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obvia forma, to meet, or see a fair maid pass by, or to be in company with her. He found it by experience, and made good use of it in his own person, if Plutarch bely him not; for he reckons up the names of some more elegant pieces; Leontia, Boedina, Hedieia, Nicedia, that were frequently seen in Epicurus' garden, and very familiar in his house. Neither did he try it himself alone, but if we may give credit to *Atheneus, he practised it upon others. For when a sad and sick Patient was brought unto him to be cured," he laid him on a down bed crowned him with a garland of sweet-smelling flowers, in a fair perfumed closet delicately set out, and after a portion or two of good drink, which he administered, he brought in a beautifull yong + wench that could play upon a Lute, sing and dance," &c. Tully 3. Tusc. scoffes at Epicurus for this his prophane physik (as well he deserved), and yet Phavorinus and Stobeus highly approve of it; most of our looser Physicians in some cases, to such parties especially, allow of this; and all of them will have a melancholy, sad, and discontented person, make frequent use of honest sports, companies, and recreations, & incitandos ad l'enerem, as Rodericus à Fonseca, will, afpectu & contactu pulcherrimarum fœminarum, to be drawn to such consorts, whether they will or no. Not to be an auditor only, or a spectator, but sometimes an actor himself. Dulce est desipere in loco, to play the fool now and then, is not amiss, there is a time for all things. Grave Socrates would be merry by fits, sing, dance, and take his liquor too, or else Theodoret belies him; so would old Cato, Tully by his own confession, and the rest. Xenophon in his Sympos. brings in Socrates as a principal Actor, no man merrier than himself, and sometimes he would ride a cockhorse with his Children."
"equitare in arundine longâ."
(Though Alcibiades scoffed at him for it) and well he might; for now and then (saith Plutarch) the most vertuous, honest and gravest men will use feasts, jests, and toys, as we do sauce to our meats. So did Scipio and Lælius,
Qui ubi se a vulgo & scenâ in secreta remôrant,
Circa hortos Epicuri frequentes.
*Dypnosoph. lib. 10. Coronavit florido serto incendens odores, iu culcitra plumea collocavit dulciculam potionem propinans psaltriam adduxit, &c. † Ut reclinatà suaviter in lectum pucllâ, &c. Tom. 2. consult. 85. § Epist. fam. lib. 7. 22. epist. Heri demum bene potus, seroq; redieram. Valer. Max. cap. 8. lib. 8. Interposità arundine cruribus suis, cum filiis ludens, ab Alcibiade risus est. Hor.
Nugari cum illo, & discincti ludere, donec
Valorous Scipio and gentle Lælius,
Removed from the scene and rout so clamorous,
Machiavel, in the 8 book of his Florentine history, gives this note of Cosmus Medices, the wisest and gravest man of his time in Italy, that he would "now and then play the most egregious fool in his carriage, and was so much given to jesters, players, and childish sports, to make himself merry, that he that should but consider his gravity on the one part, his folly and lightness on the other, would surely say, there were two distinct persons in him." Now me thinks he did well in it, though Salisburiensis be of opinion, that Magistrates, Senators, and grave men, should not descend to lighter sports, ne respub. ludere videatur: But as Themistocles, still keep a stern and constant carriage. I commend Cosmus Medices, and Castruccius Castrucanus, then whom Italy never knew a worthier Captain, another Alexander, if Machiavel do not deceive us in his life: "when a friend of his reprehended him for dancing beside his dignity," (belike at some cushen dance) he told him again, qui sapit interdiu, vix unquam noctu desipit, he that is wise in the day, may dote a little in the night. Paulus Jovius relates as much of Pope Leo Decimus, that he was a grave discreet stay'd man, yet sometimes most free, and too open in his sports. And 'tis not altogether unfit or mis-beseeming the gravity of such a man, if that Decorum of time, place, and such circumstances be ohserved. Misce stultitiam consiliis brevem; and as he said in an Epigram to his wife, I would have every man say to himself, or to his friend,
Moll, once in pleasant company by chance,
Hominibus facetis, et ludis puerilibus ultra modum deditus adeo ut sicui in eo tam gravitatem, quam levitatem considerare liberet, duas personas distincias in eo esse diceret. De nugis curial. lib. 1. cap. 4. Magistratus et viri graves, à ludis levioribus arcendi. Machiavel vita ejus. Ab amico reprehensus, quod præter dignitatem tripudiis operam daret, respondet, &c. + There is a time for all things, to weep, laugh, mourn, dance, Eccles. 3. 4. Sr John Harrington, Epigr. 50.
