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and many such illusions and voices, which proceed most part irom a corrupt imagination.

Whence it comes to pass, that they prophesie, speak severall languages, talke of Astronomy, and other unknown sciences to them: (ofwhich they have been ever ignorant,) ''I have in brief touched, only this I will here adde, that Arculanus, Bodin. lib. 3. cap. 6. damon. and some others, ' hold as a manifest token that such persons are possessed with the divel: so doth * Hercules de Saxonia, and Apponensis, and fit only to be cured by a Priest. But 'Guianeiius, ' Montaltus, Pomponatius of Padua, and Lemnius lib. 2. cap. 2. refer it wholly to the ill disposition of the "humour, and that out of the authority of Aristotle prob. 30. 1. because such symptomes are cured by purging; and as by the striking of a flint fire is inforced, so by the venement motions of spirits, they do elicere voces inauditas, compell strange speeches to be spoken: another argument he hath from Plato's reminiscentia, which all out as likely as that which f Marsilius Ficinus speaks of his friend Pierleonus; by a divine kind of infusion he understood the secrets of nature, and tenents of Graecian and Barbarian philosophers, before ever he heard of, saw, or read their works: but in this I should rathei hold with Avicenna and his associats, that such symptomes proceed from evil spirits, which take all opportunities of humors decayed, ot otherwise to pervert the soul of man; and besides, the humour it self is Balneum Diaboli, the devil's bath; and as Agrippa proves, doth intice him to seize upon them.

SECT. IV.

MEMB. I.

Prognosticks of Melancholy.

PROGNOSTICKS, or signs of things to come, are either good or bad. If this malady be not hereditary, and taken at the beginning, there is good hope of cure, recens curationem non habet difficilem, saith Avicenna, /. 3. Fen. 1. Tract. 4 c. 18. That which is with laughter, of all others is most secure, gentle, and remiss, Hercules de Saxonia. "* If that evacuation of haemrods, or varices which they call the water between the

i Memb. 1. Sub. 3. of this partition, cap. 16. in 9. Rhasis. 'Signa dae

monis nulla sunt nisi quod loquan:ur ea qure ante nesciebant, ut Teutunicum aut aliud Idioma, &c. * Cap. 12. tract. de mel. 'Tract. 15. c. 4. 'Cap 9. u Mira vis concitat humores, ardorq; vehemens mentem exagitat, quum Sec. •(• Prxfat. Ianiblici mysteriis. * Si melancholicis haemorroides supervencrint varices, vel ut quibusdam placet, aqua inter cutem, solvitur malum. • F f 3 skin

skin, shall happen to a melancholy man, his misery is ended," Hypocrates Aphor. 6.11. Galen. 1.6. de morbisvulgar. com. 8. confirmes the same; and to this Aphorisme of Hippocrates, all the Arabians, new and old Latines subscribe; Montaltus, c. 25. Hercules de Saxonia, Mercurialis, Vittorius Faventinus, ice. Skenkius /. 1. observat, med. c. de Mania, illustrates this Aphorisme, with an example of one Daniel Federer a Coppersmith that was long melancholy, and in the end mad about the 21 yeare of his age, these varices or water began to arise in his thighes, and he was freed from his madness. Marius the Roman was so cured, some say, though with great pain. Skenkius hath some other instances of women that have been helped by flowing of their moneths, which before were stopped. That the opening of the hamrods will do as much for men, all phycians joyntly signifie, so they be voluntary, some say, and not by compulsion. All melancholy are better after a quartane; T Jobertus saith, scarce any man hath that ague twice: But whether it free him from this malady, 'tis a question ; for many physicians ascribe all long agues for especiall causes, and a quartane ague amongst the rest. "Rhasis. cont. lib. 1. tract. 9. "When melancholy gets out at the superfices of the skin, or settles breaking out in scabs, leprosie, morphew, or is purged by stooles, or by the urine, or that the spleen is enlarged, and those varices appeare, the disease is dissolved." Guianerius, cap. 5. tract. 15. addes dropsie, jandise, dysentery, leprosie, as good signes, to these scabs, morphewes, and breaking out, and proves it, out of the 6. of Hippocrates Aphorismes.

