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griefs, but "it doth extenuate fears and furies, appeaseth cruelty, abateth heaviness, and to such as are watchfull it causeth quiet rest; it takes away spleen and hatred," bee it instrumentall, vocall, with strings, winde, Quæ à spiritu, sine manuum dexteritate gubernetur, &c. it cures all irksomness and heaviness of the Soul. Labouring men that sing to their work, can tell as much, and so can souldiers when they go to fight,whom terror of death cannot so much affright, as the sound of trumpet, drum, fife, and such like musick animates; metus enim mortis, as *Censorinus enformeth us, musica depellitur. "It makes a childe quiet," the nurses song, and many times the sound of a trumpet on a sudden, bells ringing, a carreman's whistle, a boy singing some ballad tune early in the street, alters, revives, recreates a restless patient that cannot sleep in the night, &c. In a word, it is so powerful a thing that it ravisheth the soul, regina sensuum, the Queen of the senses, by sweet pleasure (which is an happy cure) and corporall tunes pacific our incorporeall soul, sine ore loquens, dominatum in animam exercet, and carries it beyond it self, helps, elevates, extends it. Scaliger exercit. 302. gives a reason of these effects," because the spirits about the heart take in that trembling and dancing air into the body, are moved together, and stirred up with it, or else the minde, as some suppose harmonically composed, is roused up at the tunes of musick. And 'tis not onely men that are so affected, but almost all other creatures. You know the tale of Hercules Gallus, Orpheus, and Amphion felices animas Ovid cals them, that could saxa movere sono testudinis, &c. make stocks and stones, as well as beasts and other animals, dance after their pipes: the dog and hare, wolf and lamb; vicinumque lupo præbuit agna latus; clamosus graculus, stridula cornix, & Jovis aquila, as Philostratus describes it in his images, stood all gaping upon Orpheus; and trees pulled up by the roots came to hear him, Et comitem quercum pinus amica trahit.
Arion made fishes follow him, which, as common experience evinceth, are much affected with musick. All singing birds are much pleased with it, especially Nightingales, if we may beleeve Calcagninus; and Bees amongst the rest, though they be flying away, when they hear any tingling sound, will tarry behinde. Hearts, Hindes, Horses, Dogs, Bears, are
⚫ Pet. Aretine. d Castillo de aulic. lib. 1. fol. 27. 12.
* Lib. de Natali. cap.
• Quod spiritus qui in corde agitant tremulem et subsaltantem recipiunt aerem in pectus, et inde excitantur, à spiritu musculi moventur, &c. bores radicibus avulsæ, &c. f M. Carew of Anthony, in descript. Cornwall, saith of Whales, that they will come and shew themselves dancing at the sound of a trumpet, fol. 35. 1. et fol. 154. 2. book. lem compertum; musicâ afficiuntur.
De cervo, equo, cane, ursa
exceedingly delighted with it." Scal. exerc. 302. Elephants Agrippa addes lib. 2. cap. 24. and in Lydia in the midst of a lake there be certain floating Ilands, (if ye will beleeve it) that after musick will dance.
But to leave all declamatory speeches in praise of divine Musick, I will confine myself to my proper subject: besides that excellent power it hath to expell many other diseases, it is a sovereigne remedy against Despair and Melancholy, and wili drive away the divel himself. Canus a Rhodian Fidler in Philostratus, when Apollonius was inquisitive to know what he could do with his pipe, told him, "That he would make a melancholy man merry, and him that was merry much merrier than before, a lover more enamoured, a religious man more de. vout. Ismenias the Theban, Chiron the Centaure is said to have cured this and many other diseases by musick alone: as now they do those, saith Bodine, that are troubled with S. Vitus Bedlam dance. Timotheus the Musician compelled Alexander to skip up and down, and leave his dinner (like the tale of the Frier and the Boy), whom Austin de civ. Dei. lib. 17. cap. 14. so much commends for it. Who hath not heard how David's harmony drove away the evil spirits from king Saul, 1. Sam. 16. and Elisha when he was much troubled by importunate kings, called for a minstrel, "and when he played, the hand of the Lord came upon him," 2. King 3. Censorinus de natali, cap. 12. reportes how Asclepiades the Physitian helped many frantike persons by this means, phreneticorum mentes morbo turbatas-Jason Pratensis cap. de Mania hath many examples, how Clinias and Empedocles cured some desperately melancholy, and some mad by this our Musick. Which because it hath such excellent vertues, belike Homer brings in Phemius playing, and the Muses singing at the banquet of the gods. Aristotle Polit. l. 8. c. 5, Plato 2, de legibus, highly approve it, and so do all Politicians. The Greekes, Romanes, have graced Musick, and made it one of the liberall sciences, though it be now become mercenary. All civill Commonwealths allow it: Cneius Manlius (as * Livius relates) A · ab urb. cond. 567. brought first out of Asia to Rome singing wenches, players, jesters, and all kinde of musick to their feasts,
Numen inest numeris.
