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The best soile commonly yeelds the worst aire, a dry sandy plat is fittest to build upon, and such as is rather hilly than plain, full of Downes, a Cotswold country, as being most commodious for hawking, hunting, wood, waters, and all manner of pleasures. Perigort in France is barren, yet by reason of the excellency of the aire, and such pleasures that it affords, much inhabited by the Nobility; as Noremberg in Germany, Toledo in Spain. Our country-man Tusser will tell us so much, that the fieldone is for profit, the woodland for pleasure and health, the'one commonly a deep clay, therefore noisome in Winter, and subject to bad high-waies: the other a dry sand. Provision may be had elsewhere, and our Townes are generally bigger in the woodland than the fieldone, more frequent and populous, and Gentlemen more delight to dwell in such places. Sutton Coldfield in Warwickshire (where I was_ „e \ once a_Grarrrrnar Schollar) may be a sufficient witness, which stan3s, as Camden notes, loco ingrato SC sterili, but in an excellent aire, and full of all maner, of pleasures. y Wadley in Barkshire is situate in a vale, though not so fertil a soile as some vales afford, vet a most commodious site, wholesome, in a delicious aire, a rich and pleasant seat. So Segrave in Leicestershire (which Towne * I am now bound to remember) is sited in a Champian, at the edge of the Wolds, and more barren than the villages about it, yet no place likely yeelds a better aire. And he that built that faire house ' Wollerton in Nottinghamshire, is much to be commended, (though the tract be sandy and barren about it) for making choice of such a place. Constantine lib. 2. cap. de agricult. praiseth mountaines, hilly, steep places, above the rest by the Sea side, and such as look toward the 'North upon some great river, as b Farmack in Darbishire on the Trent, environed with hils, open only to the North, like Mount Edgemond in Cornwall, which Mr.c Carew so much admires for an excellent seat: Such is the gene,, rall site of Bohemia: serenat Boreas, the North wind clarifies, "d but neer lakes or marishes, in holes, obscure places, or to the South and West, he utterly disproves," those winds are unwholesome, putrifying, and make men subject to diseases. The best building for health, according to him, is in " c high places, and in an excellent prospect," like that of Cuddeston
i The scat of G. Purefey, Esq. * For I am now Incumbent of that Rectory, presented thereto by my right honorable Patron the Lord Berkjy. « Sir Francis Willoughby. "Montani et Maritimi salubriores, acclives, ct ad Borea Tea vergentes. b The dwelling of Sir To. Burdet Knight Baronet. 'In his Survay of Cornwall, book 2. 6 Prope paludes stagna, et loca concava, vel ad Austrii, vel ad Occidemem inclinatae, domus sunt morbosae. « Oportet igitur ad saniutem domus in altioribus xdificare, et ad speculationem.
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in Oxfordshire (which place I must honoris ergo mention) is lately and fairly * built in a good aire, good prospect, good soile, both for profit and pleasure, not so easily to be matehed. P. Creseentius, in his lib. 1. de Agric. cap. h. is very copious in this subject, how a house should be wholesomely sited, in » good coast, good aire, wind, &c» Vurro de re rust. lib. 1. cap. 12. 1 forbids lakes and rivers, inarish and manured grounds, they cause a bad aire, gross diseases, hard to be cured: "* if it be so that he cannot help it, better, as he adviseth, sell thy house and land, than lose thine health." He that respects not this in chusing of his seat, or building his house, is trtente cap^ ins, mad, Cato saith, "and his dwelling next to Hell it self," according to Columella: he commends ih conclusion, the middle of an hill, upon a descent. Baptists Porta Villa, lib. 1. cap. 22. censures Varro, Cato, Columella, and those ancient Rusticks, approving many things, disallowing some, and will by all means have the front of an house stand to the South, which how it ntay be good in Italy and hotter climes, I know not, in our Northern countries I am sure it is best: Stephanus a Frenchman, pradio rustic, lib. 1. cap. 4. subscribes to this, approving especially the descent of an hill South or South-East with trees to the North, so that it be well watered; a condition in all sites which must not be omitted, at Herbastein inculeates, lib. \. Julius Cassar Claudinus a Physician, consult. 24. for a Nobleman in Poland, melancholy giveri, adviseth him to dwell in a house inclining to the ' East, and k by all means to provide the aire be cleare and sweet; which Montaiius, consil. 229. couhselleth the Earle of Mohfort his patient, to inhabit a pleasant house, and in a good aire. If it be so the naturall site may not be altered of our City, Town, Village, yet by artificiall means it may be helped. In hot countries therefore they make the streets of their Cities very narrow, all over Spain, Africk, Italy, Greece, and many Cities of France, in Languedock especially, and Provence, those Southern parts: Monpelier, the habitation and University of Physicians, is so built, with high houses, narrow streets, to divert the Sun's scalding rayes, which Tacitus commends, lib. 1 5. Annai. as most agreeing to their health, "'because the
* By John Bancroft Dr. of Divinity my quondam tutor in Christ-church, Oxon, now the Right Reverend Lord Bishop Oxon, who built this house for himself »nd his successors. 'Hyerne erit vehementer friRida, & aestate non salubrh: paliides enim faciunt crassum aerem, St difhciles morbos. « Vendas qBot
Jssibus possis, et si nequeas, relinquas. kLib. 1. cap. 2. in Oreo habit*. 'Aurora mtisis amica, Vitrtlv. 1 .fljdes Orientem spectantes vir nobilissimus, inhabitet, et curet at sit act clarus, lucldus, odorifertis. Kligat habitsrionem optimo aere juenndam. 1 yuohlam angoKlae iliherum et altitude tectorum, non periade Solis calorcm admittit.
