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itehing, as if they were flea-bitten, or stung with pismires, from a sharp subtile wind. "Cold sweat from vapours arising from the Hypocondries, which piteh upon the skin; leanness for want of good nourishment. Why their appetite is so great, *./Etius answers: 0$ ventris frigescit, cold in those inner parts, cold belly, and hot liver, causeth crudity, and intention proceeds from perturbations, * our souls for want of spirits cannot attend exactly to so many intentive operations, being exhaust, and overs way'd by passion, she cannot consider the reasons which may disswade her from such affections.

* Bashfulncss and blushing, is a passion proper to men alone, and is not only caused for b some shame and ignominy, or that they are guilty unto themselves of some fowle fact committed, but as Tracastorius well determines, ob defectum propriumt K timorem, "from fear, and a conceit of our defects; The face labours and is troubled at his presence that sees our defects, and nature willing to help, sends thither heat, heat draws the subtilest bloud, and so we blush. They that arc bold, arrogant, and careless, seldome or never blush, but such as are fearfull." Anthonius Lodovicus, in his book de pudore, will have this subtil bloud to arise in the face, not so much for the reverence cf our betters in presence, "d but for joy and pleasure, or if any thing at unawares shall pass from us, a sudden accident, occurse, or meeting:" (which Disarius in * Macrobius confirms) any object heard or seen, for blind men never blush, as Danxl'mus observes, the night and darkness make men impudent. Oi that we be staid before our betters, or in company we like not, or if any thing molest and offend us, erubescentia turnes to rubor, blushing to a continuate redness. c Sometimes the extremity of the ears tingle, and are red, sometimes the whole face, Etsi nihil viliosum commiseris, as Lodovicus holds: though Aristotle is of opinion, omnia pudor ex vitio commisso, All shame for some offence. But wc finde otherwise, it may as well proceed 'from fear, from force and inexperience, (so f Dandinus holds) as vice; a hot liver, saith Duretus (notis in Hollerium:) "From a hot brain, from wind, the lungs

"Liuren. c. 13. 'Tetrab. 1. scr, 1. cap. 10. • AnI. Lodovicus prob. lib. 1. sect. 5. 'le atrabilariis. • Subrusticus pudor vitiosus pudor. h Ob iguonuniam am turpedinem facti, &c. 'Desymp ct Antip. cap. 12. laborat iicici ob prxaentiam ejus qui defectum nostrum videt, ct nat'ita quasi opcm latuia calorem illuc mittit, calor sanguincm traliil, unde rubor, audaces nnn rabent, &c. "Ob jaudium ct voluptatem foras exit sanguis, aut ob melioris •vverentiam, aut nb subitum occursuir, aut si quid inoautms exciderit. *Com. in Arist. de anima. Cocci ut plurimum impudentes, nox tacit impudentes. • Alexander Apiirodis.erisis, makes all bashfuliiess a ver.ue, eamq; sc retert in •eipso expenri sol ium, c:si esset admodum sencx. 'S;epe post cibum apti ad ruborem, ex pom vitii, ex timorc laepe ct ab hepaie calido, ccrebro calido, fcc. f Com. in Aris.. Uc amma, uma vi et inexperienUa quam a vitio.

heated, heated, or after drinking of wine, strong drink, perturbations," &c.

Laughter what it is, Saith sTully, "how caused, where, and so suddenly breaks out, that desirous to stay it, we cannot, how it comes to possess and stirre our face, veines, eyes, countenance, mouth, sides, let Dcmocritus determine." The cause that it often affects melancholy men so much, is given by Gomesius lib.?,, de sale genial, cap. 18. abundance of pleasant vapours, which, in sanguine melancholy especially, break from the heart, "h and tickle the midriffe, because it is transverse and full of nerves: by which titillation the sense being moved, and arteries distended, or pulled, the spirits from thence move and possess the sides, vaines, countenance, eyes. See more in Jossius de risu K fletu, fives 3 de Anirtid. 1'ears, as Scaliger defines, proceed from grief and pity, " 'or from the heating of a moist brain, for a dry cannot weep."

