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them but consider what fearful maladies, ferall diseases, gross inconveniences come to both sexes by this enforced temperance, it troubles me to think of, much more to relate those frequent aborts and murdring of infants in their Nunneries (read * Kemnitius and others) their notorious fornications, those Spintrias, Tribadas, Ambubeias, &c. those rapes, incests, adulteries, mastuprations, Sodomies, buggeries of Monkes and Friers. See Bale's visitation of Abbies, f Mercurialis, Rodericus a Castro, Peter Forestus, and divers physicians; I know their ordinarie Apologies and excuses for these things, sed viderint Politici, Medici, Theologi, I shall more opportunely meet with them, X elsewhere.

"Illius viduae, aut patronum Virginis liujus,
Ne me forte putes, verbum non amplius addam."

MEMB. III.

Immediate cause of these precedent Symptomes.

TO give some satisfaction to melancholy, men, that are troubled with these symptomes, a better means in my judgment cannot be taken, then to shew them the causes whence they proceed; not from divels, as they suppose, or that they are bewitehed or forsaken of God, hear or see, &c. as many of them think, but from naturall and inward causes, that so knowing them, they may better avoid the effects, or at least endure them widi more patience. The most grievous and common symptomes are Fear and Sorrow, and that without a cause, to the wisest and discreetest men, in this malady not to be avoided. The reason why they are so j^Etius discusseth at large, Tetrabib. 2. 2. in his first probleme out of Galen, lib. 2. de causis sympt. 1. For Galen imputeth all to the cold that is black, and thinks that the spirits being darkned, and the substance of the brain cloudy and dark, all the objects thereof appear terrible, and the c minde it self, by those dark, obscure, gross fumes, ascending from black humours, is in continuall darkness, fear and sorrow; divers terrible monstrous fictions in a thousand shapes and apparitions occurre, with violent passions, by which the brain and phantasie are troubled and eclipsed. il Fracastorius lib. 2. de intellect. "will have

* Examen cone. Trident. de caelibatu sacerd, f Cap. de Satyr. ct Priapis. J Part. 3. sect. 2. Nfemb. 5. Sub. 5. « Vapores crassi ct nigri, a ventriculo

in cerebrum exhalant. Pel. Platerus. d Calidi nilaies, frigitli indispositi ad

laetiliam, et ideo solitarii, taciturni, non ob tenchras internas, ut medici vulunt, sed ob frigus: uiulti melancholia uocte ambulant intrepidi.

cold cold to be the cause of Fear and Sorrow; for such as are cold, are ill disposed to mirth, dull and heavy, by nature solitarie, silent; and not for any inward darkness (as Physicians think) for many melancholy men dare boldly be, continue, and walk in the dark, and delight in it:" solum j'rigidi limidi: if they be hot, they are merry; and the more hot, the more furious, and void of fear, as we see in madmen: but this reason holds not, for then no melancholy, proceeding from choler adust, should fear. *Averroes scoffs at Galen for his reasons, and brings five arguments to refell diem: so doth Herc.de Saxonia, Tract, de melanch. cap. 3. assigning other causes, which are copiously censured and confuted by yillianus Montaltus, cap. 5. iC 6. Lod. Mercatus de Inter, morb. cur. lib. 1. cap. \l: Altomarus cap. 7. de met. Guianerius tract. 15. r. 1. Bright cap. n. Laurentius cap. 5. Valesius med. cont. lib. Scon. 1. "* Distemperature," they conclude, " makes black juice, blackness obscures the spirits, the spirits obscured, cause fear and sorrow." Laurentius cap. 13. supposeth these black fumes offend especially the Diaphragma or Midriffe, and so per conscquens the mind, which is obscured as f the Suu by a cload. To this opinion of Galen, almost all the Greeks and Arabians subscribe, the Latines new and old, interna tenebra offuscant animum, ut externa nocent pueris, as children are affrighted in the dark, so are melancholy men at all times, z as having the inward cause wish them, and still carrying it about. Which black vapors, whether they proceed from the black bloud about the heart, as T. W. Jes. thinks in his Treatise of the passions of the mind, or stomack, spleen, midriffe, or all the misaffected parts together, it boots not, they keep the mind in a perpetuall dungeon, and oppress it with continual fears, anxieties, sorrows, occ. It is an ordinaric thing for such as are sound, to laugh at this dejected pusillanimity, and those other symptomes of melancholy, to make themselves merry with them, and to wonder at such, as toys and trifles, which may be resisted and withstood, if they will themselves: but let him that so wonders, consider with himself, that if a man should tell him on a sudden, some of his especial friends were dead, could he choose but grieve? or set him upon a steep rock, where he should be in danger to be precipitated, could he be secure? his heart would tremble for feat, and his head be giddy. P. Byarus"' Phlcgmatick ate dull: Sanguine lively, pleasant, acceptable and merry, but not witty: Cholerick are too swift in motion, and furious, impatient of contemplation, deceitfull wits: Melancholy men have the most excellent wits, but not all; this humour may be hot or cold, thick or thin; if too hot, they are furious and mad: if too cold, dull, stupid, timorous and sad: if temperate, excellent, rather inclining to that extreme of heat, then cold" This sentence of his will agree with that of Heraclitus, a dry light makes a wise minde, temperate heat and driness, are the chief causes of a good wit; therefore, saith yElian, an Elephant is the wisest of all bruit beasts, because his brain is driest, Sf ob atra bills copiam: this reason Cardan approves subtil. I. 12. Jo. Baptista Silvaticus, a physician of Millan, in his first controversy, hath copiously handled this question: Rulandus in his problemes, Cselius Rhodiginus lib. 17. Valleriola 6to narrat. med. Here, de Saxonia Tract, posth. de mel. cap. 3. Lodovicus Mercatus de inter, morb. cur. lib. cap. 17. Baptista Porta Physiog. lib. 1. c. 13. and many others.

