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sleeping child ;-the mind seems to have a balmy out in a field. There is perhaps no solitary lid closing over it, like the eye;—'tis closing ;- sensation so exquisite as that of slumbering 'tis more closing ;-'tis closed. The mysterious on the grass or hay, shaded from the hot sun spirit has gone to take its airy rounds.
by a tree, with the consciousness of a fresh It is said that sleep is best before midnight: but light air running through the wide atmoand Nature herself, with her darkness and sphere, and the sky stretching far overhead chilling dews, inforins us so. There is another | upon all sides. Earth, and heaven, and a reisod for going to bed betimes : for it is uni- placid humanity, seem to have the creation to Versally acknowledged that lying late in the themselves. There is nothing between the morning is a great shortener of life. At least, slumberer and the naked and glad innocence is is never found in company with longevity. of nature. It also tends to make people corpulent. But Next to this, but at a long interval, the these matters belong rather to the subject of most relishing snatch of slumber out of bed, is early rising, than of sleep.
the one which a tired person takes, before he Sleep at a late hour in the morning is not retires for the night, while lingering in his half so pleasant as the more timely one. It is sitting-room. The consciousness of being very sometimes however excusable, especially to a sleepy and of having the power to go to bed watchful or overworked head ; neither can we immediately, gives great zest to the unwillingdeny the seducing merits of " t other doze,”– ness to move. Sometimes he sits nodding in the pleasing wilfulness of nestling in a new his chair ; but the sudden and leaden jerks of posture, when you know you ought to be up, the head to which a state of great sleepiness like the rest of the house. But then you cut renders him liable, are generally too painful up the day, and your sleep the next night. for so luxurious a moment; and he gets into a
In the course of the day, few people think more legitimate posture, sitting sideways with of sleeping, except after dinner; and then it his head on the chair-back, or throwing his is often rather a hovering and nodding on the legs up at once on another chair, and half borders of sleep, than sleep itself. This is a reclining. It is curious, however, to find how privilege allowable, we think, to none but the long an inconvenient posture will be borne for old, or the sickly, or the very tired and care- the sake of this foretaste of repose. The worst word ; and it should be well understood, before of it is, that on going to bed, the charm someit is exercised in company. To escape into times vanishes ; perhaps from the colder slumber from an argument ; or to take it as temperature of the chamber; for a fireside is an affair of course, only between you and your a great opiate. biliary duct; or to assent with involuntary Speaking of the painful positions into which Dods to all that you have just been disputing, a sleepy lounger will get himself, it is amusing is not so well: much less, to sit nodding and to think of the more fantastic attitudes that so tottering beside a lady; or to be in danger of often take place in bed. If we could add anydropping your head into the fruit-plate or your thing to the numberless things that have been host's face ; or of waking up, and saying, said about sleep by the poets, it would be upon “Just so," to the bark of a dog; or “ Yes, this point. Sleep never shows himself a Madain,” to the black at your elbow.com , greater leveller. A man in his waking mo
Care-worn people, however, might refresh ments may look as proud and self-possessed as themselves oftener with day-sleep than they he pleases. He may walk proudly, he may sit do ; if their bodily state is such as to dispose proudly, he may eat his dinner proudly ; he thein to it. It is a mistake to suppose that all may shave himself with an air of infinite care is wakeful. People sometimes sleep, as superiority ; in a word, he may show himself well as wake, by reason of their sorrow. The grand and absurd upon the most trifling occadifference seems to depend upon the nature of sions. But Sleep plays the petrifying magician. their temperament; though in the most exces- He arrests the proudest lord as well as the sive cases, sleep is perhaps Nature's never- humblest clown in the most ridiculous posfailing relief, as swooning is upon the rack. tures : so that if you could draw a grandee A person with jaundice in his blood shall lie from his bed without waking him, no limbdown and go to sleep at noon-day, when twisting fool in a pantomime should create another of a different complexion shall find wilder laughter. The toy with the string his eyes as uncloseable as a statue's, though he between its legs, is hardly a posture-master has had no sleep for nights together. With- more extravagant. Imagine a despot lifted out ineaning to lessen the dignity of suffering, up to the gaze of his valets, with his eyes shut, which has quite enough to do with its waking his mouth open, his left hand under his right hours, it is this that may often account for the ear, his other twisted and hanging helplessly profound sleeps enjoyed the night before before him like an idiot's, one knee lifted up, hazardous battles, executions, and other and the other leg stretched out, or both knees demands upon an over-excited spirit.