That they see and hear so many phantasmes, chimeraes, noyses, visions, &c. as Fienus haih discoursed at large in his book of imagination, and k Lavater de spectris part. 1. cap. 2. 3. 4. their corrupt phaiitasie makes them see and hear that which indeed is neither heard nor seen, Qui multumjejunant, aut nodes ducunt insomnes, they that much fast, or want sleep, as melancholy or sick men commonly do, see visions, or such as are weak-sighted, very timorous by nature, mad, distracted, or earnestly seek. Sabini quod volant somniant, as the saying is, they dream of that they desire. Like Sarmiento the Spaniard, who when he was sent to discover the Streights of Magellan, and Confine places, by the Prorex of Peru, standing on the top of an Hill, Amanissimam planitiem despicere sibivisusfuit, adifieiamagnijiea,quainplurimos Pagos, alias Turves, splendida Templa, and brave Cities, built like ours in Europe, not, saith mine *Author, that there was any such thing, but that he was vanissi7nus 8C nimis credulus, and would fain have had it so. Or as f Lod. Mercatus proves, by reason of inward vapours, and humours from bloud, choler, &cc. diversly mixt, they apprehend and see outwardly, as they suppose, divers images, which indeed are not. As they that drink wine think all runs round, when it is in their own brain; so is it with these men, the fault and cause is inward, as Galen affirmes, 1 mad men and such as are near death, quas extra se

1 2. De oratore, quid ipse risns, quo pacto concitatur, ubi sit, See. k Diaphragm! utillant, quia transversum et nervosum, quia titillationc moto sensu atq; arterns distentis, spiritus inde latera, venas, os, oculos occupant. 'Ex calefactione liumidi cerebri: nam ex sicco tachrymae non fluunt. k Res mirandas imaginanuiri et putant sc videre quae ncc vident, nec audiunt. * Laet. lib. 13. cap. 2. descript. Indiae Occident. f Lib. 1. ca. 17. cap. de mel. 1 Intan:, et qui morti vicini sunt, res quas extra se videre putant, intra oculos babent.

Vol. L F f videre videre putant Imagines, intra oculos habent, 'tis in their brain, which seemes to be before them; the brain as a concave glass reflects solid bodies. Sene s etiam decrepiti cerebrum habent concavum iC aridum, tit hnaginentur se videre (saith *Boissardus) qua nan sunt, old men ate too frequently mistaken and dote in like case: or as he that looketh through a piece of red glass, judgeth every thing he sees to be red; corrupt vapours mounting from the body to the head, and distilling again from thence to the eyes, when they have mingled themselves with the watery chrystal which recciveth the shadowes of things to be seen, make all things appeare of the same colour, which remains in the humour that overspreds our sight, as to melancholy men all is black, to phlegmatick all white, &c. Or else as before the Organs conupt by a corrupt phantasy, as Lemnius lib. 1. cap. 16. well quotes, " " cause a great agitation of spirits, and humors, which wander to and fro in all the creeks of the brain, and cause such apparations before their eyes." One thinks he reads something written in the moon, as Pythagoras is said to have done of old, another amels brimstone, hears Cerberus bark: Orestes now mad supposed he saw the furies tormenting him, and his mother still ready to run upon him.

"O mater obsecro noli me persequi
His funis, aspectu anguineis, horribilibus,
Ecce ecce me invadunt., m me jam ruunt."

but Electra told him thus raving in his mad fit, he saw no suci sights at all, it was but his erased imagination.

"Quiesce, quiesce miser in linteis tuis,
Non cernis etenim quas videre te pittas.**

So Pentheus (in Bacchis Euripidis) saw two suns, tw« Thebes, his brain alone was troubled. Sickncs is an ordinarie cause of such sights. Cardan w^//. 8. Jtfens tegra laboribus $& jejuniisfracta, facit eos videre, audire, &c. And. Osi*uder beheld strange visions, and Alexander ab Alexandro both, in their sickness, which be relates de rcrnm varietat, lib. S. cap. 44. Albategnius that noble Arabian, on his death bed^ saw a ship ascending and descending, which Fracastorius records, of his friend Baptista Tirrianus. Weak sight and a vaine perswasione withall, may effect as much, and second causes concurring, as aa oare in water makes a refraction, and^eems bigger, bended double, &c. The thickness of the aire may cause such effect?, or any object not welt discerned in the dark,

+ Cip to. de Spirit. appiritione « De occulu Nat. mit»c.

