace still torment others, eke. that they are all glasse,and therefore will suffer no man to come near them: that they are all cork, as light as feathers; others as heavy as lead, some are afraid their heads will fall off their shoulders, that they have frogs in their bellies, &c. % Montanus consii. 23. speaks of one " that durst not walk alone from home, for fear he should swoon, or die." A second "* fears every man he meets will rob him, quarrell with him, or kill him." A third dares not venture to walk alone, for fear he should meet the Devil, a thief, be sick; fears all old women as witehes, and every black dog or cat he sees he suspecteth to be a Devil, every person comes near him is malificiated, every creature, all intend to hurt him, seek his ruine: another dares not go over a bridge, come near a poole, rock, steep hill, lye in a chamber where crosse beames are, for fear he be tempted to hang,, drown or precipitate himself. If he be in a silent auditory, as at a sermon, he is afraid he shall speak aloud at unawares, some

* Phyaiog. lib. 1. c. 8. Quibus multa frigida bilis atra, stolidi k timidi, at qui calidi, ingeniosi, amasii, divmosi, spirnu instigati, &c. "Omnese'c

ercent metus Sc tristitia, & sine causa. ?Omnes timent licet mm omnibus

idem timendi modus JEtiusTctrab. lib. 2. sect. c. 9. '1ngenti pavore tre

pidant. r Multi mortem timent, & tamen sibi ipsis moriem consciscum,

alii cceli ruinam timent. f AfJligit cos plena scrupulis conscientia, chvinai

raisericordiae diffidentes, Oreo se destinant feeda lamentatione deplurantes. } Non ausus egredi domo ne deficerct. 'Multi dxmones timent, latrones,

insjdias, Avicenna.

thing undeceat, unfit to he said. If he he locked in. a close room, he is afraid of being, stifled for want of air, and stilt carries Bisket, Aquavits, or some strong, waters about him, for fear of deliquiums, or being sick; or if he be in a throng, middle of a church, multitude, where he may not well get out, though he sit at ease, he is so misaffected. He will freely, promise, undertake any busiuesse before hand, but when U comes, to be performed, he dare not adventure, but fears an infinite number of dangers, disasters* &c. Some are " ! afraid to be burned, or that the "ground will sink under them, or * swallow them quick, or that the King will call them in question for some fact they never did (Rhasis cont.y and that they shall surely be executed." The terror of such a death troubles them, and they fear as much, and are equally tormented in minde, " i as they that have committed a murder, and are pensive without a cause, as if they were now presently to be put to death." Plater, cap. 3. de mentis alienat. They are afraid of some losse, danger, that they shall surely lose their lives, goods, and all they have, but why they know not. Trincavehus, consil. 13. lib. 1. had a patient that would needs make away himself, for fear of being hanged, and could not be perswaded for three years together, but that he had killed a man. Plater. observat. lib. I. hath two other examples of such as feared to be executed without a cause. If they come in a place where a robbery, theft, or any such offence hath bin done, they presently fear they are suspected, and many times betray themselves without a cause. Lewis the 11the French King, suspected every man a traitour that came ahout liim, durst trust no officer. Alii formidulosi omnium, alii quorundam (Fracastorius lib. 2. de Intellect.) "' some fear all alike, some certain men, and cannot endure their companies, are sick in them, or if they be from home." Soine suspect 3 treason still, others " are afraid of their ' dearest and nearest friends." (Mehanelius e Galeno, Rufn, ,/Etio,) and dare not be alone in the dark, for fear of hobgoblins and devils: he suspects every thing he hears or sees to be a Devi!, or enchanted, and imagineth a thousand Chimeras aud visions, which to his thinking he certainly sees, bugbears, talks with black men, ghosts, goblins, &cc.

"* Omnes se terrent auras, sonus excitat omnis."