huddled up together ;- what a scarecrow to The most complete and healthy sleep that lodge majestic power can be taken in the day, is in summer-time, But Sleep is kindly, even in his tricks; and the poets have treated him with proper rever- like an heir presumptive, in sleeping, and doing ence. According to the ancient mythologists, “none other work." he had even one of the Graces to wife. He We dare not trust ourselves with many quohad a thousand sons, of whom the chief were tations upon sleep from the poets; they are so Morpheus, or the Shaper ; Icelos, or the numerous as well as beautiful. We must content Likely ; Phantasus, the Fancy; and Phobetor, ourselves with mentioning that our two most the Terror. His dwelling some writers place favourite passages are one in the Philoetetes in a dull and darkling part of the earth ; others, of Sophocles, admirable for its contrast to a with greater compliment, in heaven; and others, scene of terrible agony, which it closes; and with another kind of propriety, by the sea- the other the following address in Beaumont shore. There is a good description of it in and Fletcher's tragedy of Valentinian, the hero Ovid ; but in these abstracted tasks of poetry, of which is also a sufferer under bodily torthe moderns outvie the ancients; and there is ment. lle is in a chair, slumbering ; and nobody who has built his bower for him so these most exquisite lines are gently sung finely as Spenser. Archimago in the first with music. book of the Facrie Queene (Canto I. st. 39),
Care-charming Sleep, thou easer of all woes, sends a little spirit down to Morpheus to fetch Brother to Death, sweetly thyself dispose him a Dream :
On this afflicted prince. Fall like a cloud
In gentle showers : give nothing that is loud He, making speedy way through spersed ayre,
Or painful to his slumbers: easy, sweet, And through the world of waters, wide and deepe,
And as a purling stream, thou son of Night, To Morpheus' house doth bastily repaire.
Pass by his troubled senses; sing his pain Amid the bowels of the earth full steepe
Like hollow murmuring wind, or silver rain : And low, where dawning day doth never peepe,
Into this prince, gently, oh gently slide,
And kiss hin into sluinbers, like a bride.
How earnest and prayer-like are these pauses! Whiles sad Night over him her mantle black doth spred.
How lightly sprinkled, and yet how deeply And more to lull him in his slumber soft
settling, like rain, the fancy! How quiet, A trickling streame from high rocke tumbling downe, affectionate, and perfect the conclusion ! And ever-drizzling rain upon the loft,
Sleep is most graceful in an infant ; soundest, Mixed with a murmuring winde, much like the soune
in one who has been tired in the open air ; Of swarming bees, did cast him in a swoune. No other noise, nor people's troublous cryes,
completest, to the seaman after a hard voyage; As still are wont to annoy the walled towne,
most welcome, to the mind haunted with one Might there be heard; but carelesse Quiet lyes, idea ; most touching to look at, in the parent Wrapt in eternall silence, far from enimyes.
that has wept ; lightest, in the playful child ; Chaucer has drawn the cave of the same proudest, in the bride adored. god with greater simplicity ; but nothing can have a more deep and sullen effect than his cliffs and cold running waters. It seems as real as an actual solitude, or some quaint old XXII.—THE FAIR REVENGE. picture in a book of travels in Tartary. He is
The elements of this story are to be found telling the story of Ceyx and Alcyone in the poem called his Dream. Juno tells a messen
in the old poem called Albion's England, to
which we referred in the article on Charles ger to go to Morpheus and “bid him creep into the body" of the drowned king, to let
Brandon and Mary Queen of France. his wife know the fatal event by his appa
Aganippus, king of Argos, dying without rition.
heirs male, bequeathed his throne to his only
daughter, the beautiful and beloved Daphles. This messenger tooke leave, and went
This female succession was displeasing to a
nobleman who held large possessions on the That stant betweene rockes twey.
frontiers ; and he came for the first time toThere never yet grew corne, ne gras,
wards the court, not to pay his respects to the Ne tree, ne nought that aught was, Beast, ne man, ne naught else ;
new queen, but to give her battle. Doracles Save that there were a few wells
(for that was his name) was not much known Came running fro the cliffs adowne,
by the people. He had distinguished himself That made a deadly sleeping soune,
for as jealous an independence as a subject And runnen downe right by a cave, That was under a rocky grave,
could well assume ; and though he had been Amid the valley, wonder-deepe.
of use in repelling invasion during the latter There these goddis lay asleepe,
years of the king, he had never made his Morpheus and Eclympasteire,
appearance to receive his master's thanks That was the god of Sleepis heire,
personally. A correspondence, however, was That slept and did none other worke.