Evil prognosticks on the other part. Inveterata melancholia incurabilis, if it be inveterate, it is * incurable, a common axiome, aut difficulter curabilis at they say that make the best, hardly cured. This Galen witnesseth, /. 3. de loc. affect, cap. 6. " b be it in whom, it will, or from what cause soever, it is ever long, wayward, tedious, and hard to he cured, if once it be habituated. As Lucian said of the gout, she was " c the queen of diseases, and inexorable," may we say of melancholy. Yet Paracelsus will have all diseases whatsoever curable, and laughs at them which think otherwise, as T. Erastus par. 3. objects to him; although in another place, hereditary diseases he accounts incurable, and by no art to be removed. d Hildesheim

y Cap. 10. de quartana. »Cum sanguis exit per suporficiem & residet me Jancholia per scabiem, morpheam digram, vel expurgaiur per inferior** partes, vel urinam Jec. nou erit, kc. splen magnificatur k varices apparent. "Qaii jamconversa in naturam. b In ejuocunq; sit a quacum^ causa Hypocop. prscscrtim, semper est longa, morosa, nec facile curari potest. 'Reguia morn borum k inc.\orabilis. 1 Oranc delirium quod oritur a pauciiatc cerebri incurabile, Hiideslicim, spicel. ?. de mania.

spicel. 2. de mel. holds it less dangerous if only " ' imagination be hurt, and not reason, f the gentlest is from bloud. Worse from choler adust, but the worst of all from melancholy putrefied." » Bruell esteems hypocondriacall least dangerous, and the other two species (opposite to Galen) hardest to be cured. * The cure is hard in man, but much more difficult in women. And both men and women must take notice of that saying of Montanus consil. 230. pro Abate Italo, "'This malady doth commonly accompany them to their grave; Physicians may ease, and it may lye hid for a time, but they cannot quite cure it, but it will return again more violent and sharp than at first, and that upon every small occasion orerrour:" as inMercurie's weather-beaten statue, that was once all over gilt, the open parts were clean, yet there was in fimbriis aurwn, in the chinks a remnant of gold: there will be some reliques of melancholy left in the purest bodies (if once tainted) not so easily to be rooted out. k Oftentimes it degenerates into Epilepsy, Apoplexy, Convulsions, and blindness: by the authority of Hippocrates and Galen, 1 all averre, if once it possesse the ventricles of the brain, Frambesarius, and Salust. Salvianus adds, if it get into the optick nerves, blindness. Mercurialis consil. 20. had a woman to his patient, that from melancholy became Epileptick and blinde. m If it come from a cold cause or so continue cold, or increase, Epilepsie; Convulsions follow, and blindness, or else in the end they are moped, sottish, and in all their actions, speeches, and gestures, ridiculous. "If it come from an hot cause, they are more furious, and boisterous, and in conclusion mad. Calescentem melancholiam sapius sequitur mania. "If it heat and increase, that is die common event, 'per circuitus, aut semper insanit, he is mad by fits, oraltogether. For as * Sennertus contends out of Crato, there is seminarius ignis in this humour, the very seeds of fire. If it come from melancholy naturall adust, and in excess, they arc often demoniacall, Montanus.

* Seldome this malady procures death, except (which is the greatest, most grievous calamity, and the misery of all miseries)

• Si sola imaginatio Ixdatur, Sc non ratio. 'Mala a sanguine fervente, dcterior a bile assata, ptssima ab atra bile putrefacta. • Difficilior ciira ejus quae fit vitio corporis totius & cerebri. k Difficilis curatu in viris, multo difficilior in fsminis. 'Ad interitum plerumq; homin s comitatur, licit medici Ievent plerumq, tamen non tollunt nnquam, sed recidet accrbior quam antea minima occasione, aut errore. kPericulum est nc degenercret in Epilepsiam, Apoplexiam, Convulsionem, cwcitaiem. t Montal. c. 2j. Laurentius. Xic. Piso. ■ Her. de Saxonia, Aristotle, Capivaccius. 'Favent. Humor frigidus sola delirii causa, luroris vero humor calidus. * Heurnius cals mad» ness sobolem melancholiae. t Alexander 1. I.e. 18. *Lib. 1. part. 2. c. I). \ Montalt. c. 15. Raro mors aut nunquam, nisi sibi ipsjs inferant.

F f 4 they

they make away themselvs, which is a frequent thing, and familiar amongst them. 'Tis ' Hippocrates observation, Galen's sentence, Etsi mortem timent, tamen plervmque sibi ipsis mortem consciscunt, I. 3. de locis affec. cap. 1. The doom of all physicians. 'Tis 'Rabbi Moses Aphorisme, the prognosticon of Avicenna, Rhasis, ./Etius, Gordonius, Valescus, Altomarus, Salust. Salvianus, Capivaccius, Mercatus, Hercules de Saxonia, Piso, Bruel, Fuchsius, all, &c.

"' Et saepe asq; aded mortis formidine vitsc
Percipit infelix odium lucisq; videndae,
Ut sibi consciscat mserenti pectore lethum."

And so far forth death's terror doth affright.
He makes away himself, and hates the light:
To make an end of fear and grief of heart,
He voluntary dies to ease his smart.