Yet so to you my love may never lessen,
As you for Church, house, bed, observe this lesson:
No deed, word, thought, your due devotion taint;
To him that only wounded soules can heal:
Let nothing waste, that costs or yieldeth mony.
* And when thou seest my heart to mirth incline,
But be as wanton, toying as an Ape.
Those old Greeks had their Lubentiam Deam, goddess of Pleasance, and the Lacedemonians, instructed from Lycurgus, did Deo Risui sacrificare, after their wars especially, and in times of peace, which was used in Thessaly, as it appears by that of Apuleius, who was made an instrument of their laughter himself: " Because laughter and merriment was to season their labours and modester life." • Risus enim divum atq; hominum est æterna voluptas. Princes use jesters, players, and have those masters of revels in their courts. The Romans at every supper (for they had no solemn dinner) used Musick, Gladiators, Jesters, &c. as + Suetonius relates of Tiberius, Dion of Commodus, and so did the Greeks. Besides Musick, in Xenophon's Sympos. Philippus ridendi artifex, Philip a Jester, was brought to make sport. Paulus Jovius, in the eleventh book of his history, hath a pretty digression of our English customes, which howsoever some may misconster, I for my part, will interpret to the best. "The whole nation beyond all other mortal men, is most given to banqueting and feasts; for they prolong them many houres together, with dainty cheere, exquisite musick, and facete jesters, and afterwards they fall a dancing and courting their mistresses, till it be late in the night." Volateran gives the same testimony of this Island, commending our jovial manner of entertainment, and good mirth, and me thinks he saith well, there is no harm in it; long may they use it, and all such modest sports. Ctesias reports of a Persian king, that had 150 maids attending at his
ras et adulatores.
*Lucretia toto sis licet usq; die, Thaida nocte volo. 1 Lil. Giraldus hist. deor. Syntag. 1. m Lib. 2. de aur. as. Eo quod risus esset laboris et modesti yictus condimentum. Calcag. epig. + Cap. 61. In deliciis habuit scurUniversa gens supramortales cæteros conviviorum studiosissima. Ea enim per varias et exquisitas dapes, interpositis musicis et jocula toribus, in multas sæpius horas extrahunt, ac subinde productis choreis et amoribus fœminarum indulgent, &c.
table, to play, sing and dance by turns; and Lil. Geraldus of an Ægyptian prince, that kept nine Virgins still to wait upon him, and those of most excellent feature, and sweet voices, which afterwards gave occasion to the Greeks of that fiction of the nine Muses. The King of Ethiopia in Africk, most of our Asiatick Princes have done so and do; those Sophies, Mogors, Turkes, &c. solace themselves after supper amongst their Queens and Concubines, quæ jucundioris oblectamenti causa (* saith mine author) coram rege psallere & saltare consueverant, taking great pleasure to see and hear them sing and dance. This and many such means to exhilarate the heart of men, have been still practised in all ages, as knowing there is no better thing to the preservation of man's life. What shall I say then, but to every melancholy man,
"Utere convivis, non tristibus utere amicis,
Feast often, and use friends not still so sad,
Use honest and chast sports, scenical shews, playes, games;
"Accedant juvenumq; Chori, mistæq; puellæ.”
