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After the Psalm, the Gospel was read, and the bishop preached*. Then the catechumens were dismissed', and the oblations of the faithful were received'°. Cyprian and Augustine speak of the beginning of the preface, Sursum corda, * Lift up your hearts *;* to which the latter adds the form, “ Gratias agamus Domino Deo nostro°;" and both speak of the thanksgiving or preface, which is also referred to by Tertullian*. The singing of the hymn Tersanctus is alluded to by Tertullian". All these things perfectly agree with the ancient Roman liturgy. Optatus speaks of a verbal oblation made for the church, which very nearly agrees with that of the Romam church'. Tertullian says that they sacrificed or offered for the emperor', which is also consistent with the Roman liturgy. Cyprian speaks of the commemoration of the living'. Augustine seems to refer to prayers and an oblation before consecration "; and Optatus and Fulgentius speak of an invocation of the Holy Spirit to perform the sanctification of the elements". This is almost the only point in which any material difference can be pointed out between the Roman and the African liturgies. The former never contained such an invocation. But the African church may very well have introduced this form in imitation of the oriental liturgies, in which it had been extant from a most remote period. I have not found any distinct allusion to the words of our Saviour". The verbal commemoration of Christ's passion and death is spoken of by Cyprian and Fulgentius’. The commemoration of the departed saints is mentioned by Augustine, Cyprian, and Tertullian "; as is also the termination “in saecula sæculorum,” and the response of the people, Amen, by Tertullian”. We also read, in Augustine, of the breaking of the bread or body for distribution", and of a benediction of the people, to which the canons of the African church refer, as “an imposition of hands";” and Optatus alludes to the absolution of penitents sometimes given at this time". The Lord's Prayer then followed, and is spoken of by Augustine, Optatus, and Cyprian". The salutation of peace, “Pax vobis,” and the holy kiss, are alluded to by Augustine, Optatus, and Tertullian". Augustine speaks of the anthem sung during communion', and of the thanksgiving, “post communionem *.” This is perhaps almost all we can know about the African liturgy, and, as far as it goes, it agrees perfectly with the ancient Roman, except in the single instance of the invocation of the Holy Spirit, which was probably introduced from the east, or from Gaul and Spain. Some passages from the African Fathers have been cited, which may be imagined to refer to a liturgy different from the Roman. Thus, for instance, Tertullian and other Fathers speak of prayers for the emperor and his court", &c.; Augustine, of prayers for infidels, catechumens', &c. which do not appear in the ancient Roman canon. But in fact we have no proof that these prayers were used in the African canon; they may have occupied the place of the Roman collect before the lessons; and even if they did occur in the canon, it would not have constituted any material difference between the Roman and African rites, for we often find that such small additions were made in ancient liturgies, the main substance and order still remaining identical'. I am altogether satisfied that the African liturgy agreed in very many points with the primitive Roman, and that no material difference can be shewn between them. If this were the proper place for doing so, and if I did not fear to enlarge this dissertation too much, it would be easy to trace this conformity of the Roman and African rites through the offices of Baptism, Matrimony, &c. and to bring a large body of
* This is manifest from al-
c. 13, p. 839, tom. x.
