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u Thomas, Albertus, and most hold that there be far more Angels than Devils.

Sublunaiy devils, and their kinds.] But be they more or less, Quod supra nos nihil ad nos. Howsoever as Martianus foolishly supposeth, jEtkerii Dtenwnes non curant res humanas, they care not for us, do not attend our actions, or looke for us, those astheriall spirits have other worlds to raigne in belike or business to follow. We are onely now to speak in brief of these sublunary Spirits or Devils: for the rest, our Divines determine that the Devil had no power over stars, or heavens; * Carminibus ccelo possunt deducere lunam, He. Those are poetical fictions, and that they can »sistere aquam fluviis, K vertere sydera retro, He. as Canadia in Horace, 'tis all false. "They are confined until the day of judgement to this sublunary world, and can work no farther then the four Elements, and as God permits them. Wherefore of these sublunary Devils, though others divide them otherwise according to their several places and offices, Psellus makes six kinds, fiery, aerial, terrestrial, watery, and subterranean Devils, besides those Fairies, Satyrs, Nymphs, &c.

Fiery spirits or devils are such as commonly work by blazing Stars, Firedrakes, or Ignes fatui; which lead men often in Jlumina,autpracipitia, saith Bodine, lib. 2.Theat. naturae fol.221. 2.uos inquit arcere si volunt viatores, clara voce Deum appellare atit pronam facie terram contingente adorare oportet, K hoc Amuletum majoribus nostris acceptum ferre debemus, He. likewise they counterfeit Suns and Moons, Stars oftentimes, and sit on Ship Masts; In navigiorum summitatibus visutitur; and are called Dioscuri, as Eusebius 1. contra Philosophos, c. 48. informeth us, out of the authority of Zenophanes; or little Clouds, ad motum nescio quevi volantes; which never appear, saith Cardan, but they signify some mischief or other to come unto men, though some again will have them to pretend good, and victory to that side they come towards in Sea fights, St. Elme's fires they comnionlv rall them, and they do likely appear after a Sea storme , Radzivilius the Polonian Duke cars this apparition,' Sancti Germani sydus; and saith moreover that he saw the same after in a Storme, as he was sayling, 1582, from Alexandria to Rhodes*. Our Stories are full of such Apparitions in all kinds. Some think they keep their residence in that Hecla, a mountain in Iseland, TEtna

• q. 36. art. 9. » Virg. 8. Eg. r Mn. 4. 'Austin: hoc ilixi, ne quis existimet habitarc ihi mala daemonia ubi Solem et Lunam et Sullas Dcusorliinavit, et alibi nemo arhitraretur Damonem coelis habitare rum An^elis suis unde lapsum credinius. Idem. Zanch. 1. 4. c. :i. ile Angel mulis. Kerenus in Gen. cap. 6. lib. 8. in vcr. 2. * Perigran. Hierusol.

in Sicely, I.ypeia, Vesuvius, &c. These Devils were worshiped heretofore by that superstitious Tlvpofjuzyiita.'", and the like.

Aerial Spirits or Devils, are such as keep quarter most part in the *aire, cause many tempests, thunder, and lightnings, tear Oakes, fire Steeples, Houses, strike men and beasts, make it raine stones, as in Livie's time, wool, Frogs, &c. Counterfeit Armies in the air, strange noyses, swords, &c. as at Vienna, before the coming of the Turks, and many times in Rome, as Scheretzius 1. de spect. c. 1. part. 1. Lavater de spect. part. 1. c. 17. Julius Obsequens, an old Roman, in his book of prodigies, ab urb. cond. 505. b Machiavel hath illustrated by many examples, and Josephus in his hook de bello Judaico, before the destruction of Jerusalem. All which Guil. Postelluss in his first book c. 7. de orbis concordia useth as an effectual argument (as indeed it is) to peiswade them that will not believe there be Spirits or Devils. They cause whiilewindes on a sudden, and tempestuous stormes; which though our Meteorologists generally refer to natural causes, yet I am of Codine's mind, Theat. Nat. 1. 2. they are more often caused by those aerial devils, in their several quarters; for Tempestatibus sc ingerunt, saith * Rich, Argentine; as when a desperate man makes away himself, which hy hanging or drowning they frequently do, as Kornmannus observes, de mirac. mort. part. 7. c. 76. tripudium agentes, dancing and rejoycing at the death of a sinner. These can corrupt the Aire, and cause plagues, sickness, stormes, shipwracks, fires, inundations. At Mons Draconis in Italy, there is a most memorable example in cJovianus Pontamis: and nothing so familiar (if we may believe those relations of Saxo Grammaticus, Olaus Magnus, Damianus A. Goes) as for Witehes and Sorcerers, in Lapland, Lituania, and all over Scandia, to sell windes to Marriners, and cause tempests, which Marcus Paulus the Venetian relates likewise of the Tartars. These kinde of Devils arc much d delighted in Sacrifices, (saith Porphiry) held all the world in awe, and had several names, Idols, Sacrifices, in Rome, Greece, .yEgypt, and at this day tyrannize over, and deceive those Ethnicks, and Indians, being adored and worshipped for c gods. For the Gentiles Gods were Devils (as * Trismegistus confesseth in his Asclepius) and he himself could make them come to their Images by Magick spels: and are now as much

• Domus Diruunt, muros dejiciunt, immiscent se turbinibus et procellis et pulverem instar columnae evehum. Cicogna 1. 5. c. 5. k truest. in Liv.