And as Marsilius Ficinus concludes an Epistle to Bernard Canisianus, and some other of his friends, will I this Tract to all good Students, "Live merrily O my friends, free from cares, perplexity, anguish, grief of mind, live merrily," lætitiæ calum vos creavit: "Again and again I request you to be merry, if any thing trouble your hearts, or vex your souls, neglect and contemn it, "let it passe. And this I enjoyn you, not as a Divine alone, but as a Physician; for without this mirth, which is the life and quintessence of Physick, medicines, and whatsoever is used and applyed to prolong the life of man, is dull, dead, and of no force." Dum fata sinunt, vivite læti (Seneca) I say be merry.
Syntag. de Musis.
"Nec lusibus virentem
* Atheneus lib. 12 & 14. assiduis mulierum vocibus, cantuque symphoniæ Palatium Persarum regis totum personabat. Jovius hist.
procul ab angustia, vivite læti. quod cor urit, negligite.
r Fracastorius. Vivite ergo læti, O amici, 'Iterum precor et obtestor, vivite læti: illud Lætus in præsens animus quod ultra oderit cu* Hæc autem non tam ut Sa
rare. Hor. He was both Sacerdos et Medicus. cerdos, amici, mando vobis, quam ut medicus; nam absq; hac una tanquam medicinarum vita, medicinæ omnes ad vitam producendam adhibitæ moriuntur: vivite læti. + Locheus Anacreon.
It was Tiresias the Prophet's councel to Menippus, that travelled all the world over, even down to hell it self to seek content, and his last farewell to Menippus, to be merry.
Contemn the world (saith he) and count that is in it vanity and toyes; this only covet all thy life long; be not curious, or over solicitous in any thing, but with a well composed and contented estate to enjoy thy self, and above all things to be merry."
"Si Numerus uti censet sine amore jocisque,
Nil est jucundum, vivas in amore jocisque.'
Nothing better, (to conclude with Solomon, Ecclus. 3. 22.) "then that a man should rejoyce in his affairs." "Tis the same advice which every Physician in this case rings to his Patient, as Capivaccius to his, a avoid over much study and perturbations of the minde, and as much as in thee lies live at heart's ease" Prosper Calenus to that melancholy Cardinal Cæsius,
bamidst thy serious studies and business, use jests and conceits, playes and toyes, and whatsoever else may recreate thy mind." Nothing better then mirth and merry company in this malady." It begins with sorrow (saith Montanus), it must be expelled with hilarity."
But see the mischief; many men, knowing that merry company is the only medicine against Melancholy, will therefore neglect their business; and in another extreme, spend all their dayes among good fellowes in a Tavern or an Ale-house, and know not otherwise how to bestow their time but in drinking; Malt-worms, men-fishes, or water-snakes, *Qui bibunt solum ranarum more, nihil comedentes, like so many frogs in a puddle. 'Tis their sole exercise to eat, and drink; to sacrifice to Volupia, Rumina, Edulica, Potina, Mellona, is all their religion. They wish for Philoxenus' neck, Jupiter's trinoctium, and that the Sun would stand still as in Joshua's time, to satisfic their lust, that they might dies noctesq; pergræcari & bibere. Flourishing wits, and men of good parts, good fashion, and good worth, basely prostitute themselves to every
y Lucian. Necyomantia. Tom. 2. * Omnia mundana nugas æstima. Hoc solu tota vita persequere, ut præsentibus bene compositis, minime curiosus, aut ulla in re solicitus, quam plurimum potes vitam hilarem traducas. Hildesheim spicel. 2. de Mania. fol. 161. Studia literarum et animi perturbationes fugiat, et quantum potest jucundè vivat. b Lib. de atra bile. Gravioribus curis ludos et facetias aliquando interpone, jocos, et quæ solent animum relaxare. Consil. 30. mala valetudo aucta et contracta est tristitia, ac proptera exhilaratione animi removenda. * Athen. dypnosoph. lib. 1.