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series of prophecies; which he terms a little book, or a codicil to his greater book of the Apocalypse. This little book comprehends the eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth chapters of the Revelation : and, in point of chronology, all these chapters run parallel to each other, relating severally, though with some variety of circumstances, to the same period and the same events; so as to form jointly a complete history of the western Apostasy, and of all the principal actors in it.

1. The first chapter of the little book* gives an account of the treading of the holy city under foot during forty-two months ; of the desolate phrophesying of the witnesses, during the same period of 1260 days ; of their being slain by the beast of the bottomless pit ; of their lying dead in the broad street of the great city during three days and a half; of their revival ; of their triumphant ascent into the symbolical heaven; and of the earthquake which was

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evident both from the date of the fifth trumpet, and from the termination of the seventh : for the fifth trumpet begins to sound at the very commencement of the 1260 years, namely when the bottomless pit was opened in the year 606 by the fallen star Sergius; and the seventh trumpet brings us down, through the different stages

of its first six vials, to the end of the 1260 years. Since then the little book comprehends the whole of the 1260 years, it must necessarily commence with the sounding of the fifth trumpet, and must likewise include the seventh trumpet. Accordingly we find, that the seventh angel is represented as actually sounding in the little book (Rev. xi. 15.); though a more particular account of the effects of his blast is reserved for a distinct prophecy in the large book. Rev. xv.xix.

* Rer. xi.

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to overthroo the tenth part of the city, and to be the last event under the second woe: and it finally announces the sounding of the seventh trumpet, which brings us down to the end of the 1260 days; but announces it without descending minutely to particularise its effects *. In this chapter (it is to be observed) the beast of the bottomless pit is barely mentioned : and no intimation whatsoever is given, either what this beast is, by whose instigation he acts, or whose minister he is ; the prophet reserving these particulars for his two succeeding chapters.com

2. The second chapter of the little book + lets us into the whole mystery of iniquity, so far as its original mover is concerned. We there learn, that the 1260 years persecution of the true church of Christ is the contrivance of that old serpent, the devit ; who is represented under the image of a dragon with seven heads and ten horns, in order to shew us by the instrumentality of what minister he was about to slay the witnesses, and to drive the woman into the wilderness.

3. The third chapter of the little book I, passes from the master to the servant; and shews us who is that minister of the dragon, that beast of the bottomless pit, which had already been represented as the murderer of the two witnesses. It describes

* Its effects are afterwards detailed very circumstantially under the seven cials, and in the chapters subsequent to that which relates to the pouring out of the vials. + Rev. xii.

Rev. xii.

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him as having seven heads and ten horns; the very heads and horns, which the dragon induces him to use against the woman, mentioned in the preceding chapter.

The third chapter further teaches us, by whose instigation as a second cause, the minister of the dragon, or the beast of the bottomless pit, is induced to take up arms against the woman and the two witnesses. His instigator is another beast, quite distinct from himself, though very intimately connected with him: a beast, which comes up out of the earth, or Roman empire ; which has two horns like a lamb; which speaks as a dragon; and which exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, not in a hostile but in a friendly manner, for he causeth the whole earth to worship his colleague and supporter the first beast.

4. The fourth chapter of the little book * describes the state of the true Church during the prevalence of the western Apostasy; predicts the Reformation ; and divides some of the most prominent events of the seventh trumpet, which are detailed at large hereafter under the seven vials, into two grand classes, the harvest and the vintage of God's wrath, teaching us that the winepress shall be trodden in a certain country the space of which extends 1600 furlongs.

We learn then from the four chapters of the little book, both what the beast of the bottomless

* Rev. xiv.

pit is; namely a certain beast with seven heads and ten horns; by whose instigation he acts, namely by that of a second beast with two horns; and whose minister and tool he is, namely that of the great red dragon. We moreover learn, that making himself a tool of the dragon, and acting by the instigation of the second beast, the sevenheaded and ten-horned beast of the sea and the bottomless pit (for the beast of the sea and the beast of the bottomless pit are one and the same power*, the sea describing bis natural and the bottomless pit his spiritual origin) should wage à war of 1 260 years against the wonian and the two witnesses who have the name of God written in their foreheads; but that nevertheless the Apostasy should receive a great check by the preaching of the Gospelt, and afterwards should be totally overthrown in the time of God's vintage f.

The way being thus cleared by this general statement, I shall proceed to consider the contents of the little book at large in five different sections, according as it naturally divides itself. prophesying of ihe witnesses; 2. The war of the dragon with the woman; 3. The ten-horned beast of the sea; 4. The two-horned beast of the earth; 5. The collateral history of the true Church,, and the harvest and vintage of God's wrath,

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* Compare Rev. xii. 1. with Rev. xvii. 3,

8. + Rev. xiv. 6.

Rev. xiv. 18, 19, 20. VOL II.

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SECTION 1.

Concerning the prophesying of the two witnesses.

In the present section 1 sball attempt to explain the first chapter of the little book, which contains the history of the persecution of the two witnesses by the beast of the bottomless pit.

“ And there was given me a reed like unto a “ rod : and the angel stood, saying, Rise, and *s measure the temple of God, and the altar, and " them that worship therein. But the court, which “ is without the temple, leave out, and measure “ it not; for it is given unto thie Gentiles; and “ the holy city shall they tread under foot forty " and two months."

This prophecy commences with the year 606; which is the first year of the great Apostasy, and which synchronizes with the earliest blast of the first woe-trumpet in the East* The temple, the

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* I may here add to the arguments, by which I have already shewn that the year 606 is most probably the true date of the 1260 years, the following one. Unless this year be pitched upon, we shall find it impossible to make the beginning of the first woe-trumpet in the East synchronize with the beginning of the same woe-trumpet in the West. But we know that the first woe-trumpet begins to sound in the East in the year 606: whence I see not how we are to avoid concluding, that it begins likewise to sound in the West in the same year. Accordingly we find this same year to afford us the most probable

date

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