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Life and death concomitants of the Vegetal faculties.] Necessary concomitants or affections of this Vegetal facultie, are life, and his privation, death. To the preservation of life the natural heat is inost requisite, though siccity and humidity, and those first qualities, be not excluded. This heat is likewise in Plantes, as appeares by their increasing, fructifying, &c. though not so easily perceived. In all bodies it imust have radicall minoisture to preserve it, that it be not consumed; to which preservation our clime, country, temperature, and the good or bad use of those six non-natural things availe much. For as this natural heat and moisture decayes, so doth our life it selfe: and if not prevented before by some violent accident, or interrupted through our own defaulí, is in the end dryed up by old age, and extinguished by death for want of matter, as a Lampe for defect of oyl to maintain it.
Of the sensible Soul,
TEXT in order is the Sensible Faculty, which is as far bea yond the other in dignity, as a Beast is preferred to a Plant
, having those Vegetal powers included in it. 'Tis defined an “ Act of an organical body by which it lives, hath sense, appetite, judgment, breath and motion.” His object in general is a sensible or passible quality, because the sense is affected with it. The general Organ is the Brain, from which principally the sensible operations are derived. This Sensible Soul is divided into two parts, Apprehending or Moving. By the Apprehensive power we perceive the Species of sensible things present, or absent, and retaine them as waxe doth the print of a seale. By the Moving, the Body is outwardly carried from one place to another: or inwardly moved by spirits and pulse. The Apprehensive faculty is subdivided into two parts, Inward, or Outward. Outward, as the five senses, of Touching, Hearing, Seeing, Smelling, Tasting; to which you may adde Scaliger's sixt sense of Titillation, if you please; or that of Speech, which is the sixt external sense, according to Lullius. Inward are three ; Common sense, Phantasie, Memory. Those five outward senses have their object in outward things only and such as are present, as the eye sees no colour except it be at hand, the ear sound. Three of these senses are of commo. dity, Hearing, Sight, and Smell: two of necessity, Touch,
» Vita consistit in calido & humido.
and Taste, without which we cannot live. Besides the Sensitive power is Active or Passive. Active in sight, the eye sees the colour ; Passive when it is hurt hy his object, as the eye by the sunne beames : According to that Axiom, Visibile forte destruit sensum Or if the object be not pleasing, as a bad sound to the ear, a stinking smell to the nose, &c.
Sight.] Of these five senses, Sight is held to be most precious, and the best, and that by reason of his object, it sees the whole body at once; by it we learn, and discerne all things, a sense most excellent for use : to the Sight three things are required; the Object, the Organ, and the Medium. The Object in general is Visible, or that which is to be seen, as colours, and all shining bodies. The Medium is the illumination of the
ayre, which comes from "light, commonly called Diaphanumn; for in dark we cannot see. The Organ is the eye, and chiefly the apple of it, which by those Optick Nerves, concuring both in one, conveys the sight to the common sense. Betwixt the Organ and Obicct a true distince is required, that it be not too near, or too far off. Many excellent questions appertain to this sense, discussed by Philosophers: as whether this sight be caused intra mittendo, vel extra mittendo, &c. by receiving in the visible species, or sending of them out; which °Plato, p Plutarch, 4 Macrobius, Lactantius, and others dispute. And besides it is the subject of the Perspectives, of which Alhazen the Arabian, Vitellio, Roger Bacon, Baptista Porta, Guidus Ubaldus, Aquilonius, &c. have written whole volumes.
Hearing.) Hearing, a most excellent outward sense, “ by which we learne and get Knowledge.” His object is sound, or that which is heard; the Medium, ayre; Organ the ear. To the sound, which is a collision of the ayre, three things are required; a body to strike, as the hand of a musician; the body strucken, which must be solid and able to resist; as a bell, lute-string; not wooll, or spunge; the Mediuin, the ayre; which is Inward, or Outward; the outward being struck or collided by a solid body, still strikes the next ayre, until it
to that inward natural ayre, which as an exquisite organ is contained in a little skin formed like a drum head, and struck upon by certaine smal instruments like drum sticks, con. veys the sound by a pair of Nerves, appropriated to that use, to the common sense, as to a judge of sounds. There is great variety and much delight in thein; for the knowledge of which, consult with Boethius and other Musicians.
• Lumen est actus perspicui. Lumen a luce provenit, lux est in corpore lu cido, • Satur. 7. c. ll. P In Phædon. 9 Lac. cap. 8. de opif. Dei 1. De pract. Philos. t.
Smelling. Smelling.) Smelling, is an “outward sense which apprehends by the Nostrils drawing in aire;” And of all the rest it is the weakest sense in men. The Organ in the nose, or two small hollow pieces of flesh a little above it: The Medium the ayre to men as water to fish : The Object, Smell, arising from a mixt body resolved, which whether it be a quality, fuine, vapour, or exhalation, I will not now dispute, or of their differences, and how they are caused. This sense is an Organ of health, as Sight and Hearing, saith 'Agellius, are of discipline; and that by avoiding bad sinels, as by choosing good, which do as much alter and aifect the body many times, as Diet itself.
