« السابقةمتابعة »
See, perceive, observe, behold, look at.
Think, reflect, ponder, muse, imagine, suppose, velievo deem, consider. *
In the sentences which follow, it is required to change the words as in the following examples. The student will notice that every change of words will, in most cases, produce some corresponding change in the idea ; but, as the object of the exercise is to give him a command of language, it is not
* It may here be remarked that phrases, as well as words, may be expressed by appropriate synonymes. Technically speaking, the term synonyme is generally applied to simple terms. But a compound term or phrase may be sometimes expressed by a synonymous word; and a simple term may be also expressed by a synonymous phrase. It will be unneces. sary to present in this place, any list of words for the pupil to be exercised upon, as the living teacher, or the pupil himself, may easily select them from any volume at hand. But it may here be remarked that exercises on synonymous phrases may be considered as more valuable than those on simple terms, because they may generally be expressed with greater pre cision. But the value of exercises of both kinds is clearly and forcibly set forth by Mr. Murray, in the 'Exercises' appended to his larger Grammar, in the following language:
On variety of Expression. Besides the practice of transposing the parts of sentences, the compiler recommends to tutors, frequently to exercise their pupils, in exhibiting some of the various modes in which the same sentiment may be properly expressed. This practice will extend their knowledge of the language, afford a variety of expression, and habituate them to deliver their sentiments with clearness, ease, and propriety. It will likewise enable those who may be engaged in studying other langua ges, not only to construe them with more facility into English, but also to observe and apply more readily, many of the turns and phrases, which are best adapted to the genius of those languages.'
A few examples of this kind of exercise, will be sufficient to explain the nature of it, and to show its utility.
The brother deserved censure more than his sister.
If it can be done without inconvenience, I shall not fail to attend the con ference.
I shall not absent myself from the conference, unless circumstances ren der it necessary.
I propose to be present at the conference, if I can do so consistently with my other engagements.
purpose to be at the conference, unless I am prevented by other avoca tions.
Unless I am restrained by other imperative duties, I shall cortainly be a the conference.
I will be at the conference if nothing unforeseen prevents.
I shall by no means nbser.: my self from the conference it I van possibly attend it.
deemed important in theso Exercises to exact strict verbal accuracy. .
He is free from care.
I found that he was an enemy.
Law and order are not remembered.
On that elevated ground where the verdant turf looks dark with fire, yen terday stood a noble house.
Thinking deeply on the nature of my existence, the contradicticns I had suffered filled me with humbleness.
I began to think that there was some deception in the sensation conveyed by my eyes.
How loved, how valued once avails thee not,
'Tis all thou art and all the great shall be. The boy translated the book to my lodgings, and conveyed a chair to the table; and I sat down with the intention of bringing the first chapter, which holds a very interesting story from the French into the English language, in a style suitable to fetch the author's meaning clearly to everv intellect
We get up from our thinkings with hearts softened and conquered and we come back into life as into a shadowy vista where we have “disquieted ourselves in vain."
Thus he went on until the sun drew near to his mid-day and the augmented heat, preyed upon his force. He then cast round about him," for some more commodious path.
Charity, like the sun, rubs up every object on which it shines.
He who is used to turn aside from the world, and hold communication with himself in retirement will sometimes at least hear the veracities which the world do not speak of to him. A more sound teacher will elevate his voice and rouse up within the heart those hidden suggestions which the world had overpowered and put douri.
Among all our bad passions there is a strong and intimate joining. When any one of them is taken as a child into our family it seldom for sakes us until it has fathered upon us all its relations.
The Creator endowed man with a lofty countenance and directed him to look up to heaven.
In the following extracts the student may alter the words in Italic, so as to complete the rhymes; as in the following
Did sweeter sounds adorn my flowing tongue,
A shepherd's dog, unskilled in sports,
Says Ren'ard,“'T is a cruel case,
Thus slander tries, whate'er it can,
Not in the solitude,
Only in savage forest
Even here do I behold
Through the great city rolled,
“ Without a vain, without a grudging heart,
At length the world, renewed by calm sleep,
Confused, and struck with silence at the deed,
Were prisoned in life's narrow limit;
We saw no better world beyond;
Oh, who could theni endure to live?
A few examples are presented below, in which the words en Italic are improperly used for others which in some respects they resemble.
Example 1st. “ The lamb is tame in its disposition."
Here the word tame is incorrectly used for gentle ; tameLess is produced by discipline; gentleness belongs to tho watura! disposition.
Newton discovered the telescope, and Harvey invented the circulation of the blood."
In this example the words discovered and invented should change places. We discover what was hidden; we invent what is new.
“ Caius Marcus displayed courage when he stood unmoved with his hand in the fire ; Leonidas displayed his fortitude at Thermopylæ when with three hundred Spartans he opposed the entire army of Xerxes.”
Here also courage and fortitude should change places. Courage enables us to meet danger; fortitude gives us strength to endure pain
From such examples the student will learn the importance of proper attention to the exact meaning of words. A loose style of writing is the result of the careless use of words, improperly considered as synonymous.
I heard a large noise, which, though made at a big distance, must hav been made by a very great animal.
The work is capable of great improvement, although it was written by a very susceptible man.
Múch men were present, and their united voices caused many confusion.
Franklin framed the fact that lightning is caused by electricity. Sir Isaac Newton discovered the telescope. Solon invented a new set of laws for the city of Athens.
A wicked man fabricates sorrow for his sins, and often feigns an excuse for his crimes.
The book has many vices, but the defect is not in the author, who has sufficiently shown his abhorrence of faults.
I know the man and am acquainted with his faults. We are agreeably amazed to see our friends returning so soon. We are surprised that they accomplished their business so early, as well as astonished at the unexpected events which nearly threatened their ruin.
We often know the spot where a thing is, but it is not easy to find our the exact place where it happened.
When dissensions arise among neighbors, their passions often interfere to hinder accommodations; when members of a family consult inti rest or humor, rather than affection, there will necessarily be variances ; and