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church: and in this point of view, we must assign a very great antiquity to the Gallican and Spanish liturgy, since it could scarcely have been brought from Gaul to Spain later than the beginning of the third century. Of course, in saying this, I would not be understood to affirm, that we can ascertain the words of the Spanish or Gallican liturgy at such a remote period. It has happened, in fact, from the custom of these churches, in varying almost every part of the liturgy for each feast, that we can scarcely do more than determine the general substance and order of that liturgy at any time. The Spanish or Mosarabic liturgy was minutely described by Isidore Hispalensis in the sixth century; and his description coincides perfectly with those monuments of it which still remain. During the middle ages, and in the time of cardinal Ximenes, the Mosarabic liturgy received an addition of several rites, which are now used in it"; but others are plainly derived from the church of Constantinople, which is another proof of the independence of the Spanish liturgy both of the Roman and Gallican; and affords an additional confirmation of the ancient existence of this rite, which was already so long established, before the contentions of the eastern and western churches, in the ninth and preceding centuries, as to have borrowed from the former several improvements. The Mosarabic missal published by cardinal Ximenes, A.D. 1500, is now very scarce. It was republished by Lesleus at Rome A.D. 1755, with learned annotations, which amply merit a perusal. Martene, in his valuable work, “De Antiquis Ecclesiae Ritibus,” lib. i. c. 4. No. 12, has printed so much of the Mosarabic missal as is sufficient to give a satisfactory view of its nature. Isidore of Seville, Leander, and other Spanish bishops, are said to have composed this missal, which is probably a very correct statement, since we may very well attribute to them many, or even all, of the distinct “missae,” which make up that volume. But the original model and substance of the liturgy, as I have said, was apparently derived from the Gallican church, by which it had been probably received from the churches of Asia and Phrygia. The Mosarabic liturgy began with an anthem and responsory", and a collect”, which were succeeded by a lesson from the Prophets or Old Testament'; another anthem ", or, on certain days, the Song of the Three Children "; the Epistle", Gospel, and Alleluia chanted with a verse”. Of course the sermon occurred anciently in this place. Then the catechumens being dismissed, the oblations of the faithful were received, and in the meantime the choir sung an offertory anthem ". The elements being placed on the table, the preface, resembling the address to the people at the beginning of the Gallican liturgy, was read”. Then followed a prayer commending the prayers and oblations to the acceptance of God"; the names of the living and departed were read, and prayer made for them";

* Lesleus, Praefat. Missalis turgy and missal were added Mosarab. sect. vii. shews what in the time of Ximenes, and portions of the Mosarabic li- during the middle ages.

* Martene, tom. i. p. 457. This is probably alluded to by Isidore, de Eccl. Off., who speaks of anthems and responsories in lib. i. c. 7 and 8, just before he alludes to collects and lessons.

* Martene, p. 457. Observe that the termination of most prayers in the Mosarabic liturgy is separated from the body of the prayer, and seems altogether formed like those of the Greek rite. See Goar, Rit. Graec. Liturg. Chrysost. et Basil. Isidore probably refers to the collect in cap. 9, lib. i.

* Martene, p. 457. lib. i. c. 10.


* Martene, p. 457. * Idem, p. 458. Concil. Tolet. iv. can. 14. “Hymnum quoque trium puerorum—hoc sanctum concilium instituit, ut per omnes ecclesias Hispaniae vel Galliae (Narbonensis) in omnium missarum solemnitate—decantetur.” " Martene, p. 458. * Idem, Concil. Toletan. (anno 633.) iv. can. 12. “In quibusdam Hispaniarum ecclesiis Laudes post Apostolum decantantur, priusquam Evangelium praedicetur; dum canones praecipiunt, post Apostolum non Laudes sed Evangelium annuntiari,” &c. Bona shews that the “Laudes” here

a collect was recited before the kiss of peace". Then began the more solemn part of the office with the form “Sursum corda",” &c. ; which was succeeded by the thanksgiving called illatio*; the hymn Tersanctus'; a continuation of thanksgiving ; a petition for the sanctification of the elements; the words of institution*; a prayer for the confirmation of the oblation, by means of the Holy Ghost, as the sacrament of Christ's body and blood"; the Constantinopolitam Creed'; the breaking of bread'; and Lord's Prayer*. The priest blessed the people, who answered, Amen', and communion took place, while the choir sang Gustate et videte, “ O taste and see how gracious "," &c. Then the priest recited a prayer of thanksgiving, and the assembly was

