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allowed, they have already been stated so fully at the beginning of the present chapter, that it is superfluous here to recapitulate them.

5. It remains only, that we enquire how far the Carlovingian empire answers to the prophetic character of the double head of the beast. TOVA

The subversion of the kingdom of Lombardy in the year 774 made Charlemagne, already king of France, the undisputed master of Italy under the title of Patrician of Rome. In this capacity, he granted to the Pope the fiefs of a certain part of Lombardy and of the whole state of Rome, confirming at the same time the former grant made by his father Pipin. Here then, in the regular chronological order of prophecy, after the beast had been wounded to death under his sixth head, and after his deadly wound had been healed, we behold the rise of the Carlovingian Patriciate, or the seventh independent temporal head of the beast. This head however, when it came, was to continue only a short space; for it was almost immediately to be absorbed in the eighth head, which (the Apostle informs us) is in reality one of the seven although styled the eighth, and which (I have shewn) can only be identified with the seventh head: consequently we are led to expect, that the two heads are to be so intimately blended with each other, as to form jointly only one septimo-octave head. Accordingly we find, that, just 26 years after its rise, the seventh head was for ever lost in

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the eighth head. In the year 774*, the Carlovingian government of Italy commenced: in the year 800, Charlemagne assumed the imperial dignity, which has ever since been borne by a prince within the limits of the old Roman empire, and which has ever since given him precedence over the ten horns by constituting him in a manner their headt. Here

then

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* I date the rise of the Patrician head at the era of the conquest of Lombardy, because the mere titular Patriciate of Charles Martel and Pipin then first became a real form of government. Should the reader however be disposed rather to date its rise at the time when the title was conferred upon Charles Martel, the prophecy respecting the shortness of its duration will be no less accomplished. In that case, it will have continued about 50 years instead of 26; either of which periods may justly be termed a short time. As for the Patriciate of the Exarchs, it resembled in name alone the Patriciate of Charlemagne. They bore the title of Putrician as dependent riceroys: he bore it as an independent prince, while the reign of the Greek Emperors was suspended, and during what Mr. Gibbon styles “ the

vacancy of the Empire."

+ From the days of Charlemagne, the Emperor has always claimed, and has always been allowed, precedence over every one of the ten horns: and as such he has invariably been considered as the head of the great European commonwealth. This point however is best decided by a professed writer upon Heraldry. In his chapter upon the precedency of kings and commonwealths, Sir George Mackenzie has the following observations. Amongst those who are supreme, kings have the

preference from commonwealths; and, amongst kings, the Emperor is allowed the first place by the famous ceremonial

of Rome, as succeeding to the Roman Emperors--And there“fore the German and Italian lawyers, who are subject to the Empire, have with much flattery asserted, that the Emperor " is the Vicar of God in temporals" (manifestly in contradis

tinction

then we behold the rise of the septimo-octave head of the beast * : a matter so evident, that a writer, in this respect certainly unprejudiced, was naturally

led

tinction to the Pope, who claimed and was allowed to be the Vicar of Christ in spirituals), “and that jurisdictions are de“ rived from him, as from the fountain, calling him dominum et caput totius orbis(Mackenzie's Observations on Precedency, Chap. I.). This last matter Sir George naturally enough refuses to allow, though he readily corcedes a precedency of rank to the Emperor. His whole treatise may be found in Guillim's Display of Heraldry. See also Mod. Univ. Hist. vol. xlii. p. 80-105.

* It is not unworthy of notice, that Cardinal Baronius speaks of the coronation of Charlemagne in language, which strougly though undesignedly marks the rise of a new head of the Roman beast. “Quod autem ejusmodi translatio imperii “ ab Oriente in Occidentem, ubi posthac semper stetit et hage. “ tenus perseverat, divino consilio facta fuerit magno reipuh“ licæ Christianæ emolumento, et imperii Orientalis desolatio, “ et alia eventa, satis superque demonstrârunt. Nec vero id “ potuisse convenientius fieri quam per Romanum Pontificem “ totius Christianæ religionis antistitem, et summum Ecclesiæ “ catholicæ visibile caput, pastoremque universi gregis Chris

tiani; nec decentius quam in Carolum magnum, regem totius Occidentis potentissimum, eumdemque Christianissi

mum, piissimum, justissimum, fortissimum, doctissimum, de “ religione Christiana, ecclesia catholica, sede apostolica, “ statu publico, semper in omnibus optimè meritum ; nec de

nique opportuniori tempore, quàm cum jacerent absque possessore jura Orientalis Imperii, et periculum immineret

ne caderent in schismaticos principes a fide catholica ex“ torres, autin Christianae religionis infestissimos hostes Sara

cenos, nemo prudens et rerum æquus æstimator non affirmabit, nec inficias ire poterit, totum id Dei opus fuisse, ejus

que mirabili consilio sapientissimè dispositum." Annal. Eccles. A.D. 800. VOL. II,

R

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t would receive their crown from the successors of " St. Peter. The Roman church would acquire a “ zealous and respectable advocate; and, under - the shadow of the Carlovingian power, the « bishop might exercise, with honour and safety, “ the government of the city*.'

Tothis interpretation of the prophecy respecting the septimo-octave head of the beast, it is possible, that three objections may be urgedFirst, that it does not accord with my own plan of exposition to suppose, that a king of France should be a head of the beast, because France is one of the ten horns : consequently, in making the patricio-imperial dignity of Charlemagne to be the last head, I

make

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