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griefs, but "it doth extenuate fears and furies, appeaseth cruelty, abateth heaviness, and to such as are watehfull it causeth quietrest; it takes away spleen and hatred," bee it instrumentall, vocall, with strings, winde, c Qua dspiritu, sine manuum dexteritate gubernetur, S£c. it cures all irksomness and heaviness of the Soul. d Labouring men that sing to their work, can tell as much, and so can souldiers when they go to fight,whom tenor of death cannot so much affright, as the sound of trumpet, drum, fife, and such like musick animates; met us ■ enim mortis, as *Censorinus enformeth us, musica depellitur. "It makes a childe quiet," the nurses song, and many times the sound of a trumpet on a sudden, bells ringing, a carreman's whistle, a boy singing some ballad tune early in the street, alters, revives, recreates a restless patient that cannot sleep in the night, &c. In a word, it is so powerful a thing that it ravisheth the soul, regina sensuum, the Queen of the senses, by sweet pleasure (which is an happy cure) and corporall tunes pacifie our incorporeall soul, sine ore loquens, dominatum in aniviain exercct, and carries it beyond it self, helps, elevates, extends it. Scaliger exercit. 302. gives a reason of these effects, "'because the spirits about the heart take in that trembling and dancing air into the body, are moved together, and stirred up with k, or else the minde, as some suppose harmonically composed, is roused up at the tunes of musick. And 'tis not onely men that are so affected, but almost all other creatures. You know the tale of Hercules Gallus, Orpheus, and Amphion falices animas Ovid cals them, that could saxa movere sono tesludinis, &c. make stocks and stones, as well as beasts and other animals, dance after their pipes: the dog and hare, wolf and lamb; vicinumque tupo prabuit agna latus; clamosus graculus, stridula cornix, M Jovis aquila, as PhiJostratus describes it in his images, stood all gaping upon Orpheus; and f trees pulled up by the roots came to hear him, fit comitem quercum pin us arnica trahit.
Arion made fishes follow him, which, as common experienceevinceth, fare much affected with musick. All singing birds are much pleased with it, especially Nightingales, if we may beleeve Calcagninus; and Bees amongst the rest, though they be flying away, when they hear any tingling sound, will tarry behinde. «Hearts, Hindes, Horses, Dogs, Bears, are
« Pet. Aretine. * Castillo de aulic. lib. 1. fol. 27. * Lib. de Natali cap. 12. • Quod spiritus qui in corde agitant tremulem et subsaltantem recipiuat »erem in pectus, et inde excitantur, a spiritu musculi moventur, &c. ,f Arbores radicibus .ivulsae, &c. 'M. Carew of Anthony, in descript. Cornwall, saith of Whales, that tiny will come and shew themselves dancing at the sound of a trumpet. fol. 35. 1. et fol. 154. 2. book. • De cervo, equo, cane, urso. V-lcm compertum; musica aificiuntur.
exceedingly delighted with it." Seal, exerc. 302. Elephants Agrippa adaes lib. 2. cap. 24. and in Lydia in the midst of a lake there be certain floating Hands, (if ye will beleeve it) that after musick will dance.
But to leave all declamatory speeches in praise h of divine Musick, I will confine myself to proper subject: besides that excellent power it hath to expell many other diseases, it is a sovereigne remedy against'Despair and Melancholy, and will drive away the divel himself. Canus a Rhodian Fidler in k Philostratus, when Apollonius was inquisitive to know what he could do with his pipe, told him, "That he would make a melancholy man merry, and him that was merry much merrier than before, a lover more enamoured, a religious man more devout. Ismenias the Theban, 1 Chiron the Centaure is said to have cured this and many other diseases by inusick alone: as now they do those, saith m Bodine, that are troubled with S. Vitus Bedlam dance. ° Timotheus the. Musician compelled Alexander to skip up and down, and leave his dinner (like the tale of the Frier and the Boy), whom Austin de civ. Dei. lib. n. cap. 14. so much esmmends for it. Who hath not heard how David's harmony drove away the evil spirits from king Saul, 1. Sam. 16. and Elisha when he was much troubled by importunate kings, called for a minstrel, "and when he playea, the hand of the Lord came upon him," 2. King 3. Cetisorinus de natali, cap. 12. reportes how Asclepiades the Physitian helped many frantike persons by this means, phreneticorum mentes morbo turbatas—Jason Pratensis cap. de Mania hath many examples, how Clinias and Empedocles cured some desperately melancholy, and some mad by this our Musick. Which because it hath such excellent vertues, belike ° Homer brings in Phemius playing, and the Muses singing at the banquet of the gods. Aristotle Polit. I. 8. c. 5, Plato 2, de legibus, highly approve it, and so do all Politicians. The Greekes, Romanes, have graced Musick, and made it one of the liberall sciences* though it be now become mercenary. All civill Commonwealths allow it: Cneius Manlius (as *Livius relates) A ° ab wb. cond. 567. brought first out of Asia to Rome singing wenches, players, jesters, and all kinde of musick to their feasts.
