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obey, and are subject to those principal parts: the Brain must needs primarily be misaffected, as the seat of Reason; and then the Heart, as the seat of Affection. t Cappivaccius and Mercurialis have copiously discussed this question, and both conclude the subject is the inner Brain, and from thence it is communicated to the Heart, and other inferior parts, which sympathize and are much troubled, especially when it comes by consent, and is caused by reason of the Stomack, or myrache, as the Arabians terme it, whole body, Liver, or m Spleen, which are seldom free, Pylorus, Meseraick veines, &c. For our body is like a Clock, if one wheele be amisse, all the rest are disordered, the whole fabrick suffers: with such admirable art and harmony is a man composed, such excellent proportion, as Ludovicus Vives in his Fable of man hath elegantly declared.
As many doubts almost arise about the "Affection, whether it be Imagination or Reason alone, or both, Hercules de Saxonia proves it out of Galen, .Stius, and Altomarus, that the sole fault is in ° Imagination. Bruel is of the same minde: Montaltus in his 2. cap. of Melancholy, confutes this tenent of theirs, and illustrates the contrary by many examples: as of him that thought himself a shel-fish, of a Nun, and of a desperate Monk that would not be persuaded but that he was damned; reason was in fault as well as Imagination, which did not correct this error : they make away themselves oftentimes, and suppose many absurd and ridiculous things. Why doth not Reason detect the Fallacy, settle and perswade, if she be free? f Avicenna therefore holds both corrupt, to whom most Arabians subscribe. The same is maintained by ' Areteus, * Gorgonius, Guianerius, &c. To end the controversie, no man doubts of Imagination, but that it is hurt and misaffected here; for the other I determine with * Albertinus Bottonus, a Dr. of Padua, that it is first in " Imagination, and afterwards in Reason; if the disease be inveterate, or as it is more or less of continuance: but by accident, as * Here, de Saxonia adds; "faith, opinion, discourse, ratiocination, are all accidentally depraved by the default of imagination."
Parties affected.] To the part affected, I may here add the parties, which shal be more opportunely spoken of elsewheie,
t Lib. 1. cap. 10. Subjectum est cerebrum interius. ■ Rard quisquam tumorem effugit lienis, qui hoc morbo afheitur, Piso. Quis affectus. • See
Donat. ab Altomar. ° Facultas irnaginandi, non cogiiandi, nec memorandi
Less hie. 'Lib. 3. Fen. 1. Tract. 4. cap. 8. i Lib. 3. cap. 5. 'Lib. Med. cap. IP. part. 2. Trac. lb. cap. 2. • Heldesheim spicel. 2. de Melanc. fol. 207, ct fol. 127. Quandoq; ctiam Rationalis si affectus invcteratus sit. * Lib. posthumo de Melanc. edit. 1620 deprivatiir fides, discuisus, opinio, Sec. per vhium lmaginationes, ex Accidenti.
M 4 now now only signified. Such as have the Moone, Satume, Mercury misaffected in their genitures, such as live in over-cold, or over-hot Climes: such as are borne of melancholy parents: as offend in those six non-natural things, are black, or of an high sanguine complexion, ' that have little heads, that have a hot heart, moist Brain, hot Liver and cold stomack, have been long sick: such as are solitary by nature, great Students, given to much contemplation,/lead a life out of action, are most subject to melancholy. Of sexes both, but men more often; yet u women misaffected, ate far more violent, and grievously troubled. Of seasons of the year, the Autumne is most melancholy. Of peculiar times; old age, from which natural Melancholy is almost an inseparable accident; but this artificial Malady is more frequent in such as are of a " middle age. Some assigne 40 years, Gariopontus 30. Jubertus excepts neither young nor old from this adventitious. Daniel Sennertus involves all of all sorts, out of common experience, i in omnibus omnino Corporibus cujuscunq; constitutionis dominatur.JE.tius and Aretius ascribe into the number " not only z discontented, passionate, and miserable persons, swarthy, black; but such as are most merry and pleasant, scoffers, and high coloured." "Generall," saith Rhasis, * "the finest wits, and most generous spirits, are before other obnoxious to it;" I cannot except any complexion, any condition, sexe, or age, but b fools and Stoicks, which, according to c Synesius, are never troubled with any manner of passion, but as Anacreon's cicatia, sine sanguine » dolore, similes fere diis sunt. Erasmus vindicates fools from this Melancholy Catalogue, because thev have most part moist braines, and light hearts, d they are free from ambition, envy, shame and fear, they are neither troubled in conscience, nor macerated with cares, to which our whole life is most subject.
