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which treat of the events that are to take place at the close of the 1260 yeurs*. Those of Daniel and St. John are strictly chronological ones, and are therefore in some measure their own interpreters: anil, as for those of Zechariah and Joel, although they be not marked by the chronological numbers and the long-continued and connected series of events which form so striking a feature of the other predictions, yet they coutain within them facts which are amply sufficient to shew at what era they will be accomplished. They both foretell the restora'ion of the Jerus: consequently all the matters, of which they speak as connected with that restoration, must be the same matters as those of which Daniel speaks as being similarly connected with it. Hence it will follow, that the destruction of the nations in the vicinity of Jerusalem, predicted by Zechariah as contemporary with the restoration of the Jezus, must be the same as the overthrow of the Infidel king in Palestine, predicted by Daniel as likewise contemporary with the restoration of the Jews. Hence also it will follow, that the fierce people symbolized by a flight of locusts, so accurately described at the beginning of the prediction
*. To discuss all the prophecies relative to those events would occupy too large a portion of a Work like the present, which professes to treat peculiarly of the events comprehended within the 1260 years. The restoration of Israel and the overthrow of Antichrist, which are here very briefly noticed, are considered at large in my Work whfeh is professedly dedi. cated to that purpose.
of Joel, as spreading desolation wherever they come, as wonderfully succeeding in all their entérprizes, as running to and fro in the great city, as scaling the walls of fenced cities with open violence, às entering insidionsly in at the windows like a thief, as causing tremendous revolutions in the political heavens; that this fierce people can be no other than the people of Daniel's infidel king, who are to begin their peign of havock and plunder under the third woe-trumpet, during the comparatively short time which the devil bath before the termination of the 1260 years, before the commencement of the restoration of the Jeros*. It will likewise follow, that the invasion of Palestine by the northern army, or the army of Antichrist entering it by way of the north, is the same as the similar expedition of the infidel king : and that the destruction of this northern army with its fuce to the eastern sea, and its hinder part toward the utmost sea, is the same event as the destruction of the infidel king, after he has planted the curtains of his pavilions between the seas in the glorious holy mountain ; for in both cases, the scene is equally laid
* Since the first edition of this work was published, I have read Chandler's Puraphrase of Joel, and am more convinced than ever I was, that this locust-army cannot mean a flight of mere literal locusts as he supposes, but must denote, like the parallel prophecy in Rev. ix. c flight of symbolica! locusts; which symbolical locusts the whole context of the prediction teaches us must mean the desolating armies of Antichrist. This "point is fully discussed in my Work on the Restoration of Israel.
in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem between the eastern or dead sea, and the western or mediter's ranean sea. It will lastly follow, that the great battle of the nations, in the valley of Jehoshaphat, is the same as the great battle of the beast, the false prophet, and the kings, at Armageddon ; and as the conclusion of the time of unexampled trouble, during which Daniel, like Joel, predicts that the restoration of the Jews will take place,
It appears then from these concurring prophecies, that the final war of the beast and the false prophet against the Gospel, though probably first raging with great violence in Europe, during the earthquake by which the Latin city is divided into three parts, and by which the islands and mountains or smaller states of the empire are - swallowed up in some grand scheme of iniquitous partition ; or, in the language of Joel, during the time that wonders are shewn in the heavens and in the earth, blood, and fire, and pillars of smoke : the final war will manifestly be decided in Palestine between the two seas *.
The corresponding and joint declaration of Daniel, Zechariah, and Joel, relative to the country which is ultimately to be the seat of this last war, is confirmed in a very remarkable manner by St.
* “ I have an unfashionable partiality," says Bp. Horsley, “ for the opinions of artiquity. I think there is ground in the “ prophecies for the notion of the early fathers, that Palestine “ is the stage, on which Antichrist, in the height of his im" piety, will perish." Letter on the 18th chap. of Isaian.
John. In his brief account of the vintage, under which Popery and Infidelity are for ever destroyed, he informis us, that the winepress, meaning the winepress of Armageddon, should be trodden with: out the city, and that blood should come out of it, even to the horses' bridles, by the space of 1600 furlongs. Both these descriptive marks perfectly correspond with the land of Palestine; the land, in which by the unanimous testimony of the prophets the last great controversy of the Lord will be carried on. in one sense, that country is within the great city; and, in another sense, without it. It is within it, if the whole Roman em- ; pire be considered, as including both its proper seat in the West, and its Eastern conquests from the third or Macedonian beast. But it is without it, if the revived or Latin empire be considered, because that empire was contined exclusively to the West. Hence we find it said, in perfect 'harmony with this supposition, that our Lord was crucified in the great city*; because he suffered during the existence of the ancient Roman empire, which comprehended the sovereignty both of the East and of the IV est. And hence we moreover find it said, that the winepress of Armageddon should be trodden without the city; because at the time when this event is to happen, the East should not form a part of the sovereignty of the revived or Latin. empire : and history accordingly testifies,
* Rev. xi. 8.
that it never did form any part of it*. This land, without the city, where the figurative winepress is to be trodden, is described by St. John as extending 1600 furlongs : and all the other prophets declare, that the land in question is Palestine : hence we are naturally led to expect, that Palestine should extend 1600 furlongs. Now it is highly worthy of observation, that the length of that region between the trvo seas which is destined to witness the fall of Antichrist and his congregated host, if a line be drawn along the sea-shore from its southern to its northern frontier, amounts exactly to 1600 Jewish Risin or Stadia t.
* The temporary prevalence of the Latins in the East, during the time of the crusades, forms a solitary exception to this general rule.
+ See D'Anville's Map of Palestine with scales of measures. This coincidence between the length of Palestine and the 1600 stadin was noticed by Jerome; and it probably was one reason why the fathers rightly believed, that Antichrist should perish in that country. Mr. Mede mentions the circumstance: but, from an idea that the city means the literal city of Rome instead of the Roman Empire, he supposes, contrary to the express de clarations of all the prophecies which treat of the subject, that the last great war will be decided without the walls of Rome and in the territories of the Pope; and thence observes, that the measure of Peter's patrimony, from the walls of Rome to the last mouth of the Po, is 1600 furlongs (Comment. Apoc. in Vindemiam.). Upon this it will be fufficient to observe, that the whole length of the papal dominions is considerably more than 1600 furlongs : and even if the coincidence had been exact, nothing would have been proved thereby, because the prophets