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boy. Here man is the subject, struck the verb, and boy the object. Some verbs, however, admit no object, after them, and the sentence will then consist of only two principal parts, the subject and the verb. All the other parts of a sentence are merely adjuncts, relating to the principal parts, and designed to express some circumstance affecting their signification.

Sentences are of two kinds, simple sentences and compound sentences.

A simple sentence contains but one nominative and one finite verb.

As, “Life is short.” A compound sentence contains two or more simple sen. tences, joined together by one or more connecting words. As, “ Life is short, and art is long.” The different parts of a compound sentence are called members.

Clauses are joined together to form compound sentences by conjunctions and relative pronouns; and phrases are, for the most part, united by prepositions and adverbs; the latter are also frequently employed to connect minor clauses with the other parts of a sentence.

Both the subject and the object of a verb may be expressed as follows:

First. By a single noun or pronoun. As, (John) struck him.]

Secondly. By a series of nouns or pronouns. As, [Diligence, industry, and proper improvement of time) are mate rial duties of the young.

Thirdly. By a substantive, or an infinitive phrase or phrases. As, (The acquisition of knowledge) is one of the most honorable occupations of youth.

Fourthly. By a noun or a pronoun, attended by a minor or relative clause. As, [The veil, which covers from our eyes the events of succeeding years] is a veil woven by the

Fifthly. By an entire member of a compound sentence. As, (He who pretends to great sensibility towards men, and yet has no feeling for the high objects of religion, no heart to admire and adore the great Father of the Universe] has rea son to distrist the truth and delicacy of his sensibility.

hand of mercy.

The object of this lesson is to make the student acquainted with the constituent parts and members of sentences, botb

simple and compound. The exercises that are subjoined, art presented that he may distinguish the phrases from the clauses, the clauses from the sentences, the imperfect sentences from the perfect, and the simple from the compound.


its green

The eye of the passing traveller may mark them, or mark them nou but they stand peacefully in thousands over all the land; and most beautiful do they make it, through all its wide valleys and narrow glens, - its low holms encircled by the rocky walls of some bonny burn, mounts elated with their little crowning groves of plane trees, — its yellow cornfields, - its bare pastoral hill-sides, and all its heathy moors, on whose black bosom lie shining or concealed glades of excessive verdure, inhabited by flowers, and visited only by the far-flying bees.

By arguments so strong. If we could imagine. They all agree in the belief. The fearful consequences. In spite of all admonition and reproof. Feel themselves at liberty. Such an undertaking would be vain. "I am desirous of explaining. For the reasons already given. We cannot but rejoice that. Directed their attention. Attempted to prove. Make themselves accountable. The question which arises has puzzled. Has produced in our mind. Religion has its seat in the heart. Were now out in thousands. Would be expedient. Remains for us to notice. On the Sabbath morning. Overgrown with grass and moss. With somewhat diminished lustre. The daisies of a luxuriant spring had covered the spot. Opportunity of addressing each other. Had fatally infected. With indescribable pleasure. The most remote period of time. We hoped that this sight. The interior of the cavern. Very important purposes. Ilave a tendency to preserve. Withdraws his propitious light. However base or unworthy. Is the emblem of. How boundless. The tender assiduities of friendship. Irregular projecting rocks. Was peculiarly dear. With very great pleasure. The refulgent lamp of nignt. The science which treats of language is called Grammar. "Writing is the art of making thoughts visible.

Now came still Evening on, and Twilight gray
Had in her sober livery all things clad.
The melancholy days have come, the saddest of the year,
Of wailing winds, and naked woods, and meadows brown and sere,
Heaped in the hollows of the grove, the withered leaves lie dead.
They rustle to the eddying gust, and to the rabbit's tread.

The lower animals, as far as we are able to judge, are entirely occupied with the objects of their present perceptions; and the case is nearly the same with the lower orders of our own species.

Diligence, industry and proper improvement of time, are material duties of the young.

Honor and shame from no condition rise ;

Act well your part, there all the honor lies.
Charity, like the sun, brightens every object on which it shines.

Though I speak with the tongue of men and of angels and have not charity, I am nothing.