height of buildings, and narrowness of streets, keep away the Sun beams." Some Cities use Galleries, or arched Cloysters towards the street, as Damascus, Bologna, Padua, Berna in Switzerland, Westehester with us, as well to avoid tempests, as the Sun's scorching heat. They build on high hills in hot countries, for more aire; or to the seaside, as Baia:, Naples, &c. In our Northern coasts we are opposite, we commend straight, broad, open, fair streets, as most befitting and agreeing to our clime. We build in bottomes for warmth: and that site of Mitylene in the Island of Lesbos, in the ./Egean Sea, which Vitruvius so much discommends, magnificently built with fair houses, sed imprudenter positam, unadvisedly sited, because it lay along to the South, and when the South wind blew, the people were all sick, would make an excellent site in our Northern climes.
Of that artificiall site of houses I have sufficiently discoursed: if the plan of the dwelling may not be altered, yet there is much in choice of such a chamber or room, in opportune opening and shutting of windowes, excluding forrain aire and winds, and walking abroad at convenient times. ra Crato a German commends East and South site (disallowing cold aire and Northern winds in this case, rainy weather and misty dayes) free from putrefaction, fens, bogs, and muckhills. if the aire be such, open no windowes, come not abroad. Montanus will have his patient not to "stir at all, if the wind be big or tempestuous, as most part in March it is with us; or in cloudy, louring dark dayes, as in November, which we commonly call the black moneth; or stormy, let the wind stand how it will, consil. 27. and 30. he must not " ° open a casement in bad weather," or in a boisterous season, consil. 299. he especially forbids us to open windows to a South wind. The best sites for chamber windows in my judgment are North, East, South, and which is the worst, West. Levinus Lemnius lib. 3. cap. 3. de occult, nat. mir. attributes so much to aire, and rectifying of wind and windowes, that he holds it alone sufficient to make a man sick or well; to alter body and minde. "* A cleer aire cheares up the spirits, exhilarates the minde ; a thick, black, misty, tempestuous, contracts, overthrows." Great heed is therefore to be taken at what times we walke, how we place our windows, lights, and houses, how we let in or exclude this ambient aire. The Egyp
■ Consil. 21. li. 2. Frigidus aer, nubilosus, densus, viumdas, xqu£ X venti jeptentrionales, &c. * Consil. 24. • Fenestram non aperiat. *Disctrtit Sol honorem crassi spiritus, men tem exhilarat, non enim tam corpora, qliam tc animi mutationem inde subeunt, pro cqtli ct ventornm rations, et sani aliter aficcti sini ccelo nubilo, alitor sereno. De naturi ventorum, see Pliny, lib. 2. cap. 26,11. 28. Stiabo, li. "i. «cc.
L 1 4 tians, tians, to avoid immoderate heat, make their windows on the top of the house like chimnies, with two tunnels to draw a through aire. In Spain they commonly make great opposite windows without glass, still shutting those which are next to the Sun: So likewise in Turkey and Italy (Venice excepted, which brags of her stately glased Palaces) they use paper windows to like purpose; and lye sub dio, in the top of their flatroofed houses, so sleeping under the canopy of heaven. Ia some parts of f Italy they have Windmills, to draw a cooling aire out of hollow caves, and disperse the same through all the chambers of their Palaces, to refresh them; as ac Costoza the house of Caesareo Trento, a Gentleman of Vicenza, and elsewhere. Many excellent means are invented to correct nature by art. If none of these courses help, the best way is to make artificiall aire, which howsoever is profitable and good, still to be made hot and moist, and to be seasoned with sweet perfumes, 'pleasant and lightsome as it may be; to have Roses, Violets, and sweet smelling flowers ever in their windows, Posies in their hand. Laurentius commends water-Lillies, a vessel of warm water to evaporate in the room, which will make a more delightsome perfume, if there be added Orange flowers, pils of Citrons, Rosemary, Cloves, Bayes, Rose-water, Rosevineger, Belzoin, Ladanum, Styrax, and such like Gums, which make a pleasant and acceptable perfume. * Bessardus Bisan* tinus prefers the smoak of Juniper to melancholy persons, which is in great request with us at Oxford, to sweeten our chambers. 'Guianerius prescribes the aire to be moistened with water, and sweet herbs boiled in it, vine and sallow-leaves, &c. 'to besprinkle the ground and posts with Rose-water, Rose-vineger, which Avicenna much approves. Of colours it is good to behold green, red, yellow, and white, and by all means to have light enough, with windows in the day, wax candles in the night, neat chambers, good fires in winter, merry companions; for though melancholy persons love to be dark and alone, yet darkness is a great encreaser of the humour.