i Sæpe graves morbos modulatum carmen abegit, Et desperatis conciliavit opem. * Lib. 5. cap. 7. Morentibus mœrorem adimam, lætantem vero seipso reddam hilariorem, amantem calidiorem, religiosum divine numine correptum, & ad Deos colendos paratiorem. 1 Na talis Comes Myth. lib. 4. cap. 12. Lib. 5. de rep. Curat Musica furorem Cardan, subtil. lib. 13. Iliad. 1.
D Exilire è convivio.
Sancti viti. Libro 9. cap. 1. Psaltrias. Sambucistrasq; & convivalia ludorum oblecta menta addita epulis ex Asiâ invexit in urbem.
Your Princes, Emperours, and persons of any quality, maintain it in their Courts; No mirth without musick. Sir Thomas Moore, in his absolute Utopian Common-wealth, allows musick as an appendix to every meal, and that throughout, to all sorts. Epictetus cals mensum mutam præsepe, a table without musick a manger; for "the concert of musicians at a banquet, is a carbuncle set in gold; and as the signet of an Emerald well trimmed with gold, so is the melody of Musick in a pleasant banquet. Ecclus. 32, v. 5, 6. P Lewes the eleventh, when he invited Edward the fourth to come to Paris, told him that as a principall part of his entertainment, he should hear sweet voices of children, Ionicke and Lydian tunes, exquisite Musick, he should have a , and the Cardinal of Burbon to be his confessor, which he used as a most plausible argument: as to a sensuall man indeed it is. *Lucian in his book de saltatione is not ashamed to confess that he took infinite delight in singing, dancing, musick, womens company, and such like pleasures; "and if thou (saith he) didst but hear them play and dance, I know thou wouldst be so well pleased with the object, that thou wouldst dance for company thy self, without doubt thou wilt bee taken with it." So Scaliger ingenuously confesseth, exercit. 274. "I am beyond all measure affected with musick, I do most willingly behold them dance, I am mightily detained and allured with that grace and comeliness of fair women, I am well pleased to bee idle amongst them." And what young man is not? As it is acceptable and conducing to most, so especially to a melancholy man. Provided alwaies, his disease proceed not originally from it, that he bee not some light Inamarato, some idle phantastick, who capers in conceit all the day long, and thinks of nothing else, but how to make Jigs, Sonnets, Madrigals, in commendation of his Mistress. In such cases Musick is most pernicious, as a spur to a free horse will make him run himself blinde, or break his wind; Incitamentum enim amoris musica, for Musick enchants, as Menander holds, it will make such melancholy persons mad, and the sound of those Jigs and Horn-pipes will not bee removed out of the ears a week after. + Plato for this reason forbids Musick and wine to all young men, because they are most part amorous, ne ignis addatur igni, lest one fire increase another. Many men are melancholy by hearing Musick, but it is a pleasing melancholy that it causeth; and
Ista libenter & magnâ cum voluptate spectare soleo. Et scio te illecebris hisce captum iri & insuper tripudiaturum, haud dubiè demulcebere. In musicis supra omnem fidem capior & oblector; choreas libentissimè aspicio, pulchrarum foeminarum venustate detineor, otiari inter has solutus curis possum.
+ 3. De legibus.
therefore to such as are discontent, in wo, fear, sorrow, or dejected, it is a most present remedy: it expels cares, alters their grieved minds, and easeth in an instant. Otherwise, saith Plutarch, Musica magis dementat quàm vinum; Musick makes some men mad as a tygre; like Astolphos' horn in Ariosto; or Mercurie's golden wand in Homer, that made some wake, others sleep, it hath divers effects: and Theophrastus right well prophesied, that diseases were either procured by Musick, or mitigated.
Mirth and merry company, fair objects, remedies.
