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trance.

ance but not agonizing horror steadfast faith but not presumptuous assur ance lively lope but not seraphic abstraction the deep sense of human infirmity but not the unblushing profession of leprous depravity the holy and heavenly communion but not vague experiences nor the intemperate

Do not flatter yourself with the idea of enjoying perfect happiness there is no such thing in the world.

Keep close to thy business it will keep thee from wickedness poverty and shame.

The path of truth is a plain and it is a safe path that of falsehood is a perplexing maze. Do not

fatter yourself with the idea of enjoying perfect happiness for there is no such thing in the world.

Were all books reduced to their quintessence many a bulky author would inake his appearance in a penny paper there would be no such thing in nature as a folio the works of an age would be contained on a few shelves not to mention millions of volumes that would be utterly annihilated.

Insert the Period, Question, and Exclamation Point, where they respectively

belong in the following sentences.

Honor all men Fear God Truth is the basis of every virtue Every deviation from veracity is criminal The Latin language is now called a dead language because it is not spoken as the mother tongue of any nation America was discovered in the night of Oct 11th OS AD 1492 Have you ever read its history The Rambler was written by Samuel Johnson LL D Sir Josh Reynolds F R S was a very distinguished artist

In the formation of man what wonderful proofs of the magnificence of God's works and how poor and trifling in comparison are the productions of man Why do you weave around you this web of uccupation and then complain that you cannot break it How superior is the internal construction of the productions of nature to all the works of men

XV.

DERIVATION AND COMPOSITION OF WORDS.,

Words, with regard to their origin, are divided into primitive and derivative; and, with regard to their form, into sim. ple and compound.

A primitive word is a word which is in its original form, and is not derived from any other word; as, man, good, A derivative word is that which is derived from another word; as, manful, manhood, manly, manliness; goodness, good. ly, &c; contented, contentment, contenting, contentedly, &c.; which are derived respectively from the primitive words, man, good, content.

content.

A simple word consists of one word, not compounded; as sea, able, self.

A compound word is a word that is made up of two or more words, or of one word and some syllable added; as, sea-water, unable, myself. *

Words are found, on examination, to be reducible to groups or families, and are related to each other by identity of origin and similarity of signification. Thus the words justly, justice, justify, justification, justiciary, adjust, readjust, unjust, injustice, &c., are all kindred words, connected with the primitive word just. The primitive words of a language are generally few in number, and language is rendered copious and expressive by the formation of derivatives and compounds from the primitives.

When a syllable is added, in the composition of words, it takes its name from the position in which it is placed with regard to the word. If it is placed before the word it is called a prefix, if at the end of the word, it is called an affix.

In derivative words, there are generally three, and sometimes four things to be considered; namely, first, the root

, from which the word is derived ; secondly, the prefix; thirdly, the affix; fourthly, the letters which are added for the sake of sound, and which may be called euphonic letters.

The root is cometimes called the radical letters of a word. Thus, from the Latin word venio, which significs to come, and its variation ventum, many English words are derived, in the following manner: The first three letters of the word are taken, as the radical letters, or root of the word. By adding the prefix contra, which signifies against, we have confraven; to which is added the euphonic letter e, to lengthen the last syllable, and thus is composed the word contravene, which means to come against, or oppose. In a similar manner, we have the words prevent, invent, circum vent, convent, and their derivatives.

* Some compound words are formed by the union of two other words; as sea-water, semi-annual. Such words are generally recognized by the hyphen placed between the words composing the compound. Mr. Goold Brown says, that "permanent compounds are consolidated,” that is, are written without the hyphen. But it is contended that " glass-house” is as much a permanent compound as “bookseller.” The truth is, that no better reason can be given for the use or omission of the hyphen, than caprice.

† The student who wishes to study this department of etymology, will find it more fully displayed in Horne Tooke's “ Diversions of Purley; Rice's “ Composition,” McCulloch's “Grammar," and Towne’s “ Analysis of Derivative Words.” In the first mentioned of these works, the “ Diver sions of Purley,” may be found a learned

and ingenious account of the de rivation and meaning of many of the adverbs, conjunctions and preposi bons nf the English language.

Many of the prefixes used in the composition of English words are Latin or Greek prepositions; and the effect which they produce upon the meaning of the root contributes much to the copiousness of the English language.

There are so many other ways of deriving words from one another, that it would be extremely difficult and nearly impossible to enumerate them A few instances, only, of the various modes of derivation, can be given here.

Some nouns are derived from other nouns, or from adjectives, by add ing the affix hood, or head, ship, ry, wick, rick, dom, ian, ment, and age; as, from man, by adding the affix hood, comes manhood, from knight, Knighthood, &c., from false,

falsehood, &c. Nouns ending in hood, or head, are such as signify character or quality; as, manhood, falsehood.

Nouns ending in ship are those that signify office, employment, state, or condition; as lordship, stewardship, hardship.

Nouns ending in ery signify action or habit; as, slavery, knavery bravery.

Nouns ending in wick, rick, and dom, denote dominion, jurisdiction, or condition; as bailiwick, bishoprick, dukedom, kingdom, freedom.

Nouns ending in ian signify profession; as, physician, musician, &c.

Nouns that end in ment or age signify the act, or habit; as command. ment, usage.