'Alii comburi, alii de Rege, Rhasis. "Ne terra absorbeAnuir. Farestus. 'Ne terra deh.scat. Gordon. i Alii limore mortis timentur & mala gratii

prineipum putantse aliquid corrmmisse, & ail siipplicium iequiri. » Alius domesticos timet, alius otones, -Btius. 'Alii timent insklias. Aurel. lib. 1. da morb. Chron. cap. 6. * Jlle cbarissiinos, iuc umnes homines cLtra disc t;»

men timet. * Virgil.

Another Another through bashfulnesse, suspicion, and rimerousnesse will nor be seen abroad, " c loves darknesse as life, and cannot endure the light," or to sit in lightsome places, his hat still in his eyes, he will neither see, nor be seen by his good will, Hippocrates lib. de Insania &C Melancholia. He dare not come in company for fear he should be misused, disgraced, overshoot himself in gesture or speeches, or be sick , he rhinkes every man observes him, aims at him, derides him, owes him malice. Most part "d they are afraid they, are bewitehed, possessed, or poisoned by their enemies, and sometimes they suspect their neerest friends: he thinkes something speaks or talks within him, or to him, and he beleheth of the poyson." Cristopherus a Vega lib. 2. cap. 1. had a patient' so troubled, thai by no perswasion or physick he could be reclaimed. Some are afraid that they shall have every fearful disease they see others have, hear of, or read, and dare not therefore hear or read of any such subject, no not of melancholy it self, lest by applying to themselves that which they hear or read, they should aggravate and increase it. If they see one possessed, bewitehed, an Epileptick Paroxysme, a man shaking with the palsie, or giddy headed, reeling or standing in a dangerous place, &rc. for many days after it runs in their minds, they are afraid they shall be so too, they are in like danger, as Perk, c. 12. sc. 2. well observes in his Cases of Consc. and many times by violence of imagination they produce it. They cannot endure to see any terrible object, as a Monster, a man executed, a carcase, hear the devil named, or any tragicall relation seen, but they quake for fear, Hecatas somniare sibi videntur (Lucian) they dream of Hobgoblins, and may not get it out of their minds a long time after: they apply (as I have said) all they hear, see, read, to themselves; as * Felix Plater notes of some young Physicians, that study to cure diseases, cateh them themselves, will be sick, and appropriate all symptoines they finde related of others, to their own persons. And therefore (quod iterum moneo, licet nauseam pa ret lectori, malo decern potius verba, decies repetita licet, abundare, quam unum desiderari) I would advise him, that is actually melancholy, not to read this tract of Symptomes, lest he disquiet or make himself for a time worse, and more melancholy than he was before. Generally of them all take this, de inanibus semper

'H rinlurem prodire timet, tenebrasq: qusrit, contra, ille caliginosa fuyit. 'Qmiiam larvas, & malos spirilus ab inimicis vencficius & incantaiionibus sibi piuant objectari, Hippocrates, potionem se veneficam sumpsissc putat, & dc hac ructare sibi crcbro videtur. Idem Montaltus cap. 21. JEliai lib. 2. & alii. Trallianus 1. 1. cap. 16. « Observau L 1. Quando lis nil nocct, nisi quod, mutiei ilms melancholias.

conquerconqueruntur, K timent, saith Aretius; they complain of toyes, and fear f without a cause, and still think their melancholy to be most grivious, none so bad as they are, though it be nothing in respect, yet never any man sure was so troubled, or in this sort. As really tormented and perplexed in as great an agony for toyes and trifles (such things as they wil after laugh at themselves) as if they were most material and essential matters indeed, worthy to be feared, and will not be satisfied. Pacifie them for one, they are instantly troubled with some other fear; alwayes afaird of something, which they foolishly im lgine or conceive to themselves, which never peradventuie was, never can be, never likely will be; troubled in minde upon every small occasion, unquiet, still complaining, grieving, vexing, suspecting, grudging, discontent, and cannot be freed so long as melancholy continues. Or if their minds be more quiet for the present, and they free from forrain fears, outward accidents, yet their bodies are out of tune, they suspect some part or other to be amiss, now their head akes, heart, stomack, spleen, &c. is misaffected, they shall surely have this or that disease; still troubled in body, minde, or both, and through winde, corrupt phautasie, some accidental distemper, continually molested. Yet for all this as ?j3cchimis notes, "in all other things they are wise, staid, discreet, and do nothing unbeseeming their dignity, person, or place, this foolish, ridiculous, and childish fear excepted; which su much, so continually tortures and crucifies their souls, like a barking dog that alwayes bawls, but seldom bites, this fear ever molesteth, and so long as melancholy lasteih, cannot be avoided.

