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case of the book, no one thinks of identifying the reader's mind with the texture of the paper, or with the chemical composition of the ink. Why then should it be imagined that any step is made towards materialism by supposing that an invisible book exists in the sensorium, by the interpretation of which we are enabled to perceive external objects; and by a reference to which we recover, as in a tablet, the knowledge which has happened to escape from the memory ?
f any of my readers be desirous to know what effect this innovation, in metaphysical language, had upon the theories of philosophers, he may consult a curious and now rare pamphlet, published in London in the year 1744, by J. and P. Knapton. It is entitled, “A Defence of the late Dr. Samuel Clarke, against the Reply of Sieur Lewis Philip Thummig, in favour of Mr. Leibnitz. With that reply in French and English. To which is added an original letter from Mr. Leibnitz." This pamphlet, which is plainly the work of a well-informed, but not very profound writer, I have heard ascribed with some confidence to Dr. Gregory Sharpe, Master of the Temple. It is chiefly valuable as a specimen of the vague and fanciful metaphysical speculations which were current in England at the time of its publication. The reply in favour of Leibnitz, which gave occasion to this pamphlet, is supposed to be the work of one of his most illustrious disciples, Baron Wolf, who on this occasion assumed the fictitious name of Thummig.]*
Note T, p. 428.- Memory. ( 8.) 'Though Isaac's memory was much decayed in the last years of his life, I found he perfectly understood his own writings, contrary to what I had frequently heard in discourse from many persons. This opinion of theirs might arise, perhaps, from his not being always ready at speaking on these subjects, when it might be expected he should. But as to this it may be observed, that great geniuses are frequently liable to be absent, not only in relation to common life, but with regard to some of the parts of science they are the best informed of. Inventors seem to treasure up in their minds what they have found out, after another manner than those do the same things who have not this inventive faculty. The former, when they have occasion to produce their knowledge, are in some measure obliged immediately to investigate part of what they want. For this they are not equally fit at all times; so it has often happened, that such as retain things chiefly by a very strong memory, have appeared off-hand more expert than the discoverers themselves.”—Preface to Pemberton's View of Newton's Philosophy.
[A remarkable illustration of this occurs in a letter from Sir Isaac himself to Mr. Oldenburg, (dated in 1676,) in which he explains the train of reasoning by which he was led to the binomial theorem. Considering the importance of the discovery, and the very early period of life at which it was made, it might have been expected that every circumstance connected with it would have made an indelille impression on his memory ; yet we find, from his own words, that the fact was otherwise. “This was the way, then, in which I first entered on these speculations, which I should not have remembered, but that in turning over my papers a few weeks since, I chanced to cast my eyes on those relating to this matter."]
* But L. P. Thummig was a real man and a veritable author.- Ed.
Note U, p. 463.- Imagination. (5.) Going over the theory of virtue in one's thoughts, talking well, and drawing fine pictures of it; this is so far from necessarily or certainly conducing to form a habit of it in him who thus employs himself, that it may barden the mind in a contrary course, and render it gradually more insensible ; i.e., form a habit of insensibility to all moral obligations. For from our very faculty of habits, passive impressions, by being repeated, grow weaker. Thoughts, by often passing through the mind, are felt less sensibly: being accustomed to danger, begets intrepidity, i.e., lessens fear; to distress, lessens the passion of pity; to instances of others' mortality, lessens the sensible apprehension of onr own. And from these two observations together, that practical habits are formed and strengthened by repeated acts; and that passive impressions grow weaker by being repeated upon us ; it must follow, that active habits may be gradually forming and strengthening by a course of acting upon such and such motives and excitements, whilst these motives and excitements themselves are, by proportionable degrees, growing less sensible, i.e., are continually less and less sensibly felt, even as the active habits strengthen. And experience confirms this; for active principles, at the very time they are less lively in perception than they were, are found to be somehow wrought more thoroughly into the temper and character, and become more effectual in influencing our practice. The three things just mentioned may afford instances of it. Perception of danger is a natural excitement of passive fear and active caution; and by being inured to danger, habits of the latter are gradually wrought at the same time that the former gradually lessens. Perception of distress in others, is a natural excitement passively to pity, and actively to relieve it; but let a man set himself to attend to, inquire out, and relieve distressed persons, and he cannot but grow less and less sensibly affected with the various miseries of life with which he must become acquainted; when yet, at the same time, benevolence, considered not as a passion, but as a practical principle of action, will strengthen; and whilst he passively compassionates the distressed less, he will acquire a greater aptitude actively to assist and befriend them. So also, at the same time that the daily instances of men's dying around us, give us daily a less sensible passive feeling or apprehension of our own mortality, such instances greatly contribute to the strengthening a practical regard to it in serious men; i.e., to forming a habit of acting with a constant view to it."-Butler's Analogy, p. 122, 3d edit.
P. 293, to the end of the second paragraph-—" one and the same."*
* The following annotation, in Mr. Stewart's hanıl-writing, was found in the third edition (1808) of the first volume of the Elements, extant among his books in the Library of the United Service Club, London. With other annotations, it was politely extracted by Mr. B. K. Wheatley.-Ed.
[The foregoing account of the state of the mind in sleep, agrees exactly with the following description of Virgil, Eneidl, xii. 908.)
Ac velut in somnis oculos ubi languida pressit
Dryden's Translation :-
P. 496, to the end of Note 1.*
* I ought not to omit a reference to Mr. Stewart's correction of this note in the Dissertation, (Works, vol. i. p. 583,) where he says:—“ By a strange slip of memory, I ascribed the merit of this very judicious qualification, not to Addison, bnt to Dr. Akenside, who transcribed it from the Spectator."--Ed.
P. 497. ). 22.-" Appartenir.”
* The substance of this passage, (which appears to be from some article in the Encycopédie, not contained in the Mélanges,) is to be found in sect. vi. of the Elémens de Philosophie, entitled Métaphysique; (Mélanges, tome iv. pp. 60, 61); but it is not there articulately given. A partial translation by Mr. Stewart occurs in the Dissertation, p. 129.-Ed.
EDISBURGI: T. CONSTABLE, P'RISTER TO HER MAJESTY.
In handsome 8vo, with Portraits, &c., price 12s. per Volume,
COMPLETE EDITION OF THE WORKS
DUGALD STEWART, ESQ.,
COMPRISING, AMONG OTHER LARGE ADDITIONS, A CONCLUDING CHAPTER OF HIS DISSERTATION, LECTURES ON
POLITICAL ECONOMY, &c. &c.
WITH A BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF THE AUTHOR
BY SIR WILLIAM HAMILTON, BART.
AFTER the death of Reid, DUGALD STEWART was the head of what has been denominated “ The Scottish School of Philosophy;" long before his death he was, indeed, universally acknowledged as the most distinguished living philosopher of Great Britain, and likewise as one of the best writers in the language. His published works are considerable, both in number and extent, and are also conversant with the most important parts of Philosophy,-historical, speculative, and practical. Of these works, the earlier have been frequently reprinted; but from circumstances, merely private, and which it is unnecessary to specify, new editions of his later writings have been withheld, and a collection of the whole, which ought long ago to have appeared, has only now become possible.
This Collection, which it is proposed forthwith to publish, will appear in handsome 8vo, and may extend to nine, perhaps to ten, volumes. It will not be merely a uniform re-impression of the former Publications. These it will of course comprise,—following the most authentic Edition, with the Author's Manuscript Corrections, and his frequent and important Additions ;- but in the extensive literary re