Tn such sort doth the torture and extremity of his misery torment him, that he can take no pleasure in his life, but is in a manner inforced to offer violence umo himself, to be freed from his present insufferable pains. So some (saith u Fracastorius) "in fury, but most in despair, sorrow, fear, and out of the anguish and vexation of their souls, offer violence to themselves: for their life is unhappy and miserable. They can take no rest' in the night, nor sleep, or if they do slumber, fearful dreames astonish them." In the day time they are affrighted still by some terrible object, and torn in pieces with suspition, fear, sorrow, discontents, cares, shame, anguish, &c. as so many wild horses, that they cannot be quiet an hour, a minute of time, but even against their wils they are intent, and still thinking of it, they cannot forget it, it grindes their souls day and night, they are perpetually tormented, a burden to themselves, as Job was, they can neither eat, drink or sleep. Psal. 107. 18. "Their soul abhorreth all meat, and they are brought to death's door, * being bound in misery and iron:" they * curse their stars with Job, " "and day of their birth, and wish for death:" for as Pineda and most interpreters hold, Job was even melancholy to despair, and almost * madnesse it self; they murmur many times against the world, frinds, allies, all niankinde, even against God himself in the bitternesse of their passion, * vivere nolunt, ?nori nesciunt, live they will not, die they cannot. And in

'Lib. de Ii»san. Fabio Calico In:erprcte. 'Nonulli violemas manus sibi inferopt. 'Lucret. 1. 3. » Lib. 2. de inu.ll. sxpe monem sibi consciscunt

•b timorem Sc tristitiam taedio vitae affccii ( b furorem .V, <iesperationem. Est Cnim infera &p. Ergo sic perpetuo afflict r.i vkam od erunt, sc prxcipitant, hit Wilis carituxi aut interficiunt se, :iuttale quid commtt'unt. "Psal. 101. 10. 'Job 33, 'Job ti. 8. * Vi dolor;s & tristitiae ad insaniam pene rcdactus, 'Seneca.

the

the midst of these squalid, ugly, and such irkesome dayes, they seek at last, finding no comfort, no remedy in this wretched life, to be eased of all by death. Omnia appetunt bonum, All creatures seek the best, and for their good as they hope, sub specie in shew at least, vel quia mori pulchrum putant (saith · Hippocrates) vel quia putant inde se majoribus malis liberari, to be freed as they wish. Though many times, as Æsop's fishes, they leap from the frying-pan into the fire it self, yet they hope to be eased by his meanes; and therefore (saith Felix Platerus) “ after many tedious dayes at last, either by drowning, hanging, or some such fearfull end,” they precipitate, or make away themselves : “ many lamentable examples are daily seen amongst us:" alius ante fores se laqueo suspendit, (as Seneca notes) alius se præcipitavit à tecto, ne dominum stomachantem audiret, alius ne reduceretur à fuga ferrum redegit in viscera, so many causes there are- His xmor exitio est, furor his love, grief, anger, madness, and shame, &c. 'Tis a common calamity, a fatal end to this discase, they are condemned to a violent death, by a jury of Physicians, furiously disposed, carried headlong by their tyrannizing wils, inforced by miseries, and there remains no more to such persons, if that heavenly Physician, by his assisting grace and mercy alone do not prevent, (for no huinane perswasion, or art can help) but to be their own butchers, and execute themselves. Socrates his cicuta, Lucretia's dagger, Timon's halter are yet to be had ; Cato's knife, and Nero's sword are left behinde them, as so many fatall engines, bequeathed to posterity, and will be used to the world's end, by such distressed souls : so intolerable, unsufferable, grievous and violent is their pain, so unspeakable, and continuate. One day of grief is an hundred years, as Cardan observes : 'Tis carnificina hominum, angor animi, as well saith Areteus, a plague of the soul, the cramp and convulsion of the soul, an Epitoine of hell; and if there be an hell upon earth, it is to be found in a melancholy man's heart.

For that deep torture may be call's an hell,

When more is felt, then one hath power to tell. Yea, that which scoffing Lucian said of the Gout in jest, I may truly affirm of melancholy in earnest.

In salutis sur desperatione proponunt sibi mortis desiderium, Oct. Horat. 1. 2. c. 5. Lib. de insania. Sic sic juvat ire per umbras. Cap. 3. de mcntis alienat. mesti degunt, dum tandem mortem quam timent, suspendio aut submersione, aut aliqua alia vi, u: multa tristia exempla vidimus. e Arculanus in 9. Rhasis. c. 16. cavendum ne cx alto se prxcipitent aut aliàs lædant. "O omnium opinionibus incogitabile malum. Lucian. Morlesq; mille, mille dum vivit neces gerit, peritq, Heinsius Austriaco.

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