* Vapores melancholici, spiritibus misti, tencbrarum causa sunt, cap. 1. 'Inteniperies tacit succuni nigrum, nigrities, obscurat spirittim, obscuratio spiritus Tacit metum ct tristiam. 'Ut nubecula Solem ofluscat. Constantinus lib. de melanch. * Altomanis c. 1. Causam tinioris circumfcrt aterl.umur

passionij materia, cl atri spiritus perpetuam animae domicilii7 offunuunt poctcm.

Tract.

Tract. de pest. gives instance (as I have said) “h and put case (saith he) in one that walks upon a plank, if it lye on the ground, he can safely do it: but if the same plank be laid over some deep water, instead of a bridge, he is veheinently moved, and 'tis nothing but his imagination, forma cadendi impressa, to which his other members and faculties obey." Yea, but you infer, chat such men have a just cause to fear, a true object of fear; so have melancholy men an inward cause, a perpetuall fume and darkness, causing fear, grief, suspicion, which they carry with thein, an object which cannot be removed; but sticks as close, and is as inseparable as a shadow to a bodie, and who can expell, or over-run his shadow ? remove heat of the liver, a cold stomack, weak spleen; remove those adust humours and vapours arising froin them, black bloud from the heart, all outward perturbations, take away the cause, and then bid them not grieve nor fear, or be heavie, dull, lumpish, otherwise counsell can do little good; you may as well bid him that is sick of an ague, not to be a dry; or him that is wounded, not to feel pain.

Suspicion follows Fear and Sorrow at heels, arising out of the saine fountaine, so thinks · Fracastorius, “ that Fear is-the cause of Suspicion, and still they suspect some treachery, or some secret machination to be framed against them, stil they distrust." Restiesness proceeds from the same spring, variety of fumes make them like and dislike. Solitariness, avoiding of light, that they are weary of their lives, hate the world, arise from the same calises, for their spirits and humors are opposite to light, fear makes them avoid company, and absent themselves, least they should be misused, kissed at, or overshoot themselves, which stil they suspect. They are prone to venery, by reason of wind. Angry, waspish, and fretting still, out of abundance of choler, which causeth fearfull dreames, and violent perturbations to them, both sleeping and waking: That they suppose they have no heads, fie, sink, they are pots, glasses, &c. is wind in their heads. * Herc. de Saxonia doth ascribe this to the severall motions in the animall spirits, “their dilation, contraction, confusion, alteration, tenebrosity, hot or cold distemperature," excluding all materiall humors.' Fra

A Pone excmplum, quod quis potcst ambulare super trahem quæ est in via : sed si sit super aquam profundam, loco pontis, non ambulabit super eam, eo quod imaginetur in animo et timet vehementer, forma cadendi impressa, cui obediunt membra omnia, ct facultates reliquæ. Lib. 2. de intellectione. Suspiciosi ob timorem et obliquum discursum, et semper inde putant sibi fieri insidias. Lauren. 5. * Tract. de mel. cap. 7. Ex dilatione, contractione, confusione, tenebrositate spirituum, calida, frigida intemperie, &c. * Illud inquisitione dignum, cur tam falsa recipiant, habere se cornua, esse mortuos, nasutos, esse aves, &c.