* De prxstigiis dxmonum. c. 16. Convelli culmina vidi mus, prosterni sata, &c. "De bello Neopolitano, lib. 5. 'Suffitibus gaudont. Idem Just. Mart. Apoi. pro Christianis. • In Dei imitationem, saith Euscbius. * Dii gentium Dxmonia, &c. e£o in eoium statuas pellexi.

"respected "repected by our Papists (saith r Pictorius) under the name of Saints." These are they which Cardan thinks desire so much carnal copulation with Witehes, (Incuhi and Succubi) transform bodies, and are so very cold, if they be touched; and that serve Magicians, His father had one of them (as he is not ashamed to relate *) an aerial devil bound to him for twenty and eight years. As Agrippa's dog had a devil tyed to his collar; some think that Paracelsus (or else Eiastus belies him) had one confined to his sword pummel; others wear them in Rings, &cc. Jannes and Jambres did many tilings of old by their help; Simon Magus, Cinops, Apollonius Tianeus, Jamblicus, and Tritemius of late, that shewed Maximilian the Emperor his wife, after she was dead; Et verrncam in colio ejus (saith hGodolman) so much as the wart in her neck. Delrio lib. 2. hath divers examples of their feats: Cicogna lib. 3. cap. 3. and Wierus in his book de prastig. diemonum. Boicssardus de magis Kvenejicis,

Water-devils are those Naiades or water Nymphs which have been heretofore conversant about waters and rivers. The water as (Paracelsus thinks) is their Chaos, wherein they live; some call them Fairies, and say that Habundia is their queen; these cause Inundations, many times shipwracks, and deceive men divers wayes, as Succuba, or otherwise, appearing most part (saith Tritemius) in women's shapes. 'Paracelsus hath several stories of them that have lived and been married to mortal men, and so continued for certain years with them, and after, upon some dislike, have forsaken them. Such a one as jEgeria, with whom Nutua was so familiar, Diana, Ceres, Sec. k Olaus Magnus hath a long narration of one Hotheius a King of Sweden, that having lost his company, as he was hunting one day, met with these water Nymphs or Fairies, and was feasted by them; and Hector Boethius, or Mackbeth, and Banco, two Scottish Lords, that as they were wandring in the Woods, had their Fortunes told them by three strange women. To these heretofore they did use to Sacrifice, by that vl^ofiavriia, or divination by waters.

Terrestrial devils, are those 1 Lares, Genii, Faunes, Satyrs, * Wood-nymphs, Foliots, Fairies, Robin Goodfellowes, Trulli, &cc. which as they are most conversant with men, so they do them most harme. Some think it was they alone that kept the Heathen people in awe of old, and had so many Idols and

'Et nunc subdivnrum nomine coluntur a Pontificiis. s Lib. 11. de rerum ver. * Lib. 3. cap. 3. de magis & veneficis, &c. Nereides. ■ Lib. de Zilphis. 1 Lib. 3. t Pro salute hominum excubarc se simulant, sed in corum pernitiem omnia moliuntur Ausi. * Dryades, Oriades, Hamadry, attes.

Temples Temples erected to them. Of this range was Dagon amongst the Philistines, Bell amongst the Babylonians, Astartes amongst the Sydonians, Baal amongst the Samaritans, Isis and Osyris amongst the Egyptians, &c. some put our * Fairies into this rank, which have been in former times adored with much superstition, with sweeping their houses, and setting of a pail of cleane water, good victuals, and the like, and then they should not be pinched, but finde money in their shooes, and be fortunate in their enterprizes. These are they that dance on Heathes and Greens, as m Lavater thinks with Tritemius, and as "Olaus Magnus addes, leave that green circle, which we commonly finde in plain fields, which others hold to proceed from a Meteor falling, or some accidental rankness of the ground, so Nature sports her self; they are sometimes seen by old women and children. Hierom. Pauli. in his description of the City of Bercino in Spain, relates how they have been familiarly seen near that town, about fountaines and hils; Nonnunquam (saith Tritemius) in sua latibula montium simpliciores homines ducant, stupenda mirantibus ostentes miracula, nolarum sonitus, spectacula, Hc. Giraldus Cambrensis gives instance in a Monk of Wales that was so deluded. ° Paracelsus reckons up many places in Germany, where they do usually walk in little coates some two foot long. A bigger kinde there is of them, called with us Hobgoblins, and Robin Goodfellows, that would in those superstitious times grinde come for a mess of milk, cut wood, or do any maner of drudgery work. They would mend old Irons in those jEolian lies of Lypara, in former ages, and have been often seen and heard. rTholosanus cals them Trullos and Getulos, and saith, that in his dayes they were common in many places of France. Dithmarus Bleskenius in his description of Iseland, reports for a certainty, that almost in every family they have yet some such familiar spirits; and Fcelix Malleolus in his book de crude I. dainon. aflirmes as much, that these Trolli, or Telchines, are very common in Norwey, "and iseen to do drudgery work;" to draw water, saith Wierus lib. 1. cap. 22. dress meat, or any such thing. Another sort of these there are, which frequent forlorn 'houses, which the Italians call Foliots, most part innoxious, * Cardan holds; "They will make strange