means the “Alleluia,” &c. after
the Gospel. Rer. Lit. lib. ii.
c. 6, No. 4. Isidore speaks of
the “Laudes,” or “Alleluia,” in
this place; and after remark-
ing, that in Africa it was only
sung on Sundays, and between
Easter and Pentecost, adds
these words: “Verum apud
nos, secundum antiquam Hi-
spaniarum traditionem, praeter
dies jejuniorum vel quadrage-
simae, omni tempore canitur
Alleluia,” c. 13.
* The offertory anthem is
called “Sacrificium.” Martene,
p. 459. Isidore, Hispal. c. 14,
speaks of it. The oblation at
p. 458, of Martene is modern.
The confession or apology, p.
459, beginning “Accedam ad
te,” is probably ancient.
* Martene, p. 459. This
preface is peculiar to the Gal-
lican and Spanish liturgies.
What may be the antiquity of
the preface it is impossible to
conjecture, but I do not think
it so ancient as many other
parts of the liturgy. Isidore
mentions it, c. 15. “Prima
earumdem (orationum) oratio

admonitionis est erga popu-
lum, ut excitentur ad exoran-
dum Deum.”

* This we take on the authority of Isidore, c. 15: “Secunda invocationis ad Deum est, ut elementa suscipiat, preces fidelium, oblationemgue eorum.” The prayer in Martene, p. 460, does not particularly allude to the above subjects, but in the time of Isidore it seems generally to have done so. It is preceded by a sort of hymn, Trisagios, and a short bidding prayer, which seem plainly to be formed after the Greek model,

* Martene, p. 460. Isidor. c. 15. “Tertia autem effunditur pro offerentibus, sive pro defunctis fidelibus, ut per idem sacrificium veniam consequantur.”

* Martene, p. 460. Isidor. c. 15. “Quarta post haec infertur pro osculo pacis, ut charitate omnes reconciliati invicem, digni sacramento corporis et sanguinis Christi consocientur,” &c.


“ Martene, p. 461.
* Idem, p. 461, 462. Isi-
dor. c. 15. “ Quinta infertur
illatio in sanctificatione obla-
tionis, in qua etiam ad Dei
laudem terrestrium creatura,
virtutumque coelestium univer-
sitas provocatur, et * Osanna
in excelsis' cantatur—.'' The
illatio seems to be considered
by Isidore as including the
words of institution, from his
connecting the sanctification
with it.
* Martene, p. 462. Isidore,
quoted in last note.
5 Martene, p. 462, proba-
bly referred to by Isidore as
“ “ Porro sexta exhinc suc-
cedit confirmatio sacramenti,
ut oblatio quæ Deo offertur,
sanctificata per Spiritum Sanc-
tum, corporis et sanguinis (sa-

cramentum) confirmetur.'' Isi-
dor. c. 15. See Martene, p.
462. Cardinal Bona attests
the fact, that the Mosarabic
missal still contains this invo-
cation: “ Ritus enim Mosara-
bicus — post consecrationem
brevem ponit orationem quæ
post pridie, sive post secreta
inscribitur: et in ea sacerdos
precatur, ut descendat Spiri-
tus Sanctus, et dona benedicat
atque sanctificet.” Rer. Lit.
lib. ii. c. 13. No. 5.
* Marteme, p. 464.
c. 16. Concil.
can. 2.
j Martene, p. 464.
* Idem, Isidor. c. 15. Con-
cil. Tolet. iv. can. 9.
' Martene, p. 465.
c. 17.
" Martene, p. 465.
" Idem, p. 466.

Toletan. iii.




THE early history of the British church is obscure; and although we learn from Tertullian and Origen, that Christianity had extended thither by the third century, it is not easy to fix the period at which regular churches were formed. Leaving the discussion of this and similar topics in the hands of those learned persons who have already considered the subject, we are at least certain, that the British church in the fourth century was ruled by bishops, who attended the councils of Arles, Sardica, and Ariminum. Could we hold any decided opinion as to the quarter whence these prelates or their predecessors originally derived their orders, we might form some conjecture on the nature of the primitive British liturgy; but it were much to be wished, that we might be relieved from the necessity of doing this, by the discovery of some MS. containing British rites. It is by no means impossible that some such monument may yet be discovered, as the British churches did not for a long time submit to the authority of the Saxon archbishops.

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