* Numen inest numerit. V Saepe graves morbos modulatum carmen abegit, Et desperaiis conciliavit opepi. k Lib. 5. cap. 7. Mcorentibus moerorem adimam, laetantem vero seipjo reddara hilariorem, amantem calidiorem, religiosum divine numintf correptum, Se ad Deos eolendos paratiorem, 1 Na,> talis Comes Myih. lib. 4. cap. 12. * Lib. 5. de rep. Curat Musica furorcm Sancti viti. ° Exilire e convivio. Cardan, subtil, lib. 13. • Iliad. 1.
* Lihro 9. cap. 1. Psaltrias. Sambucistrasiji Jc convivalia ludurum oblecta menu additt epulis ex Asia invexit in urbem.
Your Your Princes, Emperours, and persons of any quality, maintain it in their Courts; No mirth without musick. Sir Thomas Moore, in his absolute Utopian Common-wealth, allows musick as an appendix to every meal, and that throughout, to all sons. Epictetus cals mensam mutam prasepe, a table without musick a manger; for "the concert of musicians at a banquet, is a carbuncle set in gold; and as the signet of an Emerald well trimmed with gold, so is the melody of Musick in a pleasant banquet. Ecclus. 32, v. 5, 6. p Lewes the eleventh, when he invited Edward the fourth to come to Paris, told him that as a principall part of his entertainment, he should hear sweet voices of children, lonickeand Lydian tunes, exquisite Musick, he should
have a , and the Cardinal of Burbon to be his confessor,
which he used as a most plausible argument: as to a sensuall man indeed it is. * Lucian in his book de saltatione is not ashamed to confess that he took infinite delight in singing, dancing, musick, womens company, and such like pleasures; ** and if thou (saith lie) didst but hear them play and dance, I know thou wouldst be so well pleased with the object, that thou wouldst dance for company thy self, without doubt thou wilt bee taken with it." So Scaliger ingenuously confesseth, exercit. 274. 1 am beyond all measure affected with musick, I do most willingly behold them dance, I am mightily detained and alluied with that grace and comeliness of fair women, I am well pleased to bee idle amongst them." And what young man is not? As it is acceptable and conducing to most, so especially to a melancholy man. Provided alwaies, his disease proceed not originally from it, that he bee not some light Inamarato, some idle phantastick, who capers in conceit all the day long, and thinks of nothing else, but how to make Jigs, Sonnets, Madrigals, in commendation of his Mistress. In such cases Musick is most pernicious, as a spur to a free horse will make him run himself blinde, or break his wind; Incitamentum enim amoris musica, for Musick enchants, as Menander holds, it will make such melancholy persons mad, and the sound of those Jigs and Horn-pipes will not bee removed out of the ears a week after. f Plato for this reason forbids Musick and wine to all young men, because they are most part amorous, ne ignis addatur igni, lest one fire increase another. Many men are melancholy by hearing Musick, but it is a pleasing melancholy that it causeth; and
► Comineus. * Ista libenter Sc iriagna cum voluptate spectare soleo.
Et scio te illeicbris hisce captiim iri le m super tripudiaturum, haud dubie demulc cberc. 'In musicis supra omrtem fidem capior tc oblector; rhoreas
libemissimi aspicio, pukhrarum toeminarum venustate deuneor, otiari inier has solmus cuns pos!um. •f-3. De legibus.
therefore therefore to such as are discontent, in wo, fear, sorrow, or dejected, it is a most present remedy: it expels cares, alters their grieved minds, and easeth in an instant. Otherwise, saith ' Plutarch, Musica magis dement at quant vinum; Musick makes some men mad as a tygre; like Astolphos' horn in Ariosto; or Mercurie's golden wand in Homer, that made some wake, others sleep, it hath divers effects: and 8 Theophrastus right well prophesied, that diseases were either procured by Musick, or mitigated.
Mirlk and merry company, fair objects, remedies.