'Qui parvnm caput liabent, insjensati pleriq; sunt. Arist. in physiognomia. » Arcteus lib. 3. cap. .'i. « Qui propestatum sunt. Arct. Mediis convenit
xtatibus Piso. i De quartano. * Primus ad Mclancholiam non tam
mcEstus sed et hilares, jocosi, cachinnantes, irrisores, et, qui plerumq; praerubri •linc * Lib. 1. part2. rap. 11. "Qui sunt subulis ingenii, et muliae
pcrspicacitatis de facili incidunt m Melancholiam iib. 1. cant. Tract. ii. b Nunquam sanitate mentis excidit aut dolore capitur. Erasm. e In laud, calvit.
* Vacant conscientiae carnificina, nec pudefiunt, nec verentur, nec dilacerantar millibus curarum, quibus tota vita abnoxia est.
OF the Matter of Melancholy, there is much question betwixt Avicen and Galen, as you may read in c Cardan's Contradictions,f Valesius' controversies, Montanus, Prosper Calenus, Capivaccius, * Bright, h Ficinus, that have written either whole Tracts, or copiously of it, in their several Treatises of this subject. '" What this humor is, or whence it proceeds, how it is engendered in the body, neither Galen, nor any old Writer hath sufficiently discussed," as Jacchinus thinks: the Neotericks cannot agree. Montanus, in his Consultations, holds Melancholy to be materiall or immateriall: and so doth Arculanus: the material is one of the four humors before mentioned, and natural. The immaterial or adventitious, acquisite, redundant, unnatural, artificial: which * Hercules de Saxonia will have reside in the spirits alone, and to proceed from an "hot, cold, dry, moist distemperature, which, without matter, alter the Brain and functions of it. Paracelsus wholly rejects and derides this division of four humors and complexions, but our Galenists generally approve of it, subscribing to this opinion of Montanus.
This material Melancholy is either simple, or mixt; offending in quantity or quality, varying according to his place, where it setleth, as Brain, Spleen, Meseriack veins, Heart, Womb, and Stomack: or differing according to the mixture of those natural humors amongst themselves, or four unnatural adust humors, as they are diversly tempered and mingled. If natural melancholy abound in the body, which is cold and dry, ** so that it be more k than the body is wel able to bear, it must needs be distempered," saith Faventius, "and diseased:" and so the other, if it be depraved, whether it arise from that other Melancholy of Choler adust, or from Blood, produceth the like effects, and is, as Montaltus contends, if it come by adustion of humors, most part hot and dry. Some difference I find, whether this melacholy matter may be ingendered of all four humors, about the colour and temper of it. Galen holds it may be
'Lib. 1. tract. 3. contradic. IS. f Lib. 1. com. 21. « Bright ca. 16.
k Lib. 1. cap. fi. de sanit. tuenda. 'CJuisve atit qualis sit humor aut quae
htius differentix, et quomodo gignantur in corpore, scrutandum, hac enim re multi veterum laboravcrunt, ncc facile accipere ex Galeno sententiam ob loquendi varictaiem. Leon. Jicch. com. in 9. Rhasis cap. 15 cap. 16. in 9. Rhasis. * Tract. postuin. de Melan. ed t. Vencliis 1620. cap. 7. & 8. Ab
intemperic calida, humida, &e. k Sccundu magis aut minus si in corpora
fuerit, ad intemperic plusquam corpus salubriter fcire po:orit: inde corpus morbosum effitur.
ingendrcd ingendred of three alone, excluding Flegme, or Pituita, whose true assertion, t Valesius and Menardus stifly maintain, and so doth ""Fuschius, Montaltus, ' Montanus. How (say they) can white become black? But Hercules de Saxonia I. post, demela. c. 8. and "Cardan are of the opposite part (it may be ingendred of Flegme, etsi rarb contingat, though it seldom come to pass) so is p Guianerius and Laurentius c. I. with Melanct. in his Book de Anima, and Chap, of Humours; he cals it Asininam, dul, swinish Melancholy, and saith that he was an eye witness of it: so is ' Wecker. From melancholy adust ariseth one kind, from Choler another, which is most brutish : another from Flegme, which is dul; and the last from Blood, which is best. Of these some are cold and dry, others hot and dry, ' varying according to their mixtures, as they arc intended, and remitted. And indeed as Rodericus a Fons. cons. 12. 1. determines, ichores and those serous matters being thickned become flegme, and flegme degenerates into choler, choler adust becomes aruginosa melancholia, as vinegar out of purest wine putrified or by exhalation of purer spirits is so made, and becomes sowre and sharp; and from the sharpness of this humor proceed much waking, troublesome thoughts and dreams, &c. so that I conclude as before. If the humor be cold, it is, saith * Favetinus, " a cause of dotage, and produceth milder symptoms : if hot, they are rash, raving mad, or inclining to it." If the brain be hot, the animal spirits are'hot, much madness follows with violent actions: if cold, fatuity and sottishness, 'Capivaccius. "■ " The colour of this mixture varies likewise according to the mixture, be it hot or cold, 'tis sometimes black, sometimes not, Altomarus. The same * Melanelius proves out of Galen: and Hippocrates in his book of Melancholy (if at least it be his), giving instance in a burning coal, "which when it is hot, shines; when it is cold, looks black, and so doth the humor." This diversity of Melancholy matter, produceth diversity of effects. If it be within the i body, and not puttified, it causeth black Jaundise ; if putrified, a Quartan Ague ; if it break out to the skin, Leprosie; if to parts, severall Maladies, as scurvie, &c. If it trouble the mind; as it is diversly mixt, it produceth several kinds of Madness and Dotage : of which in their place.