Sorrow is that other Character, and inseparable companion, as individual as Saint Cosmus and Damkin, jidus'Achates, as all writers witness, a common symptome, a continual, and still without any evident cause, h mxrent omnes, H si eos reddere causam, non possunt: grieving still, but why they cannot tell: Agelasti, mccsti, cogitabundi, they look as if they had newly come forth of Trophonius den. And though they laugh many times, and seem to be extraordinary meny (as they will by fits) yet extream lumpish again in an instant, dull, and heavy, semel &' simul, merry and sad, but most part sad: 'Si qua placent, abeunt; inimica tenacius hterent: sorrow sticks by them still continually, gnawing as the vulture

'—timeo lamen metusque causx nescius, cnnsa est me;us. Heinsiut Auftriaco. * Cap. 15. in 9. Rhasis, in mu:fis vitii, prxter rationem semper ali'juid timent, in caeteris tamen optime se gerunt, ncq; aliquid praicr dignitatem committunt. h Altomarus cap. 7. Areteus, triste, sunt. 'Mant. Hid k Titius bowels, and they cannot avoid it. No sponer axe. their eyes open, bur after terrible apd, troublesome dreams their heavy hearts begin to sigh: they are still fretting, chafing, sighing, grieving, coiTipIajning, finding faults, repining, grudging, weeping, UeautontiHwrumznoi, vexing themselves, 'disquieted in mind, with restless, unquiet thoughts, discontent, either for their own, other men's, or publike affaires, such as concenie them not; things past, present or to come, the remembrance of some disgrace, loss, injury, abus.es, &c. troubles them now being idle afresh, as if it were new done; they are afflicted otherwise for some danger, loss, want, shame, misery, that will certainly come, as they suspect and mistrust. Lugubris Ate frowns upon them, insomuch that Areteus well calls it, qngorem animi, a vexation of the minde, a perpetual agony. They can hardly be pleased, or cased, though in other men s opinion most happy, go, tarry, run, ride,

* ■ post equitem sedet atra cura:"

they cannot avoid this ferall plague, let them come in what company they will, "haret lateri lathalis arundo, as to a Deer that is struck, whether he run, go, rest, with the herd, or alone, this grief remains: irresolution, inconstancy, vanity of minde, their fear, torture, care, jealousie, suspition, bcc. continues, and they cannot be relieved. So ° he complained in the Poet,

'* Domurn revortor raaestus, atque animo fori;
l'erturbato, atq; incerto prae aegritudine,
Assid. accurruni servi: succos delrahunt,
Video alios festinare, lectot sternere,
Coenam apparare, pro se quisq; sedulo
Faciebant, quo illam mihi lenirent miseriam."

He came home sorrowfull, and troubled in his mind, his servants did all they possibly could to please him; one pulled off his socks, another made ready his bed, a chird his supper, ah" did their utmost endeavours to ease his grief, and exhilarate his person, he was profoundly melancholy, he had lost his sonr ■illud angebat, that was his Cordolium, his pain, his agony which could not be removed.

2'&'dium vita.) Hence it proceeds many times, that (hey are weary of their lives, and feral thoughts to offer violence to their own persons, come into their minds, LediiDii vita is a common symptome, tarda;flaunt, ingrataij; tempera, they are soon tired with all things; they will now tame, now be gone; now in bed they will rise, now up, then go n?

k Ovid. Met. 4. 1 Inquies animus. "Hor. 1. 3. Oi 1. * V'irg.

•Muned. Heautom. Act. 1. sc 1.


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