MIRTH and merry company may not be separated from Musick, both concerning and necessarily required in this business. Mirth (saith' Vives) "purgeth the blood, confirmes health, causcth a fresh, pleasing, and fine colour," prorogues life, whets the wit, makes the body yong, lively and fit for any manner of imployment. The merrier the heart the longer the life; "A merry heart is the life of the flesh," Prov. 14. 30. "Gladness prolongs his dayes." Ecclus. 30. 22; and this is one of the tbree Salernitaa Doctors, D. Merryman, D. Diet,
D. Quiet, " which cures all diseases Mens hilaris, requies,
vwderata dieta. "Gomesius prajat. lib. 3. de sal. gen. is a great magnifyer of honest mirth, by which (saith he) "we cure many passions of the minde, in our selves, and in our friends;" which y Galateus assigns for a cause why we love merry companions: and well they deserve it, being that as 'Magninus holds, a merry companion is better than any musick, and as the saying is, comes jucundus in via pro vehiculo, as a wagon to him that is wearied on the wav. Jucunda confabulatio, sales, joci, pleasant discourse, jests, conceits, merry tales, melliti verborum globuli, as Petronius, * Pliny, b Spondanus, "< Caelius, and many good Authors plead, are that sole Nepenthes of Homer, Helenas' boule, Venus' girdle, so re
'Sympos. quest. 5. Mutica multos magis dementat quam vinum. • A
nimi morbi vel a muska curantur vcl inferuntur. 'Lib 3. tie anima Laeti
tia purgat sanguinem, valetuci.r.em conservat, colorem inducit flormtem, nitidum, graium. "Spiriius temperai, calorem excitat, naturalem virtutem
corroborat, juvenile corpus diu servat, vitani prorogat, ingenium acuit, & liominum ncgotiic quibushbet aptiorem reddit. Schola Salern. * Dum contumL,lia vacant Sl lestivi leniiate mordem, mediocre', animi aegritudines sanari 'olent, &c. i De mor. fol. 57. Amamus id«o eus qui sunt faced & ju
cundi. • Regim. sanit. pan. 2. Nota. quod amicus tonus & dilectus so
■ctus, nanationibus su.s jucund s supeiat omnem me!odi.■.ni. * Lib. 21. cap. 97. k Comment. in 4 Odyss. c Lib. 26. c. 15.
nowned nowned of old * to expell grief and care, to cause mirth and gladness of heart, if they be rightly understood, or seasonably applied. In a word,
f Amor, voluptas, Venus, gaudium, ,
are the true Nepenthes. For these causes our physicians generally prescribe this as a principal engine, to batter the walls of melancholy, a chief antidote, and a sufficient cure of it self. "By all means (saith d Mesue) procure mirth to these men in such things as are heard, seen, tasted, or sraelled, or any way perceived, and let them have all enticements, and fair promises, the sight of excellent beauties, attires, ornaments, delightsome passages, to distract their minds from fear and sorrow, and 6uch things on which they are so fixed and intent. • Let them use hunting, sports, playes, jests, merry company," as Rhasis prescribes, "which will not let the minde be molested, a cup of good drinke now and then, hear musick, and have such companions with whom they are especially delighted; f merry tales or toyes, drinking, singing, dancing, and whatsoever else may procure mirth: and by no means, saith Guianerius, suffer them to be alone. Benedictus Victorius Faventinus, in his Empericks, accompts it an especial remedy against melancholy, *' s to hear and see singing, dancing, maskers, mummers, to converse with such merry fellows, and fair maids. For the beauty of a woman cheareth the countenance," Ecclus 36. 22. X Beauty alone is a sovereign remedy against fear, grief, and all melancholy fits; a charm, as Peter de la Seine and many, other writers affirme, a banquet it self; lie gives instance in discontented Menelaus that was so often freed by Helenas' fair face: and h fully, 3. Tusc. cites Epicurus as a chief patron of this tenent. To expell grief, and procure pleasance, sweet Smells, good diet, touch, taste, embracing, singing, dancing, sports, playes, and above the rest, exquisite beauties, quibus oculijucunde moventur H animi, are most powerfull means,
* Homericum illud Nepenthes quod mojrorem tollit, k cuthimiam, k hilaritatem parit. f Plain. Baccli. i De aegritud. capitis. Omni modo generet lasritiam in iis, de iis quae audiuntur k videntur, aut odorantur, aut gustantur, aut quocunq modo sentiri pouum, k aspectu formarum multi decoris k ornatus, k ncgotiationc ; jucunda, k blandientibus ludit, & promissis distrahantur corum animi, de re aliqua quam timent k dolent. • Utantur ve nationibus ludu,
jocit, amicorum consortiis, quae non sinunt animum turbari, vino k canra k loci mutatione, k biberia, k gaudio, ex quibus praecipnc delectamur. 'Pno ex fabulis k ludis quasrenda delectatio. His verseiur qui maxime grati, sant, cantus k chorea ad ketitiam profunu * Praecipue valet ad expeUendam
melancliol am stare in cantibus, ludis, k sonis k habitarc cum familiaribus, St
?irxcipue cum puclli6 jucundis. J Par. 5. de avocamentis lib. de absolvendo uctu. k Corporum complexus, cantus, ludi, fotmae, kc.