understood to have gone on between him and Where the credentials of this new son and several noblemen about the court ; and there heir Eclympasteire, are to be found, we know were those who, in spite of his inattention to not ; but he acts very much, it must be allowed, popularity, suspected that it would go hard
with the young queen, when the two armies along, handling his gilded chains as if they came face to face.
were an indifferent ornament. “I have conBut neither these subtle statesinen, nor the quered him," thought she ; "it is a heavy ambitious young soldier Doracles, were aware blow to so proud a head ; and as he looks not of the effects to be produced by a strong per- unamiable, it might be politic, as well as sonal attachment. The young queen, amiable courteous and kind in me, to turn his subas she was beautiful, had involuntarily baffled mission into a more willing one.” Alas! pity his expectations froin her courtiers, by excit- was helping admiration to a kinder set of ing in the minds of some a real disinterested offices than the generous-hearted queen susregard, while others nourished a hope of pected. The captive went to his prison a consharing her throne instead. At least they queror after all, for Daphles loved him. speculated upon becoming each the favourite The second night, after having exhibited in minister, and held it a better thing to reign her manners a strange mixture of joy and under that title and a charming mistress, than seriousness, and signified to her counsellors be the servants of a master, wilful and domi- her intention of setting the prisoner free, she neering. By the people she was adored ; and released him with her own hands. Many a when she came riding out of her palace on step did she hesitate as she went down the the morning of the fight, with an unaccustomed stairs; and when she came to the door, she spear standing up in its rest by her side, her shed a full, but soft, and, as it seemed to her, diademed hair flowing a little off into the a wilful and refreshing flood of tears, humbling wind, her face paler than usual, but still tinted herself for her approaching task. When she with its roses, and a look in which confidence in had entered, she blushed deeply, and then the love of her subjects, and tenderness for turning as pale, stood for a minute silent and the wounds they were going to encounter, without motion. She then said, “ Thy queen, seemed to contend for the expression, the Doracles, has come to show thee how kindly shout which they sent up would have told she can treat a great and gallant subject, who a stouter heart than a traitor's, that the did not know her ;” and with these words, and royal charmer was secure.
almost before she was aware, the prisoner was The queen, during the conflict, remained released, and preparing to go. He appeared in a tent upon an eminence, to which the surprised, but not off his guard, nor in any younger leaders vied who should best spur up temper to be over grateful.“ Name,” said he, their smoking horses, to bring her good news “O queen, the conditions on which I depart, from time to time. The battle was short and and they will be faithfully kept.” Daphles bloody. Doracles soon found that he had moved her lips, but they spoke not. She waved miscalculated his point ; and all skill and her head and hand with a deadly smile, as if resolution could not set the error to rights. freeing him from all conditions, and he was It was allowed, that if either courage or turning to go, when she fell senseless on the military talent could entitle him to the throne, floor. The haughty warrior raised her with he would have a right to it; but the popu- more impatience than good-will. He could larity of Daphles supplied her cause with all guess at love in a woman; but he had but a the ardour which a lax state of subjection on mean opinion both of it and her sex; and the the part of the more powerful nobles might deadly struggle in the heart of Daphles did have denied it. When her troops charged, or not help him to distinguish the romantic passion made any other voluntary movement, they put which had induced her to put all her past and all their hearts into their blows; and when virgin notions of love into his person, from the they were compelled to await the enemy, they commonest liking that might flatter his soldierly stood as inflexible as walls of iron. It was vanity. like hammering upon metal statuary; or stak- The queen, on awaking from her swoon, ing the fated horses upon spears riveted in found herself compelled, in very justice to the stone. Doracles was taken prisoner. The intensity of a true passion, to explain how queen, re-issuing from her tent, crowned with pity had brought it upon her. “I might ask laurel, came riding down the eminence, and it,” said she, “ Doracles, in return,” and here remained at the foot with her generals, while she resumed something of her queen-like digthe prisoners were taken by. Her pale face nity; “ but I feel that my modesty will be kept as royal a countenance of composed pity sufficiently saved by the name of your wife ; as she could manage, while the commoner and a substantial throne, with a return that rebels passed along, aching with their wounded shall nothing perplex or interfere with thee, I arms fastened behind, and shaking back their do now accordingly offer thee, not as the conbloody and blinding locks for want of a hand dition of thy freedom, but as a diversion of to part them. But the blood mounted to her men's eyes and thoughts from what they will cheeks, when the proud and handsome Dora- think ill in me, if they find me rejected.” And cles, whom she now saw for the first time, in getting out that hard word, her voice faltered blushed deeply as he cast a glance at his a little, and her eyes filled with tears. female conqueror, and then stepped haughtily Doracles, with the best grace his latelydefeated spirit could assume, spoke in willing session. Among the other nobles who feasted terms of accepting her offer. They left the him, was one who, having been the companion prison, and his full pardon having been pro- of the late king, had become like a second claimed, the courtiers, with feasts and enter- father to his unhappy daughter. The new tainments, vied whoshould seem best to approve prince observing the melancholy which he their mistress's choice, for so they were quick scarcely affected to repress, and seeing him to understand it. The late captive, who was look up occasionally at a picture which had a really as graceful and accomplished as a proud veil over it, asked him what the picture was spirit would let him be, received and returned that seemed to disturb him so, and why it was all their attention in princely sort, and Daphles veiled. “If it be the portrait of the late king," was beginning to hope that he might turn a said Doracles,“ pray think me worthy of doing glad eye upon her some day, when news was honour to it, for he was a noble prince. Unveil brought her that he had gone from conrt, it, pray. I insist upon it. What! am I not nobody knew whither. The next intelligence worthy to look upon my predecessors, Phorbas!" was too certain. He had passed the frontiers, And at these words he frowned impatiently. and was leaguing with her enemies for another Phorbas, with a trembling hand, but not for struggle.