fear and phantasie will snspect to be a Ghost, a Devil, &c. "Quod nimis miseri limtnt, hoc facile credunt, we are apt to beleeve, and mistake in such cases. Marcellus Donatus, lib. 1. cap. I. brings in a storie out of Aristotle, of one Antepheron which likely saw, wheresoever he was, his own image ia the aire, as in a glass. Vitellio lib. 10. perspect. hath such another instance of a familiar acquaintance of his, that after the want of three or four nights sleep, as he was riding by a river side, saw another riding with him, and using all such gestures as he did, but when more light appeared, it vanished. Eremites and Anachorites have frequently such absurd visions, revelations by reason of much fasting, and bad diet, many arc deceived by legerdemain, as Scot hath well shewed in his book of the discovery of witeheraft, and Cardan subtil. 18. suffites, perfumes, suiffumigations, mixt candles, perspective glasses, and such narurall causes, make men look as if they were dead, or with horse-heads, buls-horns, and such like brutish shapes, the room ful of snakes, adders, dark, light, green, red, of all colours, as you may perceive in Baptists Porta, Alexis, Albertus, and others, Glow-wormes, Firedrakes, Meteors, Ignis fatuus, which Plinius lib. 2. cap. 37. oals Castoi and Pollux, with many such that appear in moorish grounds, about churchyards, moist valleys, or where battels have been fought, the causes of which reade in Goclenius, Velcurius, Finkius, Scc. such fears are often done, to frighten children with squibs, rotten wood, &c. to mak folks look as if they were dead, * solito majores, bigger, lesser, fairer, fowler, ut astantcs sine capitibus videantur; aut toti igniti, aut foima dcemonum, accipe pilos canis nigri, ife. saith Albertus ;. And so 'tis ordinarie to see strange uncouth sights by Catoptricks; who knows not that if in a dark roome, the light be admitted at one only little hole, and a paper or glass put upon it, the sun shining, wil represent on the opposite wal, all such objects as are illuminated by his rays? with Concave and Cylinder glasses, we may reflect any shape of men, divels, anticks, (as magicians most part do, to gull a silly spectator in' a dark roome) we will our selves, and that hanging in the aire, when 'tis nothing but such an horrible image as f Agrippa demonstrates, placed in another roome. Roger Bacon of old is said to have represented his own image walking in the aire by this art, though no such thing appear in his perspectives. But most part it is in the brain that deceives them, although I may

"Seneca. Quod metuunt nimis, huriquam amoveri posse, nee rdltt putariK * Sanguis upupae cum melle compositus et centaurea, &c. Albertus. f Lib. 1. occult. philos. Imperii! homines daemonum et umbrarum imagines videre se,' putant. quum nihil tint aliud, quam simulachra anima: expertia.

F f 2 not not denv, but that oftentimes the devil deludes them, takes bis opportunity to suggest, and represent vain objects to melancholy men, and such as are ill affected. To these you may adde the knavish Impostures of Juglers, Exorcists, MassPriests, and Mountebanks, of whom Roger Bacon speaks, &c. de miraculis natura SC artis, cap. I. *they can counterfeit the voices of all birds and bruit beasts almost, all tones and tunes of men, and speak within their throats, as if they spoke afar off, that they make their auditors beleeve they hear spirits, and are thence much astonished and affrighted with it. Besides, those artificiall devices to over-hear their confessions, like that whispering place of Glocester with us, or like the Duke's place at Mantua in Italy, where the sound is reverberated by a concave wall; a reason of which Blancanus in his Ecchometria gives, and mathematically demonstrates.

So that the hearing is as frequently deluded as the sight, from the same causes almost, as he that hears bels, will make them sound what he list. "As the fool thinketh, so the bell clinketh." Theophilus in Galen, thought he heard musick, from vapours which made his ears sound, &c. Some are deceived by Eccho's, some by roaring of waters, or concaves and reverberation of aire in the ground, hollow places and wals. °At Cadurcum in Aquitany, words and sentences are repeated by a strange Eccho to the full, or whatsoever you shall play upon a musicall instrument, more distinctly and louder, then they are spoken at first. Some Eccho's repeat a thing spoken seven times, as at Olympus in Macedonia, as Pliny relates, Kb. 36. cap. 15. Some twelve times, as at Charenton a village neere Paris in France. At Delphos in Greece heretofore was a miraculous Eccho, and so in many other places. Cardan subtil. I. 18. hath wonderfull stories of such as have been deluded by these Ecchos. Blancanus the Jesuite in his Ecchometria hath variety of examples, and gives his reader ful sarisfaction of all such sounds by way of demonstration, t At Barrey an Isle in the Severn mouth they seem to hear a smith's forge: so at Lypara, and those sulphurious Isles, and many such like vrhich Olaus speaks of in the continent of Scandia, and those Northern countries. Cardan de reru zar. I. 15. c. 84. mentioneth a woman, that stil supposed she heard the divel cal her, and speaking to her, she was a painter's wife in Millan:

'* Pylhoniss.Te vocum varietatom in ventre et gutteie flngentes, formant voces Iwjinanas & longe ycl prope, prout volunt, ac si spiritus cum nomine loqueretur, et sonos brutorum fingunt, &c. •'Tam dare et articulate andies repctitum, ut perfectior sit Ecclio quani ipse dixeris. 'Blow ing of beUoWc, aui} knocking of hammers, if they apply their car to the cliffe.

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