Nouns that end in ard denote character or habit; as drunkard, dotard

Nouns ending in kin, ling, ing, ock, el, generally signify diminution; lamb, lambkin, duck, ducking, hill, hillock, cock, cockerel.

Nouns ending in tude, or ude, generally signify state, condition, or a pacity; as plenitude, aptitude, &c.

ALPHABETICAL SYNOPSIS OF PREFIXES.

A, Ab, Abs, from.
Ad, Ac, Al, Ap, At, &c, to.
Ambi, both,
Amb, amphi, round.
Ante, before.
Anti, against
Ana, back.
Apo, Aph, from.
Auto, one's self.
Be, to make,
Bene, well.
Bi, Bis, two, half.
Biblio, book
Bio, life.
Centu, hundred.
Chrono, time.
Circum, round.
Co, Con, Col, Com, Cor. with.
Contra, against
Cosmo, the world.
Caunter, opposite.

De, from, down.
Deca, ten.
Di, Dis, &c., separation, not.
Dia, through.
Dys, bad, difficult, hard.
E, Ex, El, Em, Er, &c., out of
En, Em, in.
Epi, upon.
Equi, equal.
Extra, beyond.
For, against.
Fore, prior.
Geo, the earth.
Hetero, of divers kinds.
Hex, Hexa, six.
Homo, of one kind.
Hydro, water.
Hyper, over.
In, Im, Il, not, with an adjes

tive, into, with a verb, on.
Inter, among.

I rais.

Intro, within.
Juri, legal.
Juxta, near
Litho, stone.
Male, evil.
Manu, hand
Mis, error.
Mono, one,
Multi, many,
Myth, fabalous.
Noct, night.
Non, Ne, not.
Ob, Oc. &c., before, against.
Oct, eight.
Omni, all.
Ornitho, bird.
Ortho, right.
Oste, bone.
Out, beyond.
Over, above.
Pan, all.
Para, against
Penta, five.
Per, through.
Peri, around.
Phil, friendly.
Physi, nature.
Pleni, full.
Poly, many.
Post, after.
Pre, before.

Preter, beyonal.
Pro, before, oud.
Pyro, fire.
Quad, four.
Re, again.
Retro, back.
Se, separation.
Semi.

Demi, half.

Hemi, Sex, six. Sine, without Soli, alone. Steno, short. Stereo, solid. Sub, Suc, &c., under Subter, under. Super, Supra, aborx Sur, over. Syn, Syl, &c., with Tetra, four. Theo, God. Topo, place. Trans, across. Tri, three. Typo, type. Under, beneath Uni, one. With, opposition Zoo, animal life.

ALPHABETICAL SYNOPSIS OF AFFla es.

}

Age, rank, office.
Ance, ancy,
Ence, ency,

state or act of.
Ant, ent,
Ate, ary, having.
Ble, that may be.
Bleness, the quality of being able.
Bly, in a manner.
Cy, ty, y, ity, state, condition.
En, in.
Er, or, an, ian, ex, ess, ee, eer, ist,

ite, san, zen, the person who.
Fy, to make.
Ies, science, art.
Ion, ity, ment, the state or act of
Ish, some degree.

Ism, doctrine, stule.
Ive, ic, ical, ile, ine, ing, it, ial, ent

ant, pertaining to, having the groad

ity, relating to.
Ize, to make.
Less, without.
Ly, like, resembling.
Ness, quality of
Oid, resembling.

nature of.
Ory, some, s like, full of
Ric, dom, possession.
Ship, office.
Ude, state of being.
Ure, act of, state of being
Ward, in a direction.

Ous, ose,

AFFIXES TO AFFIXES.

Ave, ated, ating, ater, ator, ately, ateness, ation, ative, atory, able, ably, Ableness, ability, ty's, ties, ties'.

Ant, antly, ance, ancy, ancy's, ancies, ancies'.
Ful, fully, fulness.
Fy, fies, fiest, fied, fying, fier, fication, cative, cator.
A, ally, alness, alism, alist, ality, ty's, &c.
Ize, ized, izing, ization, ism, ic, izable.
Ous, ously, ousness, osity, ity, y, ty.
Ive, ively, iveness, ivity.
Ile, ilely, ileness, ility.

The English language has, in many instances, two sets of derivative words, expressive of the same thing, the one of Saxon, and the other of Latin origin. Thus,

SAXON.
LATIN

SAXON.

LATIN. Fearful, Timid.

Height, Altitude. Swiftness, Velocity.

Lifeless,

Exanimate. Womanish, Effeminate. Yearly,

Annual. Building, Edifice.

Watery,

Aqueous.
Fewness,
Paucity.

Hearer,

Auditor.
And, in many instances, the nouns are of Saxon origin, while the cor-
responding adjectives are from the Latin. Thus,
NOUNS FROM THE SAXON. ADJECTIVES FROM THE LATIN.
Beginning,

Initial.
Body,

Corporeal.
Brother,

Fraternal.
Father,

Paternal.
Mother,

Maternal.
Cat,

Feline.
Day,

Diurnal.
Dog,

Canine.
Earth,

Terrestrial.
Flock,

Gregarious.
Flour,

Farinaceous.
Glass,

Vitreous, &c.

The student is now prepared to write a list of words de rived from the proposed simple words, according to the following

Example.
From the word press, the following words are derived
Presser,
pressed,

pression,
pressure,
pressive,

pressingly,

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