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bution, which more or less has affected the whole Roman empire, I conceive to be the first period of the third woe-trumpet, which St. John figuratively describes under the image of a harvest; a harvest pot of mercy, but of God's wrath against the nations. After this figurative harvest has been gathered in, there is to be a sort of pause between it and the commencement of the vintage. Revolutionary frenzy having subsided, the affairs of the world are in some measure to return to their old channel: yet they are not to roll on so smoothly, but that the interval between the harvest and the vintage will be marked by certain important events. These events are predicted under the three following vials.

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The reader must decide for himself how far it is probable, that three out of the seven vials have already been poured out at the commencement of the last woe-trumpet, constituting jointly that grand period of it, which by St. Jolin is styled the harvest, and by which I understand the French Revolution..

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The concluding vial is reserved for the end * of it, or the termination of the 1260 years; and comprehends the second grand period of the vintage. As for the fourth, fifth, and sixth, vials, I consider them as occupying the intermediate space between the harvest and the vintage ; and am inclined to view the sixth vial in the light of a harbinger and precursor of the last. Like, a herald it prepares the way, and makes every thing ready for the final tremendous manifestation of God's righteous judgments upon his enemies.

“ And the fourth angel poured out his vial upon “ the sun; and power was given unto him to « scorch men with fire. And men were scorched " with great heat, and blasphemed the name of

God, which hath power over these plagues; " and they repented not to give him glory.”

In the language of symbols, the sun of a king dom is the government of that kingdom; and the sun of an empire, if it be a divided empire, is the government of the most powerful state within that empire. When the political sun shines with a steady lustre, and yields a salutary warmth, it is

blessing to a people. But, when it glares with a fierce and unnatural heat, scorching all the productions of human industry with the intolerable blaze


of a portentous tyraviny, it is the heaviest curse which can befall a nation.

Since the whole prophecy of the Apocalypse relates to the Roman empire, the sun mentioned under this vial must be the sun of the Roman firmament: since the pouring out of all the vials takes place long posterior to the division of the empire, this sun must be the sun of the divided empire: and since the three first vials have carried us to the end of the harvest or the anarchical horrors of the French Revolution, this sun' must mean the government of that state zvithin the limits of the empire which at the present era is the most powerful. The prediction then of the fourth vial obviously intimates, that the frantic scenes of the harvest should be succeeded by a systematic military tyranny, which should be exercised over the Roman empire by the government of the most powerful state then existing within its limits. The world, exhausted with the miseries of the symbolical harvest, and wearied with the wild struggles of licentious anarchy, should tamely submit to the lawless domination of an unrelenting despot. In pointing out the particular government intended by this scorching sun of the Latin or Papal firmament, the reader will doubtless have anticipated

The present Popish states are France, Austria, Spain, Portugal, Naples, Sardinia, and Etruria, 'Of these, I apprehend, no one will be inclined to deny, that France is by many degrees


the most powerful, and consequently that its government must inevitably be esteemed the sun of the system *. To observe then the accurate com


the eye

*Should the present usurper of the throne of France, who already emulates the imperial rank of Austria, or should any successor of his at some future period, proclaim himself Eviperor of the Romuns, and thus transfer the crown of Charlemagne from Germany to France, as it was heretofore transferred from France to Gerinany: he would then, like Charlemagne, be the representative of the lust head of the beast. Buonapartè is als ready in fact master of Italy, and

appears to be

upon of reviving the ancient kingdom of Lombardy. 1804. · Since this note was written, the usurper of the throne of the Bourbons has formally proclaimed himself king of Italy, and has encircled his brows with the ancient iron crown of the, Lombard sovereigns. Thus is one of the great maxims of Ger. man jurisprudence completely overturned; namely, “that the

prince, who was elected Emperor in the German diet, ac“quired from that instant the subject kingdoms of Italy and « Rome” (See Gibbon's Hist. of Decline and Fall, vol. ix. p. 191.). May 1805.

I have now to add, that the disastrous termination of the campaign of 1805 has made the chief of the French

government the undoubted representative of Charlemagne, and consequently the last head of the beast. The house of Austria seems tacitly to have exchanged the title of Emperor of the Romans for that of Emperor of Austria : and, although Buonapartè has not yet formally assumed it, it can add nothing to his power when he does assume it, for he is already the uncontrouled emperor of the western continental Roman world. June 3, 1806.

Since this was written, a second disastrous campaign, that of 1806 and 1807, has completed and confirmed the overwhelming influence of France : the Germanic body has been dissolved: the empire of Germany has been transferred under a new title to France: and the head of the house of Austria


pletion of the prophecy of the fourth vidl, in which it is said that power was given to this sun to scorch men with fire, and that they were scorched with great heat, we have only to cast our eyes over the continent. A system of tyranny, hitherto unknown in Europe except in the worst periods of the Roman history, has been established, and is now acted upon by him who styles himself Emperor of the French: and the scorching rays of military despotism are, at this moment felt, more or less, throughout France, Holland, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, and the west of Germany. A regular plan of making each man a spy upon his neighbour destroys all the comfort and all the confidence of social life: and France, with her degraded provinces, or, as they are termed with diplomatic inockery, allies, groans under the weight of endless requisitions, levies, and extortions, at once tormented herself, and the savage tormentor of others*


bas formally resigned the Carlovingian imperial dignity. Nov. 23. 1807

* Even before the era of the Revolution, and previous to the vast acquisition of power made by France since that convulsion, the sovereigns of the Capetian dynasty were so conscious of their preponderating influence in Europe, that, with a kind of arrogant fatality, they assumed for their distinguishing badge the sun, with this motto, Nec pluribus impar, alone equal to many. This notion of superiority indeed was so familiar to Frenchmen, that the health of his sovereign is said to have been once proposed by a French Ambassador to Lord Stair,"


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