* Elvas Olaus voc. at lib. 3. m Part 1. cap. 19. 'Lib. 3. cap. 11. EIvaium choreas Olaus lib. 3. vocat saltum adeo profunde in terras imprimunt, ut locus insigni deinctps virore orbicularis sit, et gramen non percat. ° Lib.de Zilph. et Pigmaeis Olaus lib. 3. 'Lib. 7. cap. 14. qui et in famulitio viris et faeminis inscrviunt, conclavia scopis purgant, patinas mundant, ligna portant, equos curant, See. 'Ad ministeria utuntur. 'Where treasure is hid (as some thinfcc) or some murder, or such like villany committed. * Lib. 16. de rerum \anctat.

noyses noyses in the night, howle some times pittifully, and then laegh again, cause great flame and sudden lights, fling stones, rattle chaines, shave men, open doores, and shut them, fling down platters, stooles, chests, sometime appear in the likeness of Hares, Crowes, black Dogs, &c." of which reade "Pet. Thyraeus the Jesuite in his Tract, de locis inj'estis, part. I. X cap. 4. who will have them to be Devils, or the souls of damned men that seek revenge, or else souls out of Purgatory that seek ease; for such examples peruse 'Sigismundus Scheretzius lib. de spectris, part 1. c. 1. which he saith he took out of Luther most part; there be many instances. ° Plinius secundus remembers such a house at Athens, which Athenodorus the Philosopher hired, which no man durst inhabit for fear of Devils. Austin de Civ. Dei. lib. 22. cap. 1. relates as much of Hesperius the Tribune's house, at Zubeda near their City of Hippos, vexed with evil spirits, to his great hinderance, Cum affiictione anivialium H servorum suorum. Many such instances are to be read in Niderius Formicar. lib. 5. cap. 12. 3. He. Whether I may call these Zim and Ophim, which Isay cap. 13. 21. speakes of, I make a doubt. See more of these in the said Scheretz. lib. 1. de sped. cap. 4. he is full of examples. These kinde of Devils many times appear to men, and affright them out of their wits, sometimes walking at *noone day, sometimes at nights, counterfeiting dead men's Ghosts, as that of Caligula, which (saith Suetonius) was seen to walk in Lavinia's garden, where his body was buried, spirits haunted, and the house where he dyed, y Nulla nox sine terrore transacta, donee incendio consumpta; every night this happened, there was no quietness, til the house was burned. About Hecla in Iseland Ghosts commonly walk, animas mortuorum simulantes, saith J oh. Anan. lib. 3. de nat. diem. Olaus. lib. 2. cap. 2. Natal. Tallopid. lib. de apparit. spir. Kommannus de viirac. mort. part l. cap. 44. such sights are frequently seen circa Sepulehra Monasteries, saith Lavat. lib. I. cap. 19. in Monasteries and about Church-yards, loca paludinosa, ampla ledificia, soliiaria, 5C ciede hominum notata, Kc. Thyreus adds, ubi gravius peccatum est coinmissum, impii, pauperum oppressores Sf nequiter insignes habitant. These spirits often foretell men's deaths, by several signes, as knocking, groanings, ike. * though Rich. Argen

"Vel spiritus sunt hujusmodi damnatorum, vel e purgatorio, vel ipsi dxiiiones, c. 4. 'Quidam lemures domesuris instruments noctu ludunt: patinas, ollas, can:haras, et alia vasa dejiciunt, et quidam voces tmittunt, eju- \ lant, risum emittum, &c. ut canes nign, leles, varhs lormis, Sec. "Epist. lib. 7, » Mer;dioiiales Dxmunes Cicogna cats them or Alastores 1.3. cap. 9. i Sueton. c. 69. in Caligula. * Strozius Cicogna lib. :i. img cap. 5.

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