Taste.] Taste, a necessary sense, “ which perceives all savours by the Tongue and Palat, and that by meanes of a thin spittle, or watery juice.” His Organ is the Tongue with his tasting nerves; the Medium, a watery juice; the Object Taste, or savor, which is a quality in the juice, arising from the mixture of things tasted. Some make eight species or kindes of savour, bitter, sweet, sharp, salt, &c. all which sick men (as in an ague) cannot discerne, by reason of their
inisaffected. Touching.) Touch, the last of the senses, and most ignoble, vet of as great necessity as the other, and of as much pleasure. *This sense is exquisite in men, and by his Nerves dispersed all over the body, perceives any tactile quality. His Organ, the Nerves; his Object those first qualities, hot, dry, moist, cold; and those that follow them, hard, soft, thick, thin, &c. Many delightsome questions are moved by Philosophers about these five senses; their Organs, Objects, Mediums, which for brevity I omit.
Of the Inward Senses. Common sense.] I NNER Senses are three in number, so called,
because they be within the brain-pan, as Cominon Sense, Phantasie, Memory. Their objects are not only things present, but they perceive the sensible species of things to Come, Past, Absent, such as were before in the sense.
This Common sense is the Judge or Moderator of the rest, by whom we discerne all differences of objects; for by mine eye I do not know that I see, or by mine eare that I hear, but by my Common sense, who judgeth of Sounds and Colours : they are but the Organs to bring the Species to be censured; so that all their objects are his, and all their offices are his: The fore-part of the Brain is his Organ or seat.
Phantasie.] Phantasie, or Imagination, which some call Æstimative, or Cogitative, (confirmed, saith · Fernelius, by frequent meditation) is an inner sense which doth more fully examine the species perceived by Common sense, of things present or absent, and keeps them longer, recalling them to ininde again; or making new of his own. In time of sleep this faculty is free, and many times conceive strange, stupend, absurd shapes, as in sick men we commonly observe. His Organ is the middle cell of the Brain ; his Objects all the Species communicated to him by the Common sense, by comparison of which he faines infinite other unto himself. In Melancholy men this faculty is most powerful and strong, and often hurts, producing many monstrous and prodigious things, especially if it be stirred up by some terrible object, presented to it from Common sense, or Memory. In Poets and Painters Imagination forcibly workes, as appears by their several Fictions, Anticks, Images: as Ovid's house of sleep, Psyche's palace in Apuleius, &c. In men it is subject and governed by Reason, or at least should be; but in brutes it hath no superiour, and is ratio brutorum, all the reason they have.
Memory.] Memory layes up all the species which the senses have brought in, and records them as a good Register, that they may be forth-coming when they are called for by Phantasie and Reason. His object is the saine with Phantasie, his seat and Organ the back part of the brain.
Affections of the senses, sleep, and waking.] The affections of these senses, are Sleepe and Waking, common to all sensible creatures. “ Sleep is a rest or binding of the outward Senses, and of the common sense, for the preservation of Body and Soul,”. (as Scaliger defines it.) For when the common sense resteth, the outward senses rest also. The Phantasie alone is free, and his commander, Reason: as appears by those imaginarie Dreames, which are of divers kinds, Natural, Divine, Dæmoniacall, &c. which vary according to humors, diet, actions, objects, &c. of which, Artemidorus, Cardanus, and Sambucus, with their several Interpretators, have written great volumes. This ligation of senses proceeds from an inhibition of spirits, the way being stopped by which they should come; this stopping is caused of vapours arising out of the stomack, filling the Nerves, by which the spirits should be conveyed. When these vapours are spent, the passage is open, and the spirits performe their accustomed duties; so that is Waking is the action and motion of the Senses, which the Spirits dispersed over all parts, cause.”'
+ Phis. I. 5. c. 8.
1 Exercit. 280.
SUBSEC. * T. W. Jesuite in l.is Passions of the Minde.
Of the Moving faculty. Appetite. This loving Faculty, is the other power of the
Sensitive Soul, which causeth all those Inward and Outward animal motions in the body. It is divided into two faculties, the power of Appetite, and of moving from place to place. This of appetite is threefold, so some will have it; Xatural, as it significs any such inclination, as of a stone to fall downward, and such actions as Retention, Expulsion, which depend not of sense, but are Vegetal, as the Appetite of meat and drink; hunger and thirst. Sensitive is coinion to men and brutes. Voluntary, the third, or intellective, which commands the other two in men, and is a curb unto thein, or at least should be ; but for the most part is captivated and over-ruled by them: and men are led like beasts by sense, giving reines to their concupiscence and several lusts. For by this Appetite the soul is led or inclined to follow that good which the Senses shall approve, or avoid that which they hold evil: his object being good or evil, the one he imbraceth, the other he rejecteth: according to that Aphorisme, Omnia appetunt bonum, all things seek their own good, or at least seeming good. This power is inseparable from sense; for where sense is, there is likewise pleasure and pain. His Organ is the same with the Common sense, and is divided into two powers, or inclinations, Concupiscible or Irascible: or (as one translates it) Coveting, Anger invading, or Impugning: Concupiscible covets alwayes pleasant and delightsome things; and abhorres that which is distastful, harsh and unpleasant. Irascible, quasi aversans per iram & odium, as avoiding it with anger and indignation. All affections and perturbations arise out of these two fountaines, which, although the Stoickes make light of, we hold natural, and not to be resisted. The good affections are caused by some ohject of the same nature; and if present, they procure joy, which dilates the heart, and preserves the body: if absent, they cause Hope, Love, Desire, and Concupiscence. The Bad are Simple or mixt: Simple for some bad object present, as sorrow, which contracts the Heart, macerates the Soule, subverts the good estate of the Body, hindering all the operations of it, causing Melancholy, and many times death it self: or future, as Fear. Out of these two arise those mixt affections and passions of Anger, which is a desire of revenge; Hatred, which is in