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to abstain from the current terminology on this subject. We are of the opinion, that the so-called four temperaments designate the four fundamental peculiarities in the nature of man, as composed of soul and body. We think the idea which Heinroth' has given of them in his Anthropology, to be a most excellent one. The representation of Heinroth, which exhibits in so able a manner, the connection between the temperaments and the various national characters, religious dispositions, and studies in the arts, convinces the mind at once, that the old fourfold division of these temperaments has not been made arbitrarily. We presuppose in our present remarks an acquaintance with the section, that is now referred to, in Heinroth's Anthropology.2
"We see in Paul," says Hug, "a temperament entirely choleric." In this decision we acquiesce only half-way. We think that the peculiarities of the melancholic temperament are found in the apostle in an equal degree with those of the choleric. The melan- Į cholic temperament is everywhere characterized by this, that instead of dissipating the mind through the world that is without, it brings the mind back to the inner world, to the depths of its own bosom. On this account, there is connected with it, if not a gloomy yet a prevailing serious view of things. Not dissipated by the variety of objects in the world, the mind directs itself to the essential interests of human life, and therefore a habit of speculation, ordinarily in the form of theosophy, and also a religious feeling, are in general found to be intimately connected with this temperament. The choleric disposition directs the mind especially to the world without; not as the sanguine for the purpose of receiving, but for the purpose of communicating; not of enjoying the world and mankind, but of operating upon them and of governing them. The melancholic temperament, operating without a mixture of the others, has produced those men, who, in their eminent degree of love to God, have occupied the solitary cell, and there consumed themselves with sorrow and fervid passion in the capacity of religious mystics. The choleric temperament has produced those heroes in the history of
1 See Note L, at the close of this Treatise.
As early a writer as Albert Durer, described the apostles according to their temperaments. Paul is described as melancholic, John as sanguine, etc. A treatise on the temperaments of the writers of the New Testament by Gregory is found in the Thesaurus novus, Vol. II. Amsterdam.
the world, who, on the broad theatre of the same, have ruled and transformed nations and ages. From the union of the one with the other have proceeded religious reformers. The religious reformer must have looked deeply into his own heart. He must understand what is an inward life. He must also in an equal degree desire to procure currency among his brethren, for that which he had experienced to be truth within his own soul.
The characters of those men who have been reformers in the church, bear a strong resemblance to each other. In every one of them there was the united operation of both these temperaments. Let Paul, Augustine, and Luther be compared together.1 We here include, of course, under the term reformers, not barely such men as, while they were alive, have made their influence visible in great circles, but also the men whose spiritual preeminence has continued even for centuries after they were removed from the theatre of action.
The decided religious tendency of the apostle, conjoined with that energy of execution, which is peculiar to the choleric temperament, we first discern in the fact, that he attached himself to that religious party among his people, which was considered the most decided, and was the most rigorous. He himself appealed to this circumstance, in his defence before Agrippa.2 He there says that he had
It is worthy of remark, that while in other instances the corporeal forin, as the shadow of the spirit, bears a resemblance to the mental charac ter, those strong-minded men who have altered the world's history, have fully as often been diminutive as athletic in their outward structure. Notwithstanding all the internal resemblance between Luther and Paul, they must in their external appearance have been altogether dissimilar. They were dissimilar not barely in respect to the whole figure, which in the case of Paul was diminutive, 2 Cor. 10: 10, but also in respect to their utterance, as we may learn from the verse just cited, and in respect to physiognomy, if we may trust the description which is given of Paul in the dialogue of Philopatris, in the time of Julian. This speaks of him as " the Galilean with the bald head and the aquiline nose." Even the antiquated Vassari, in his memoir of Brunelleschi, the man who constructed the celebrated arch in the cupola at Florence, an architect gigantic in his works, though not in his form, makes the interesting remark, Many are created with small stature and diminutive features, who have such greatness of mind, and such inconceivable, idomitable energy of heart, that they will never give themselves rest, unless they commence undertakings, which are difficult and almost impossible, and finish them, to the wonder of all who behold.'
2 Acts 26: 5.
attached himself to the most exact sect; and after he had chosen this as his party, he surpassed in zeal most of his contemporaries. When the religion of his fathers was brought into peril by the Christians, he devoted himself to the service of the high council, for the purpose of crushing the new sect. At first he persecuted them at Jerusalem, yea he compelled them to utter blasphemies against the crucified Messiah. As he had not done enough at the capital to gratify his rage, he hastened to Damascus.1
The contradiction which appears in this respect between the apostle's zeal and the tranquil character of his teacher Gamaliel, may surprise us. Men, however, who have a character like that of Paul, are also independent. If in Gamaliel, whom we may more properly compare with Erasmus, we could suppose that there existed the delicate introverted mind of Staupitz (Luther's instructor,) then we should see in the relation of our German reformer to this his teacher, a representative of Paul and his teacher. The general current of Luther's life presents very many points of comparison with Paul. As long as he was in the way of the law, he exhibited the same earnestness of conflict, as we see described in the seventh of Romans; afterwards he exhibited the same bold freedom which appears in Paul.