Although our ordinary aire be good by nature or art, yet it is not amiss, as I have said, still to alter it; no better Physick for a melancholy man then change of aire and variety of places, to travel abroad and see fashions. s Leo Afer speaks of many of his countrymen so cured, without all other Physick: amongst
f Fines Morison parr. 1. c. 4. » Altomarus car. 1. Briiel. Aer sit lucidus, bene olcp.s, humidus. Myntaltus idem ca. 26. Oliactus rcrtimsuavium. Laurentius c. 8 * Ant. Philos. cap. de mehinr. • Tract. 15. c. 9. ex redolentibus herbts et foliis vi'is viniterae, salicis, Sec. 'Pavimeuuim aceto et aqua rosacea irrorare, Laurent. c. 8. s Lib. 1. cap. de morb. Afrorum In Nigritarum regione tanta aeris temperis, ut siquis alibi morbosus to adveliatur, optiin* statim sanitati resutuatur, quod multis accidisse, ipse uicis oculis vidi.
the Negroes, " there is such an excellent aire, that if any of them be sick elsewhere, and brought thither. he is instantly recovered, of which lie was often an eye-witness." bIJpsius, Zuinger, and some other, adde as much of ordinary travell. No man, saith Lipsius in an epistle to JPhil. Lanoius, a noble friend of his, now ready to make a voyage, "' can be such a stock or stone, whom that pleasant speculation of countries, cities, towns, rivers, will not atfect." * Seneca the Philosopher was infinitely taken with the sight of Scipio Africanus' house, near Linternum, to view those old buildings, Cistern.?, Baths, Tombs, &c. And how was fTully pleased with the sight of Athens, to behold those anc ient and fair buildings, with a remembrance of their worthy inhabitants. Paulus ytmilius, that renowned Roman Captain, after he had conquered Petseus, the last king of Macedonia, and now made an end of his tedious wars, though he had been long absent from Rome, and much there desired, about the beginning of Autumn (as \ Livy describes it) made a pleasant peregrination all over Greece, accompanied with his son Scipio, and Atheneus the brother of ■ King F.umenes, leaving the charge of his army with Sulpitius Gallus. By Thessaly he went to Delphos, thence to Megaris, Au'us, Atiiens, Argos, Licsdemon, Megalopolis, &c. He took great content, exceeding delight in that his voyage, as who doth not that shall attempt the like, though his travell be adjactationem magis quant ad usum reipub. (as § one well observes) to crack, gaze, see fine sights and fashions, spend time, rather then for his own or publike good? (as it is to many gallants that travel out their best daies, together with their means, manners, honesty, religion) yet it avaiteth howsoever. For peregrination charms our senses with such unspeakable and sweet variety, ||that some count him unhappy that never travelled, and pity his case, that from his cradle to hii old age beholds the same still; still, still the same, the same. Insomuch that k Rhasis emit. lib. 1. Tract. 2. doth not only commend, but enjoyn travell, and such variety of objects to a melancholy man, "and to lye in diverse Innes, to be drawn into several! companies:" Montaltus cap. 36. and many Neotericks are of the same minde: Celsus adviseth him therefore that will continue his health, to have variuvi vita genus, diversity of callings, occupations, to be busied about, " 1 sometimes to live in the city, sometimes in the countrey ; now to study or work, to
k Lib. de peregrinat. t Epist. 2 ren. I. N'ec quisquam tarn lapis am frutex, quem non titillat amoena ilia, va'riaq; spectio locorum, url■.ium, gentium, Sec. *Epi*t. 86. f 2. lib. de legibus. J Lib. 45. § Keckcrman prasfat. polit, || Fines Morison c. 3. part. 1. k Mutatio de loco in locum, Itinera, ct voiagia longa st indeterminata, & hospitarc in diversis divei.oriis. 'Modi) »»ri esse, modu in uibe, sasphis in agio vc:*"ri, &c.