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and flesh is one man : so God and man is one Christ.

Who suffered for our salvation : descended into hell, rose again the third day from the dead. He ascended into heaven, he sitteth on the right hand of the Father, God Almighty : from whence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead. At whose coming all men shall rise again with their bodies : and shall give account for their own works. And they that have done good shall go into life everlasting : and they that have done evil into everlasting fire. This is the catholic faith : which except a man believe faithfully he cannot be saved.

Glory be to the Father, and to the Son : and to the Holy Ghost.

As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be : world without end. Amen.

et caro unus est homo : ita
Deus et homo unus est Chris-
Qui passus est pro salute
nostra, descendit ad inferos:
tertia die resurrexit a mortuis.

Ascendit ad coelos, sedet ad dexteram Dei Patris Omnipotentis : inde venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos.

Ad cujus adventum omnes homines resurgere habent cum corporibus suis ; et reddituri sunt de factis propriis rationem.

Et qui bona egerunt ibunt in vitam aeternam : qui vero mala, in ignem aeternum.

Haec est fides catholica, quam nisi quisque fideliter firmiterque crediderit : salvus esse non poterit.

Gloria Patri, et Filio : et Spiritui Sancto.

Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper : et in saecula saeculorum.

THE ApostIEs’ creed.

This primitive Creed of the Italian and Roman churches has long been used by the church of England in nearly the same position which it occupies at present. Until the reform of the English offices in the reign of Edward the Sixth, it followed the Lord's Prayer, amongst those prayers which it

now precedes". This position of the Apostles' Creed had been customary in the ages preceding the Norman conquest, as we may see by the AngloSaxon offices”. Amalarius also, A.D. 820, speaks of the Creed as following the Lord's Prayer amongst the prayers of Prime'.


These prayers, including the lesser Litany, the Lord's Prayer, and the versicles and responses, came at the end of the office, according to the ancient English rites”, and they still preserve the same position. Formerly, however, the Apostles' Creed occurred in this part of the service, from whence it was transferred to its present position. From these Prayers also the Confession and Absolution were removed and replaced by superior formularies at the commencement of the whole office. All this part of the service is very ancient in the morning offices of the western churches. Amalarius, A. D. 820, and Benedict, A.D. 530, both speak of the lesser Litany, “Lord, have mercy upon us,” &c. and the Lord's Prayer, as occurring in this place"; the councils of Girone, A.D. 517, and Toledo, A.D. 633, prescribed the latter"; both also are found in monuments of the Anglo-Saxon church". The versicles which follow the Lord's Prayer are described by Amalarius, who wrote in A. D. 820"; and they are found in the Anglo-Saxon offices": they varied, however, in different churches of the West, even where the same prayers in general were used; but all our versicles and responses are found in the ancient ritual of the English churches, both before and after the Norman conquest; and they occurred in the same place

* Breviar. Sarisb. Psalt. fol. c. 13. Amalarius de Eccl. Off. 13. Breviar. Eborac. fol. 251. lib. iv. c. 2. * Appendix to Hickes's Let- b Concil. Toletan. iv. c. 9.

ters, ad primam. Concil. Gerundens. can. 10. y Amalar. de Eccl. Off. lib. “Item nobis semper placuit iv. c. 2. observari, ut omnibus diebus

* Brev. Sarisb. Psalt. fol. 13. post Matutinas et Vesperas Breviar. Eborac. fol. 251. Bre- Oratio Dominica a sacerdote viar. Herefordens. ad primam. proferatur.” * S. Benedict. Regula, c. 17.

which they occupy at present.

T And after that, these Prayers
following, all devoutly kneel-
ing ; the Minister first pro-
nouncing with a loud voice,
The Lord be with you.
Answer. And with thy spirit.
Minister. Let us pray.
Lord, have mercy upon us.
Christ, have mercy upon us.
Lord, have mercy upon us.

Our Father, which art in heaven, Hallowed be Thy Name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, As it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our trespasses, As we forgive them that trespass against us. And lead us not

Tunc fiant preces cum prostra-
tione ad omnes horas'.

Dominus vobiscum.
Et cum spiritu tuo.
Oremus 8.
Kyrie eleēson.
Christe eleēson.
Kyrie eleēson".