IRTH and merry company may not be separated from Musick, both concerning and necessarily required in this business. Mirth (saith Vives) "purgeth the blood, confirmes health, causeth a fresh, pleasing, and fine colour," prorogues life, whets the wit, makes the body yong, lively and fit for any manner of imployment. The merrier the heart the longer the life; "A merry heart is the life of the flesh," Prov. 14. "Gladness prolongs his dayes." Ecclus. 30. 22; and this is one of the three Salernitan Doctors, D. Merryman, D. Diet, D. Quiet, which cures all diseases Mens hilaris, requies, moderata dieta. Gomesius præfat. lib. 3. de sal. gen. is a great magnifyer of honest mirth, by which (saith he) "we cure many passions of the minde, in our selves, and in our friends;" which Galateus assigns for a cause why we love merry companions: and well they deserve it, being that as Magninus holds, a merry companion is better than any musick, and as the saying is, comes jucundus in via pro vehículo, as a wagon to him that is wearied on the way. Jucunda confabulatio, sales, joci, pleasant discourse, jests, conceits, merry tales, melliti verborum globuli, as Petronius, a Pliny, Spondanus, Cælius, and many good Authors plead, are that sole Nepenthes of Homer, Helenas' boule, Venus' girdle, so re
Sympos. quest. 5. Musica multos magis dementat quam vinum. · Animi morbi vel a musicâ curantur vel inferuntur. Lib. 3. de animâ Lætitia purgat sanguinem, valetudinem conservat, colorem inducit florentem, nitidum, gratum. Spiritus temperat, calorem excitat, naturalem virtutem corroborat, juvenile corpus diu servat, vitam prorogat, ingenium acuit, & hominum negotiis quibuslibet aptiorem reddit. Schola Salern. * Dum contumelia vacant & festivå lenitate mordent, mediocres animi ægritudines sanari solent, &c. De mor. fol. 57. Amamus ideo eos qui sunt faceti & juRegim. sanit. part. 2. Nota, quod amicus tonus & dilectus soa Lib. 21. cap.
cius, narrationibus suis jucundis superat omnem melodiam.
Comment. in 4 Odyss.
c Lib. 26. c. 15.
nowned of old* to expell grief and care, to cause mirth and gladness of heart, if they be rightly understood, or seasonably applied. In a word,
† Amor, voluptas, Venus, gaudium,
are the true Nepenthes. For these causes our physicians generally prescribe this as a principal engine, to batter the walls of melancholy, a chief antidote, and a sufficient cure of it self. "By all means (saith Mesue) procure mirth to these men in such things as are heard, seen, tasted, or smelled, or any way perceived, and let them have all enticements, and fair promises, the sight of excellent beauties, attires, ornaments, delightsome passages, to distract their minds from fear and sorrow, and such things on which they are so fixed and intent. Let them use hunting, sports, playes, jests, merry company," as Rhasis prescribes," which will not let the minde be molested, a cup of good drinke now and then, hear musick, and have such companions with whom they are especially delighted; f merry tales or toyes, drinking, singing, dancing, and whatsoever else may procure mirth: and by no means, saith Guianerius, suffer them to be alone. Benedictus Victorius Faventinus, in his Empericks, accompts it an especial remedy against melancholy, ❝s to hear and see singing, dancing, maskers, muinmers, to converse with such merry fellows, and fair maids. For the beauty of a woman cheareth the countenance," Ecclus 36. 22. Beauty alone is a sovereign remedy against fear, grief, and all melancholy fits; a charm, as Peter de la Seine and many other writers affirme, a banquet it self; he gives instance in discontented Menelaus that was so often freed by Helenas' fair face and Tully, 3. Tusc. cites Epicurus as a chief patron of this tenent. To expell grief, and procure pleasance, sweet smells, good diet, touch, taste, embracing, singing, dancing, sports, playes, and above the rest, exquisite beauties, quibus oculi jucundè moventur & animi, are most powerfull means,
* Homericum illud Nepenthes quod moerorem tollit, & cuthimiam, & hilaritatem parit. + Plaut. Bacch. De ægritud. capitis. Omni modo generet lætitiam in iis, de iis quæ audiuntur & videntur, aut odorantur, aut gustantur, aut quocunq modo sentiri possunt, & aspectu formarum multi decoris & ornatus, & negotiatione; jucundâ, & blandientibus ludis, & promissis distrahantur corum animi, de re aliquâ quam timent & dolent. Utantur ve nationibus ludis, jocis, amicorum consortiis, quæ non sinunt animum turbari, vino & cantu & loci mutatione, & biberiâ, & gaudio, ex quibus præcipue delectantur. f Piso ex fabulis & ludis quærenda delectatio. His versetur qui maximè grati, sunt, cantus & chorea ad lætitiam profunt. Præcipue valet ad expellendam
melanchol am stare in cantibus, ludis, & sonis & habitare cum familiaribus, & præcipue cum puellis jucundis. Par. 5. de avocamentis lib. de absolvendo luctu. Corporum complexus, cantus, ludi, fotmæ, &c.