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courage. Mar attacked the centre and left wing of the royal army and routed them, while Argyle, at the head of the right wing, was victorious. Both parties claimed the victory, and Mar was actually left master of the field. That action, however, was in the end similar to a defeat of the insurgents. Their ammunition was consumed, their provisions exhausted, their hopes of plunder disappointed, and, under this last misfortune, the men began to desert to their own homes one by one. Thus, Mar was constrained to march his force back to Perth, instead of advancing on Stirling; and scarcely had he reached the former place, when he heard of the defeat of his friends in the south. The success of Lovat had also reached the town, and tended to augment the calamities of his plight. Mar endured all these misfortunes with singular vigour of mind; but without money, military stores, or provisions, there was nothing to be effected.
Convinced that Argyle, who was in want of nothing, and again reinforced, would pursue his advantage, he resolved to abandon Perth, and accordingly, when the former was only eight miles from him, marched off to Dundee. But the measure of success obtained by Argyle, was far from equal to the expectations of the Government in London; his military skill was criticised, and even his loyalty aspersed; so that when Lieutenant-colonel Cadogan arrived with reinforcements, he found the instructions of the latter so full, that, offended at the conduct of the Ministers, he hastened up to London to remonstrate upon the treatment he had received. What little remained to be executed was, in the meantime, easily done by Cadogan ; for after pursuing Mar to Aberdeen, where the rebels dispersed as soon as the flight of the Pretender and the lords in his confidence, to France took place, he soon reduced the stubborn clans, and established the authority of Government throughout the country. Ere this end had been attained, Argyle reached London, and with the boldness of innocence, met every doubt and challenged every investigation. But his indignation was unavailing, for without the specification of a single cause, both he and his brother, the Earl of Ilay, were, to the surprise of the country, dismissed from all their employments. - This state of neglect endured until about the year 1719, when the connection which he always continued to preserve with Lord Townshend and his political adherents, facilitated a return to power; and he as well as the Earl of Ilay, again engrossed various posts of honour and profit. The theatre of his greatest employment was in his native land, where the principal direction of affairs was entrusted to his care; and though the apprehension of some disturbances in consequence of the Pretender's influence, was made a reason for subjecting the people to the inconveniences which must always attend upon the maintenance of a large military force, still many acts were completed highly serviceable to the interests of the country. Great efforts were made to conciliate the opposite party; the improvement of the Highlands was sensibly attended to, and much benefit was felt from the passable roads, which were now for the first time opened to the commercial intercourse of the country. This confidential employment in various capacities, continued during many years, and Argyle was created Duke of Greenwich, as a token of the approbation with which his exertions were estimated. But he was above the deep chicanery by which the great political leaders of that day upheld their interests ;- and though associated with them, was less joined to them by cordiality, than held by them out of fear. His spirit and integrity were known and respected, but he was preferred by the Ministers, less as a friend to their views, than a man too influential to be spared from their support. The consequence of this independent connection was, that as he followed the direction of an honest judgment upon many questions, so he was often necessarily out of favour.
A character thus sincerely occupied in the administration of a Government, must always command a considerable share of public regard, and Argyle secured to himself a very high reputation with his countrymen. To his inflexible adherence to the course he deemed right, and a becoming resolution never to consider his principles swayed by a place, or pledged to the party that maintained him in his post, he was again doomed to attribute the loss of political influence. For, not only unable to abet the measures which the Government enforced about the year 1740, but impelled in reason to resist them, he was once more suddenly dismissed from all the offices he held. A change of Ministry, however, soon after took place, and a restoration to all his former rank was tendered to him. But disgusted with the mercenary
intrigues which marked the courts of George I. and II., he abandoned the exertions of office, and finally retired from politics to the quiet of domestic life. In that state, respected as a skilful statesman, an eloquent speaker, and an honest man ; while in his private circle he was fondly regarded as an affectionate husband, a kind father, and a considerate friend, he lived on happily, until an attack of paralysis put a period to his existence in the year 1743. He was twice married : his first wife was the exquisite beauty, daughter of Lord Ballenden, who was so amorously persecuted by George the Second, and is honourably celebrated for the spirited aversion with which she baffled the uncouth lover. Argyle left behind him five daughters, so that his Scotch titles were inherited by his brother, while those of English origin were extinguished with his life.