If we wish to determine what are the principal characteristics of the converted apostle, as they are exhibited in his writings and speeches, our examination will especially exhibit the following. With deep penetration, as it may be expected of one accustomed to an inward life, he seized hold of those religious truths, which had been communicated to him by the Revelation of the Lord. No one can fail to observe the rich speculative contents of his Epistles, and the great difference which appears in this respect, between him on the one hand, and Peter and James on the other. John indeed touches upon subjects like those of Paul, for John also is speculative.2 While, however, with John all religious knowledge goes into the form of a few antitheses, relating indeed to the infinite, such antitheses as light and darkness, life and death, love and hatred, the children of God and the children of the devil, remaining in Christ and living without him; the view of Paul embraces in its full con
1 Acts. 26: 10-12.
'[Speculative; interested in meditating on things above the sphere of sense; accustomed to investigate spiritual subjects.-TR.]
nection the eternal decree of God, which has been kept secret from the foundation of the earth; which was signified by the prophets, which in Christ Jesus was manifested in the world, and which, since it has been exhibited to mankind, has made known even to the spirits in heaven, the manifold wisdom of God.1
That venerable German metaphysician, who in his retirement prepared, a number of years ago, a christian philosophy, and gave to this new form of his system the name of the "historical philosophy," had then in view, as we may say, for his precursor and exemplar, the apostle to the Gentiles. In Paul's model-system of doctrine there is laid down a philosophy of the history of the world. He everywhere proceeds on the ground of the eternal plan of God, in which Christ is the central-point, and at the same time the key to the mysteries of the past and the future. "Before the foundation of the world was laid, we were chosen in Christ." Before the fall of Adam therefore Christ was constituted the Tilos of the history of man; the prae of time expresses also a prae of relation. At the definite period which had been determined by God, "in the fulness of time," this being on whom the history of the world revolves was introduced among men.3 And in some passages, Paul, looking forward and backward, gives the destination of both heathenism and Judaism in reference to this turning point of history. In the eleventh of Romans he lifts the veil, which conceals the future progress of the race in this life, and lets the consideration of the whole temporal development of the great divisions of this race, as this development relates to the kingdom of God, terminate in the expression, "Of him and through him and to him are all things."5 In the 15th chapter of 1 Corinthians, however, the view of Paul is raised above the future periods of the present life, into a futurity still more remote, beyond the boundaries of time; and he concludes this view in the twenty eighth verse, with the sentence, " So shall God be all in all."
As it is only this apostle who makes use of the expression, condensing into three words time and eternity, "Of him, and to him, and through him (siç avrov, into him) are all things," so it is only
1 Rom. 6: 25, 26. Ephes, 1: 9-12. 3:8-11.
3 Gal. 4: 4. 1 Tim. 2: 6. Titus 1: 3.
4 Acts 17: 26, 27. Rom. i. Gal. 3: 24. Rom. vii.
9 Eph. 1: 4.
5 Rom. 11: 36.
"Thou, with whom all good things end and begin," is an expression of Dante, addressed to Jehovah, in imitation of the above quoted passage of
this apostle, before whose eye, as he glances at the central point of the world's development, there is always spread out the beginning and the end of this development.
The mode of considering a subject, adopted by Paul, differs moreover from the mode adopted by John in the following respect. All antitheses, as generally all single topics, whose limits run into one another as John looks upon them, appear to Paul definitely separated from one another. As the form of his discourses, so likewise his train of thought moves on dialectically. Paul therefore has been at all times the favorite author of the thinking, as John has been of the feeling Christian. Further, the prominent quality in the writings of Paul is ardor and power. As was said of Luther's style, so it may be said of Paul's, it is a continual battle (Schlacht). written from imprisonment, when he bore the chains upon his hands, in what a glowing style does every word speak forth his longing,
In the letters which were
the apostle. Out of Paul's writings there is only one expression, which accords with this passage. That is found in Heb. 2: 10. But this epistle has, in other respects, the character of a work belonging to a disciple of Paul. Moreover, the diou in that passage deviates from the style of Paul. The remarkable sis autóv, from which originated Augustine's immortal expression, "Thou, God, hast made us for thee, therefore our heart is not at rest, until it rest in thee," is also found in Acts 17: 26, 27.
[Tholuck means, probably, that the idea which he would attach to the phrase sis autov, is also expressed in this passage from Acts; and particularly in the words, "that they should seek the Lord," tend to him, and "find him," come near him, so that they may spiritually live and move and have their being in him. The idea of a general union with God is a favorite one with Tholuck.-TR.]
The first judgment, that is known to us, concerning the character of the style of Paul, was contained in the lost work of Irenaeus, "On the Pauline Inversions," where with entire correctness he pronounced the ground of them to be, "the rapidity of his speech and the vehemence of his spirit;" Adv. Haer. 3. 7. The ancient heathens, in their judgment upon a work of art, scarcely ever took notice of the subjective sentiment and cast of mind, under the influence of which the work was produced. They abstained from this, in order that the work may have more the appearance of a gift from the divine power. But christian authors have very early pronounced their opinion on the internal peculiarities of the sacred penmen. In this fact then may be found an objection, unknown to many of them, against the mode of representing inspiration as something purely passive. (See Lardner's Works, II. 176, 495, 573, 4. IV. 479, 480. VII. 429-437.)