castorius

castorius "accounts it a thing worthy of inquisition, why they should entertain such false conceipts, as that they have noms, great noses, that they are hirds, beasts," &c. why they should think themselves kings, lords, cardinals. For the first, t Fracastorius gives two reasons: "One is the disposition of the body: the other, the occasion of the phantasy," as if their eyes be purblind, their ears sing, by reason of some cold and rheume, &c. To the second, Laurentius answers, the imagination inwardly or outwardly moved, represents to the understanding, not inticements only, to favor the passion, or dislike, but a very intensive pleasure follows the passion, or displeasure, and the will and reason are captivated by delighting in it.

Why students and lovers are so often melancholy and mad, the Philosopher of m Conimbra assigns this reason, "because by a vehement and continuall meditation of that, wherewith they are affected, they feteh up the spirits into the brain, and with the heat brought with them, they incend it beyond measure: and the cells of the inner senses dissolve their temperature, which being dissolved, they cannot perform their oflices as they ought."

Why melancholy men are witty, which Aristotle hath long since maintained in his problems; and that "all learned men, famous Philosophers, and Law-givers, ad unwn fere omnes Melancholici, have still been melancholy; is aproblememuch controverted. Jason Pratensis will have it understood of naturall melancholy, which opinion Melancthon inclines to, in his book de Anima, and Marcilius Ficinus de san. tuend. lib. 1. cap. 5. but not simple, for that makes men stupid, heavie, dull, being cold and dry, fearfull, fooles, and solitary, but jnixt with the other humors, flegmeonly excepted: and they not adust, "but so mixt, as that bloud be half, with little or no udustion, that they be neither too hot nor too cold. Aponensis cited by Melancthon, thinks it proceeds from melancholy adust, excluding all naturall melancholy as too cold. Laurentius condemns his tenent, because adustion of humours makes men mad, as lime bums when water is cast on it. It must be mixt with bloud, and somewhat adust, and so that old Aphorisme of Aristotle may be verified, Nullum magnum ingeniwn sine mixturd dementia, no excellent wit without a mixture of madness. Fracastorius shal decide the controversy,

'1. E)islKisitiii corporis. 2. Occasio Imaginations. m In pro. li. de caelo. Vchemens et assidua cogitaiio rei erga quam afnri'ur, spiritus in cerebrum eviicat. "Melancholici ingeniosi omnes, summi viri in ariibus et disciplines, sivc circum iniperatoriam am reip. disciplinam omnes fere melancholici, Arisluieles. 'Advo miscentur, ut sit duplum sanguinis ad reliqua duo.

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Weeping, sighing, laughing, itehing, trembling, sweating, blushing, hearing and seeing strange noyses, visions, wind, crudity, are motions of the body, depending upon these precedent motions of the mind: Neither are tears, affections, but actions (as Scaliger holds) "i the voice of such as are afraid, trembles, because the heart is shaken" (Conimb. prob. 6. sec. 3. de som.) why they stutter or faulter in their speech, Mercurialis and Montaltus cap. 17. give like reasons out of Hippocrates, "'driness, which makes the nerves of the tongue torpid." Fast speaking (which is a symptome of some few) JEtius will have caused "* from abundance of wind, and swiftness of imagination: 'baldness comes from excess of driness," hirsuteness from a dry temperature. The cause of much waking in a dry brain, continuall meditation, discontent, fears and cares, that suffer not the mind to be at rest, incontinency is from wind, and an hot liver, Montanus cons. 26. Rumbling in the guts, is caused from wind, and wind from ill concoction, weakness of naturall heat, or a distempered heat and cold; "Palpitation of the heart from vapours, heaviness and aking from the same cause. That the bellv is hard, wind is a cause, and of that leaping in many parts. Redness of the face, and

tLib. 2. de intellectionc. Pingui sunt Minerva phlrgmntici: sanguinei aimbiles, grati, hilares, atnon mgeninsi; cholerici celeres menu, et ob id ronti mplationis impatientes: Melancholic! solum excellen'es, &e. i Trepidantium vox tremula, quia cor quaiitur. 'Ob ariditatem quae reddit ncrvos linguae

torpidos. • Incontinentia lingua ex copia flatuum, ct vclociiate imagina

{ionis. « Calvities ob ficcitttis excessum, - JBtiilt.

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