SAMUEL ARNOLD, Mus. Doc.
SAMUEL Arnold, Musical Doctor, was born in London, during the year 1739, and received his musical education, first under Mr. Gates, and then under Dr. Nares, as a chorister at the Chapel Royal of St. James. His introduction to a place on that foundation, he is said to have had the honour of owing to the Princess Amelia, who noticed with interest the promise of talents which he displayed while a boy. Thus fortunately provided, his attention to study was so assiduous, and his progress in the art so favourable, that he secured a feeling of strong regard from his first master, Gates, who at his death bequeathed the successful pupil a legacy. Dr. Nares next became his instructor, and it may suffice to state, that before he attained the age of manhood, young Arnold, according to the flattering assurance of his biographer, was esteemed an ornament to his profession.
But it was not until about the year 1760, that he was properly known to the public, when Beard the singer and manager made him composer to that theatre in Covent Garden. Beard is described as a natural singer, with a manly voice, and of a simple execution; and Arnold naturally adapted the style of his compositions to the character of his employer. This merit was fully established in his first productions, the chief beauties of which are marked in the music to the Maid of the Mill, an opera which met with considerable applause at the period of its first appearance, and is still occasionally repeated to attentive houses. The success of his efforts in strains of this description emboldened him to attempt chords of a higher order, and in 1767, he occupied himself with the Cure of Saul, an oratorio by the unhappy Dr. Brown, author of Barbarossa. This work he enjoyed the satisfaction of seeing received with ready popularity; but, perhaps, the use he made of it was even more praiseworthy
than its very production. The Society for the Benefit of Decayed Musicians was, at that time, not only impoverished in its funds, but also indifferently patronized at its annual concerts. Arnold presented the copyright of the Cure of Saul to the Institution ; its merits drew a numerous audience, and contributed in a striking degree to the re-establishment of an admirable charity. The prosperity of this production naturally led to other attempts of the same kind; and accordingly the oratorios of Abimelech, the Resurrection, and the Prodigal Son, which ranks as the masterpiece of its author, were issued before the musical public in fertile succession. With this stock he rented the right of giving sacred concerts at the Little Theatre in the Haymarket for some Lents successively, and found his talents respectably rewarded in the undertaking. He next embarked in the management of the same entertainments at Covent Garden, but was unfortunately disappointed in the advantages of the speculation. The rival establishment in Drury Lane was at that time powerfully supported by a more direct patronage from Court, and a consequent resort of fashion; no talent could withstand such competition; this second adventure failed, and Arnold was a considerable loser.
A little before this adventure, he published, in score, four sets of songs, composed for Vauxhall, of which many are still remembered for the ease with which they flowed, and the judicious conbination effected in the instrumental symphonies. Arnold married in 1771; his wife, a lady of fortune, was the daughter of Archibald Napier, Doctor in Physic; and during the same year he became the purchaser of the Marybone Gardens. To add to the gaiety for which the spot was then su fashionably known, he erected a scenic stage, and composed for it several burlettas, -which happily evinced the versatility of his powers, and gained an ample meed of favour. In these short but interesting pieces, many performers of particular note made their appearance, among whom may be particularised Miss Harper, afterwards Mrs. Bannister, Miss Catley, Reinhold, and Charles Bannister. Another novelty of his introduction at the same place, wás a Signor Torré and his fireworks; and the curious in such exhibitions, have asserted that the ingenuity and splendour manifested in his displays, more especially in an ignition styled the Cave of Vulcan,