want of courage, withdrew the black covering; From that day gladness, though not kindness, and the portrait of Daphles, in all her youth went out of the face of Daphles. She wrote and beauty, fashed upon the eyes of Doracles. him a letter, without a word of reproach in it, It was not a melancholy face. It was drawn enough to bring back the remotest heart that before misfortune had touched it, and sparkled had the least spark of sympathy; but he only with a blooming beauty, in which animal spirits answered it in a spirit which showed that he and good-nature contended for predominance. regarded the deepest love but as a wanton Doracles paused and seemed struck. “The trifle. That letter touched her kind wits. She possessor of that face," said he, inquiringly, had had a paper drawn up, leaving him her “ could never bave been so sorrowful as I have throne in case she should die ; but some of her heard ?” “ Pardon me, Sir," answered Phorbas, ministers, availing themselves of her enfeebled “I was as another father to her, and knew all." spirit, had summoned a meeting of the nobles, “ It cannot be," returned the prince. The old at which she was to ide in the dress she man begged his other guests withdraw a wore on the day of victory, the sight of which, while, and then told Doracies how many fond it was thought, with the arguments which and despairing things the queen had said of they meant to use, would prevail upon the him, both before her wits began to fail and assembly to urge her to a revocation of the after. “ Her wits to fail !” murmured the bequest. Her women dressed her whilst she king ; " I have known what it is to feel almost was almost unconscious of what they were a mad impatience of the will; but I knew not doing, for she had now begun to fade quickly, that these gentle creatures, women, could so body as well as mind. They put on her the feel for such a trifle." Phorbas brought out white garments edged with silver waves, in the laurel-crown, and told him how the half of remembrance of the stream of Inachus, the it became bare. The impatient blood of Dorafounder of the Argive monarchy; the spear cles mounted, but not in anger, to his face ; was brought out, to be stuck by the side of the and, breaking up the party, he requested that throne, instead of the sceptre; and their hands the picture might be removed to his own prepared to put the same laurel on her head chamber, promising to return it. which bound its healthy white temples when A whole year, however, did he keep it ; and she sat ou horseback and saw the prisoner go as he had no foreign enemies to occupy his by. But at sight of its twisted and withered time, nor was disposed to enter into the green, she took it in her hand, and looking common sports of peace, it was understood about her in her chair with an air of momen- that he spent the greatest part of his time, tary recollection, began picking it, and letting when he was not in council, in the room where the leaves fall upon the floor. She went on the picture hung. In truth, the image of the thus, leaf after leaf, looking vacantly down- once smiling Daphles haunted him wherever wards, and when she had stripped the circle he went; and to ease himself of the yearning half round, she leaned her cheek against the of wishing her alive again and seeing her face, side of her sick chair, and shutting her eyes he was in the habit of being with it as much quietly, so died.
as possible. His self-will turned upon him, The envoys from Argos went to the court of even in that gentle shape. Millions of times Calydon, where Doracles then was, and bringing did he wish back the loving author of his forhim the diadem upon a black cushion, informed tunes, whom he had treated with so clownish him at once of the death of the queen, and her an ingratitude ; and millions of times did the nomination of him to the throne. He showed sense of the impotence of his wisb run up in little more than a ceremonious gravity at the red hurry to his cheeks, and help to pull them former news; but could ill contain his joy at into a gaunt melancholy. But this is not a the latter, and set off instantly to take pos- repaying sorrow to dwell upon. He was one day, after being in vain expected at council, to believe, that even in those times, the people, found lying madly on the floor of the room, in general, were strong upon points of faith. dead. He had torn the portrait from the wall. The extension of the Greek philosophy may His dagger was in his heart, and his cheek have insensibly rendered them familiar with lay upon that blooming and smiling face, which latitudes of interpretation on the part of others, had it been living, would never have looked | They would not think it impious in Cicero and 80 at being revenged.