The previous Exercise having rendered the student familiar with the parts of which a compound sentence is composed, it is now proposed that he be exercised in the construction of such sentences; as in the following


We went.
We went in a carriage.
We went in a carriage to the meeting.
We went in a carriage to the meeting last night.

We went in a carriage to the meeting in Church Street last night.

We went in a carriage to the meeting in Church Street last night, and heard an excellent sermon.

We went in a carriage to the meeting in Church Street last night, with a number of friends, and heard an excellent sermon from the Rev. Mr. Stevens.

We went in a carriage to the meeting in Church Street last night, with a number of friends from the country, and heard an excellent sermon from the Rev. Mr. Stevens, on the duties of children to their parents.

We went in a carriage to the meeting in Church Street last night, with a number of friends from the country, and heard an excellent sermon from the Rev. Mr. Stevens, on the duties of children to their parents, delivered in a very solemn and impressive manner.


In the same manner the student may expand the following simple sentences : My father sailed.

They have done all they could. John related

A cat caught.
If Henry had not disobeyed. A thief was caught.
God created.

The lightning struck.
I remember.

The river rolled. Habitual indolence undermines. The minister preached

I heard John say.

The artist painted Henry declared.

I have purchased. This book contains.

His parents reside. A horse ran away.

The boy fell. Gentleness corrects.

The girls rose. The boys took.

A mad dog bit. The servants returned.

The sheriff took. My father keeps.

The wind blew down. The ship sailed.

The tide overflowed. The master came.

The earthquake destroyed A large number of peopled assembled. The beggar came. Geography teaches.

I heard him sing.



The natural order of an English sentence is to place the subject with its adjuncts, if any, at the beginning of the sentence, and the verb and the objective, with their respective adjuncts after it. This order, however, it is not necessary always to preserve, but on the contrary the beauty and harmony of the sentence are often greatly increased by a departure from it. With respect to the cadence, or close of a sentence, care should be taken that it be not abrupt nor unpleasant. In order to give a sentence its proper close, the longest member and the fullest words should be reserved for the conclusion. But in the distribution of the members, and in the cadencc of the period, as well as in the sentences themselves, variety must be observed; for the mind and the ear soon tire with a frequent repetition of the same tone.

In the following example the student will notice the different order in which the parts of the sentence are arranged, while they still collectively convey the same idea. The different forms of construction, which depend on the power

of varying the arrangement, have a material effect upon the precision and harmony of the sentence; and therefore that arrangement is always to be preferred, which, while it sounds most harmoniously to the ear, conveys most clearly the idea intended to be expressed.


The poet must study variety, above all things, not only in professed descriptions of the scenery, but in frequent allusions to natural objects, which, of course, often occur in pastorals.

Above all things, the poet, not only in professed descriptions of the scenery, but in the frequent allusions to natural objects which occur of course in pastorals, must study variety.

Not only in professed descriptions of the scenery, but in the frequent allusions to natural objects, which occur, of course, in pastorals, the poet must, above all things, study variety.*


{The student will notice that in the following sentences, the members are very badly arranged. It is required of him to present them in such order as will make them most harmonious and exhibit the sense to the best advantage.]

There was a feeling of strangeness, as he passed through the village, that every thing should be just as it was when he left.

In the trees, there was a melancholy gusty sound, and the night was shutting in abont it, as they drew near the house.

But not only from its relation to the past night, the morning is a fit time for devotion, but considered as an introduction to a new day.

To strengthen a character, which will fit me for heaven or for hell, to perform actions which will never be forgotten, to receive impressions which may never be effaced, to that world where I have often gone astray I am to return.

Temptations which have often subdued me, this day, I am to meet; again with opportunities of usefulness, I am to help in deciding the hap

* It will save much time and trouble in copying, if the student, in the preparation of his exercises, pursue the following method: placing the different members of the sentence in separate lines and numbering them, Qe may afterwards arrange them by their numbers as in the following example :

1 We,
2 with the rest of our party,
3 notwithstanding the storm and darkness,
4 pursued,
5 our journey.
1, 4, 5, 3,

4 1 5 2 3
1 4 5 2

4 1 5 3 2 1 3 4 5

5 1 4 2 3 2 1 4 5

5 1 4 3 2 2 3 4

2 4 1 5 3 3 1 4 4

&c. § 2

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