t Lib. I. conirovers. cap. 21. "Lib. 1. sect. 4. cap. 4. 'Concil. 26.
• Lib. 2. coturadic. cap. 11. 'De feb. tract. diff. 2 cap. 1. non est negandum exhac fieri Melancholicos. i In Syntax. 'Varie aduritur, & miscetur, unde variae amemium species Mel.'.nct. 'Humor frigidus delirii causa, furoris calidus, Ste. 'Lib. 1. cap. 10. de affect. cap. "Nigrescit hie humor,
aliqadou supercalefactus, aliquando super Irigefactus, ca. 1. * Humor hie
nr.'.er aliquando prscter modum ealefactus, 6c alias refrigeratus evadit: nam recentibus carbonibus ei quid simile accidit, qui durante flamma pellucidissime candent, ca extincta promts nigrescunt. Hippocrates. » Guianerius difT.
2. c'.p. '7.
WHEN the matter is divers and confused, how should it otherwise be, but that the species should be divers and confused? Many new and old writers have spoken confusedly of it, confounding Melancholy and Madness, as ' Heurnius, Guianerius, Gordonius, Salustius, Salvianus, Jason Pratensis, Savanarola, that will have Madness no other then Melancholy in extent, differing (as I have said) in degrees. Some make two distinct species, as Ruffus Ephesius an old writer, Constantinus Africanus, Aretaeus, * Aurelianus, b Paulus jEgineta: others acknowledge a multitude of kindes, and leave them indefinite, as jEtius in his Tetrabiblos, c Avicenna lib. 3. Fen. 1. Tract. 4. cap. 18. Arculanus cap. 16. in 9. Rasis. Montanus med. part. 1. "d If naturall Melancholy be adust, it maketh one kinde; if blood, another; if choler, a third, differing from the first; and so many severall opinions there are about the kindes, as there be men themselves." * Hercules de Saxonia sets down two kindes, "materiall and immateriall; one from spirits alone, the other from humors and spirits." Savanarola Rub. 11. Tract. 6. cap. 1. de agritad. capitis, will have the kindes to be infinite; one from the myrach, called myrachialis of trie Arabians; another stomachalis, from the stomack ; another from the liver, heart, wombe, hemrods: c" one beginning, another consummate." Melancthon seconds him, f " as the humor is diversly adust and mixt, so are the species divers:" but what these men speak of species, I think ought to be understood of symptomes, and so doth « Arculanus interpret himself: infinite species, id est, symptomes: and in that sense, as Jo. Gorrheus acknowledgeth in his medicinal definitions, the species are infinite, but they may be reduced to three kindes, by reason of their seat; Head, Body, and llypocondries. This threefold division is approved by Hippocrates in his book of Melancholy, (if it be his, which some suspect) by Galen lib. ;i. de foe. ajfectis, cap. 6. by Alexander lib. I. cap. 16. Rasis lib. 1,
'Non est Mania, nisi extensa melancholia. "Cap. 6. lib. 1. h2. Ser.2. cap. 9 Morbus hie est omnifarius. 'Species indefinite sunt. 6 Si aduralur natural's melancholia, alia fit species, si sanguis alia, si flavabilis alia, d:vcrsa a primis: maxima est inter has differentia, & otDoctorum sententix, quot ipsi numero sunt. * Tract. de mel. cap. 7. • Quxdam incipiens quaedam consumma'.a. 'Cap. de humor. lib. de anima. varie aduritur & mis
cctur ipsa melancholia, unde varis amentium spteies. t Cap. 10. in 9. Rasis.