Cato to have notions of the Supreme Being more consistent with the elevation of their minds. But for themselves, they adhered,
from habit, to the literal creed of their anXXIIL-SPIRIT OF THE ANCIENT
cestors, as the Greek populace had done before MYTHOLOGY.
them. The jealous enemies of Socrates con
trived to have him put to death on a charge of Frox having a different creed of our own, irreverence for the gods. A frolic of the and alwaysencountering the heathen mythology ' libertine Alcibiades, which, to say the least of in a poetical and fabulous shape, we are apt it, was in bad taste-the defacing the statues to have a false idea of the religious feeling of of Mercury-was followed with important conthe ancients. We are in the habit of supposing, sequences. The history of Socrates had the whatever we allow when we come to reason effect, in after times, at least in the ancient upon the point, that they regarded their fables' world, of saving philosophical speculators from in the same poetical light as ourselves ; that the vindictive egotism of opinion. But even they could not possibly put faith in Jupiter, in the days of Augustus, Ovid wrote a popular Neptune, and Pluto; in the sacrifice of in- work full of mythological fables ; and Virgil nocent turtle doves, the libation of wine, and himself, whose creed perhaps only rejected the notions about Tartarus and Ixion.
what was unkindly, gave the hero of his inUndoubtedly there were multitudes of free- tended popular epic the particular appellation thinkers in the ancient world. Most of the of pious. That Augustus should pique himself Greek poets and philosophers appear to have on the same attribute proves little ; for he differed with the literal notions of the many was a cold-blooded man of the world, and A system of refined theism is understood to
could play the hypocrite for the worst and have been taught to the initiated in the cele- most despotic purposes. Did he now and then brated Mysteries. The doctrines of Epicurus lecture his poetical friends upon this point, were so prevalent in the most intellectual age respecting their own appearances with the of Rome, that Lucretius wrote a poem upon world? There is a curious ode of Horace them, in which he treats their founder as a (Book I. Ode xxxiv.), in which he says, that he divinity; and Virgil, in a well-known passage finds himself compelled to give up his sceptical of the Georgics : “ Felix qui potuit,” &c., notions, and to attend more to public worship, exalts either Epicurus or Lucretius as a blessed because it had thundered one day when the being, who put hell and terror under bis feet. sky was cloudless. The critics are divided in A sickly temperament appears to have made their opinion of his object in this ode. Some him wish, rather than be able, to carry his own think him in earnest, others in jest. It is the scep sm so far; yet he insinuates his dis- only thing of the sort in his works, and is, at beliet in Tartarus, in the sixth book of his epic all events, of an equivocal character, that would poem, where Æneas and the Sibyl, after the serve his purpose on either side of the question. description of the lower world, go out through The opinions of the ancients upon religion the ivory gate, which was the passage of false may be divided into three general classes. visions t. Cæsar, according to a speech of his The great multitude believed anything; the in Sallust, derided the same notions in open very few disbelieved everything; the philosenate ; and Cicero, in other parts of his sophers and poets entertained a refined natural writings, as well as in a public pleading, speaks religion, which, while it pronounced upon of them as fables and impertinence,—“ineptiis nothing, rejected what was evidently unworthy ac fabulis."
of the spirit of the creation, and regarded the But however this plain-dealing may look on popular deities as personifications of its various the part of the men of letters, there is reason workings. All these classes had their extra
vagances, in proportion to their ignorance, or * It is remarkable that Æschylus and Euripides, the
viciousness, or metaphysical perplexity. The two dramatists whose faith in the national religion was mont doubted, are said to have met with strange and
multitude, whose notions were founded on violent deaths. The latter was torn to pieces by dogs, ignorance, habit, and fear, admitted many and the former killed by a tortoise which an eagle let fall absurd, and some cruel imaginations. The upon his bald head, in mistake for a stone.
mere man of the world measured everything from the scene look very like the retributive death-beds
by his own vain and petty standard, and thought which the bigots of all religions are so fond of ascribing to
the whole goods of the universe a scramble + Did Dante forget this, when he took Virgil for his
for the cunning and hypocritical. The overguide through the Inferno ?
refining followers of Plato, endeavouring to