Parmen. lib. ii. p. 45. Paris, 1679. Compare Gregor. Sacr. a Menard. p. 2. s “ Itaque et sacrificamus pro salute imperatoris sed Deo nostro et ipsius: sed quomodo præcepit Deus, prece pura.” Tertull. ad Scapulam, p. 69, c. 2. Compare Greg. Sacr. p. 2. t ** Ad communionem admittuntur, et offertur nomen eorum.” Cypr. Epist. xvi. p. 37. et Epist. lxii. p. 147. Compare Greg. Sacr. Menard. p. 2. Martene, de Antiq. Eccl. Rit. lib.i. c. 4, art. 8, p. 400, &c. " Speaking of the words of the apostle, 1 Tim. ii. 1. “ Eligo in his verbis hoc intelligere quod omnis vel fere omnis frequentatEcclesia, ut precationes (obsecrationes) accipiamus dictas, quas facimus in celebratione Sacramentorum, antequam illud, quod est in Domini mensa, incipiat benedici; orationes cum benedicitur et sanctificatur, et ad distribuendum comminuitur, quam totam petitionem fere omnis Ecclesia Dominica oratione concludit.” —This he explains from the scriptural use of the word
τροσευχή ; proceeding thus— “ si usitatius, ut dixi, in Scripturis votum appellatur εὐχ), excepto nomine generali orationis, ea proprie intelligenda oratio quam facimus ad votum, id est Tpòc εὐχήν. Voventur autem omnia quæ offeruntur Deo, maxime sancti altaris oblatio— ideo in hujus sanctificationis præparatione eæistimo Apostolum jussisse proprie fieri προσευχὰς, id est, orationes,— hoc est enim ad votum quod usitatius in Scripturis nuncupatur εὐχή.'' Aug. Epist. cxlix. p. 509, tom. ii. Compare Greg. Sacr. Menard. p. 2. “ “ Quid est enim tam sacrilegum, quam altaria Dei (in quibus et vos aliquando obtulistis) frangere, radere, removere ? In quibus vota populi et membra Christi portata sunt: quo Deus omnipotens invocatus sit, quo postulatus descendit Spiritus Sanctus," &c. Optat. cont. Parmen. lib. vi. p. 111. See also Fulgent. lib. ii. qu. 2, ad Monimum, and contra Fabian. Excerpta a Sirmondo, p. 36. 39.
" The tract De Coena Dom. which alludes to them, and is ascribed to Cyprian, is spurious; as is “Sermo 28. de Verbis Domini,” 84 in Appendix of Augustine's works, tom. 5.
* “Passionis ejus mentionem in sacrificiis omnibus facimus —quotiescunque ergo calicem in commemorationem Domini et passionis offerimus,” &c. Cypr. Ep. lxiii. ad Caecil. p. 156. “Cum tempore sacrificii commemorationem mortis ejus faciamus.” Fulgent. cont. Fabian. Excerpta a Sirmond. p. 36.
9 Aug. de Sanct. Virginitat. c. 45; de Civ. Dei, lib. xxi. c. 10. Cypr. Ep. xii. p. 27. xxix. p. 77. Tertull. de Coron. Militis, p. 102; de Monogamia, p. 531, A.; de Exhort. Cast.
p. 523, D.
* Augustini Epist. cxlix. ad Paulin. p. 509, tom. ii. quoted above, in note ", p. 138. The following passage is also valuable. “Ideo cum dicitur, Sursum cor; respondetis, Habemus ad Dominum—ideo sequitur episcopus vel presbyter qui offert, et dicit cum responderit populus, Habemus ad Dominum sursum cor : gratias agamus Domino Deo nostro—et vos adtestamini, dignum et justum est dicentes. Deinde post sanctificationem sacrificii Dei —ecce ubi est peracta sanctificatio dicinus orationem Dominicam—Post ipsam dicitur Paa, vobiscum ; et osculantur se Christiani in osculo sancto.” August. 227, in die Paschae, p.974, tom. v. See Optatus Milev. lib. ii. adv. Parmen.
cited above in note *. Cypr. de
j Victorinus Afer, lib. i. adversus Arianos, cites the following passage from the African liturgy: “Sicuti et in oblatione dicitur, munda tibi populum circumvitalem, aemulatorem bonorum operum, circa tuam substantiam venientem.” Fulgentius, in his remarks on 1 Cor. xi. 23, amongst the Excerpta published by Sirmond. p. 36, says, “Cum tempore sacrificii commemorationem mortis ejus faciamus, charitatem nobis tribui per adventum sancti Spiritus postulamus : hoc suppliciter exorantes, ut per ipSam charitatem, qua pro nobis Christus crucifigi dignatus est, nos quoque gratia sancti Spiritus accepta, mundum crucifixum habere, et mundo crucifigi possimus: imitantesque Domini nostri mortem, sicut
Christus quod mortuus est peccato, mortuus est semel, quod autem vivit, vivit Deo, etiam nos in novitate vitae ambulemus, et munere charitatis accepto, moriamur peccato, et vivamus Deo.” p. 39. “Hoc autem quod petimus, id est, ut in Patre et Filio unum simus, per unitatem gratiae spiritualiter accipimus.” This plainly shews that the African canon contained petitions which did not exist in the Roman, but it does not prove that they were originally different. The invocation of the Holy Spirit was derived from Gaul, Spain, or the East, by the African church. The petition for unity was no doubt introduced, in consequence of the schisms so prevalent in Africa.