Pater noster, qui es in coelis, sanctificeturnomen tuum. Adveniat regnum tuum. Fiat voluntas tua sicut in coelo et in terra. Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie. Et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris. Et nenos indu

* Appendix to Hickes's Let-
ters, ad primam.
d Amalar. de Eccl. Off. lib.
iv. c. 4.
* Appendix, &c. ut supra.
f Brev. Sar. Psalt. fol. 12.
8 Brev. Sar. Psalt. fol. 13.
These three forms were placed

before the Collects in the an-
cient offices of the English
churches, but their present po-
sition is very good, at the com-
mencement of the prayers.
* Brev. Sar. Psalt. fol. 13.
Brev. Eboracens. fol. 251.
Brev. Herefordens. ad primam.

into temptation ; But deliver us from evil : For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever and ever. Amen.

T Then the priest standing up shall say, O Lord, shew thy mercy upon us. Answer. And grant us thy salvation. Priest. king. Answer. And mercifully hear us when we call upon thee. Priest. Endue thy ministers with righteousness. Answer. And make thy chosen people joyful. Priest. O Lord, save thy people. Answer. And bless thine inheritance. Priest. Give peace in our time, O Lord. Answer. Because there is none other that fighteth for us, but only thou, O God.

O Lord, save the

cas in tentationem. Sed libera nos a malo. Amen".

Erigat se sacerdos solus sic dicens". Ostende nobis, Domine, misericordiam tuam. Et salutare tuum da nobis".

Domine, salvum fac regem.

Et exaudi nos in die qua invocaverimus te!.

Sacerdotes tui induantur justitiam.

Et sancti tui exultent".

Salvum fac populum tuum, Domine. Et benedic haereditati tuae".

Da pacem, Domine, in diebus nostris.

Quia non est alius qui pugnet pro nobis nisi tu Deus noster 9.

* Brev. Sar. Psalt. fol. 13. Brev. Ebor. fol. 251. J Brev. Sar. Psalt. fol. 57, p. 2, fol. 22, p. 2. This rubric appears to be derived from those I have referred to, for in both the priest alone stood up after a certain part of the prayers had been said. * Brev. Sar. Psalt. fol. 13. * Brev. Sar. Psalt. fol. 22. Brev. Hereford. ad primam.

Offic. Anglo-Sax. ad prim. Appendix to Hickes's Letters. m Brev. Sar. Psalt. fol. 22. Brev. Hereford. ad prim. preces feriales. * Brev. Sar. Psalt. fol. 22. Brev. Hereford. ad prim. Offic. Anglo-Sax. ad primam. ° Brev. Eboracens. fol. 264. Brev. Sarisb. fol. 85. Bishop Lloyd remarks on this verse and response as follows: “I do

Priest. O God, make clean our hearts within us.

Answer. And take not thy holy Spirit from us.

Cor mundum crea in me, Domine.

Et Spiritum sanctum tuum ne auferas a meP.


The position of the collects (orationes) in the English offices is precisely the same as in the ancient offices of the churches of Sarum, York, &c.; namely, after the prayers (preces)". It is not very easy to trace the antiquity of this custom of repeating collects at the end of the service. It has certainly, however, prevailed in these churches, even during the period preceding the Norman conquest'. Amalarius, A.D. 820, speaks of the “oratio consueta,” or customary collect after the office of matins"; and he also speaks of a prayer, or collect, and benediction, which always were repeated at the end of the offices'. John Bona endeavours to prove that the collect is mentioned by Benedict, when he directs that the Gospel should be read at the end of nocturns, and the Benediction being given, they should begin matins. Bona explains this benediction to mean a prayer; for Amalarius in one place says that the prayer of the priest is called by two names,

not know what Burnet means Brev. Eborac. fol. 251. Offic.

by stating that this response
was made in the year 1549, on
the occasion of political oc-
currences—for this answer is
found in all the foreign brevi-
aries, in the Salisbury primer,
and in the primer of Henry
VIII. See Burnet's Hist. Ref.
p. ii. b. i. anno 1549.”
P Brev. Sar. Psalt, fol. 13.

Anglo-Sax. ad primam.
Q Brev. Sar. fol. 9. 13. 22.
Brev. Eboracens. fol. 252.
* Officium Anglo-Sax. ad
primam. Appendix to Hickes's
* Amalar. de Eccl. Off. lib.
iv. c. 12.
* Amalar. lib. iv. c. 45.

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