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The complete distinctness of ecclesiastical kingdom of the bea by means of their exemption fra diction, will appear yet more e following passage.

" While th -- lated upon the mendicants th " distinctions and the most v “ which they had to bestow, tł 6 still more and more to the ei " the rest of the clergy ; and “ considerably increased by th

gance that discovered itself e os conduct of these supercilior “ had the presumption to decl

they had a divine impulse ai

illustrate and maintain the i .66

they treated with the utmost i “'tempt all the different ranks " priesthood; they aflirmed wit as the true method of obtaini. « revealed to them alone; pro s tentation the superior effica " their indulgences; and vaun

sure, their interests at the cou 6 their familiar connections w - Being, the Virgin Mary, a

glory. By these impious wile and captivated the miserable

titude, that they would not i Cs but the mendicants with the c

« their spiritual and eternal concerns*.” Thus it

appears, that the monastic orders constituted a well organized body, governed by their own laws, exempt from episcopal jurisdiction, subject to their respective generals or superiors, but paying at the same time an implicit obedience to the Pope. In short they perfectly answer to every idea that we can form of an ecclesiustical kingdom under the control of the heud of un ecclesiastical empire.

The second horn of the beast I suppose to be the secular popish clergy. As the monks were subject, first to the superiors of their orders, and ultimately to the Pope; so the secular or parochial clergy were subject, first to their respective bishops, and ultimately to the sovereign pontiff Various preparatory steps were taken towards the erecting of this second ecclesiastical horn or kingdom before the year 606, when the Pope was declared universal Bishop, and whence therefore I date the rise of the second beast or the papal catholic empire. The decrees of the Emperors, and the metropolitan dignity of Rome, gradually conferred upon the Popes an archiepiscopal authority over the western bishops, previous to the time when they were formally declaredby Phocas the head of the universal Churcht. In the eighth century Germany was

* Mosheim's Eccles. Hist. vol. iii. p. 204.

+ The reader will find a very circumstantial account of the manner in which the Bishops of Rome gradually extended their authority over the West, in Sir Isaac Newton's Observ, on Daniel, Chap. viii.

reduced

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reduced under the yoke by an English friar named Boniface, whom Gregory the third consecrated Archbishop of Mentz ; constituting him at the same time his vicar, with full power to call coun.. cils, and to constitute bishops in those places, which were by his assistance converted to the Christian faith. In the first of these councils, Boniface presiding in quality of legate of the Roman chair, the clergy signed a certain confession, of faith, whereby they obliged themselves, not only to maintain the catholic faith, but also to remain in constant union with the Roman church, and to be obedient to the successors of St. Peter, * This Boniface,” says Puffendorff," was the first “ who put it upon the bishops of Germany to « receive the episcopal pall froin the Pope, who

sent it to the bishops of France without their

request, thereby to unite them with the Roinan ♡ chair. And, when once these ornaments were ” become customary amongst them, they were

put upon them afterwards as of absolute ne« cessity; and the episcopal function was for* bidden to be exercised by them before they had « received these ornaments*.' The same author further observes, “ Besides this, the Popes assumed “ to themselves an authority of giving leave to " the bishops to remove from one episcopal see s to another, and obliged all the western bishops

to receive their confirmation from Rome, for

* Introduct. to Hist. of Eur. cited by Whitaker, p. 404:

which

* which they were obliged to pay a certain sum * of money as an acknowledgment, which was « since converted to annats. The Popes also; by

maķing void the decisions of the provincial 5 synods or assemblies, overthrew their autho«« rity: wherefore, when every body plainly per“ceived that the decrees of these · assemblies " could produce no other effects but to be conti$ nually annulled by the Popes, without so much s as hearkening to any reasons, they were by “ degrees quite abolished, Pope Gregory the 56 seventh also forced the bishops to swear an oath

of fealty to the Pope, and by a decree forbad*,

that none should dare to condemn any one that $ had appealed to the Pope. They were also not “forgetful in sending legates or nuncios to all 5 places ; whose business was to exercise in the $o náme of the Pope the same authority, which “ had formerly belonged to the bishops, metro. “politans, and provincial assembliest." In this passage mention is made of the oath of fealty exacted by Gregory the seventh from the bishops. A similar oath has been imposed, even since the Reformation, by Pius the fourth on all the beneficed clergy. He decreed, that they should all swear true obedience to the Roman pontiff, the successor of St. Peter, and vicar of Jesus Christ [. In short, how completely the clergy under their

* Enacted. + Introduct. to Hist, of Eur. cited by Whitaker, p. 406.

Ibid. p. 407

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bishops became one of the two ecclesiastical kingdoms of the papal beast, will best appear from the following oath, set forth by order of Pope Clement the eighth to be taken by all bishops at their consecration, and by all metropolitans at their instalment.

“ I N. elect of the church of N. from hence* forward will be faithful and obedient to St. « Peter the Apostle, and to the holy Roman “ church, and to our Lord, the lord N. Pope N. «s and to his successors canonically coming in. “ I will neither advise, consent, or do any thing, “ that they may lose life or member, or that their

persons may be seized, or hands any wise laid “ upon them, or any injuries offered to them “ under any pretence whatsoever. The counsel,

which they shall intrust me withal, by them“ selves, their messengers, or letters, I will not

knowingly reveal to any to their prejudice. I “ will help them to defend and keep the Roman

Papacy and the royalties of St. Peter, saving

my order, against all men. The legate of the “ apostolic see, going and coming, I will honour

ably treat and help in his necessities. The

rights, honours, privileges, and authority, of " the holy Roman church, of our lord the Pope, “ and his foresaid successors, I will endeavour “ to preserve, defend, increase, and advance. “ I will not be in any counsel, action, or treaty, “ in which shall be plotted against our said lord,

and the said Roman church, any thing to the

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