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See, perceive, observe, behold, look at.

Think, reflect, ponder, muse, imagine, suppose, velievo deem, consider. *

In the sentences which follow, it is required to change the words as in the following examples. The student will notice that every change of words will, in most cases, produce some corresponding change in the idea ; but, as the object of the exercise is to give him a command of language, it is not

* It may here be remarked that phrases, as well as words, may be expressed by appropriate synonymes. Technically speaking, the term synonyme is generally applied to simple terms. But a compound term or phrase may be sometimes expressed by a synonymous word; and a simple term may be also expressed by a synonymous phrase. It will be unneces. sary to present in this place, any list of words for the pupil to be exercised upon, as the living teacher, or the pupil himself, may easily select them from any volume at hand. But it may here be remarked that exercises on synonymous phrases may be considered as more valuable than those on simple terms, because they may generally be expressed with greater pre cision. But the value of exercises of both kinds is clearly and forcibly set forth by Mr. Murray, in the 'Exercises' appended to his larger Grammar, in the following language:

On variety of Expression. Besides the practice of transposing the parts of sentences, the compiler recommends to tutors, frequently to exercise their pupils, in exhibiting some of the various modes in which the same sentiment may be properly expressed. This practice will extend their knowledge of the language, afford a variety of expression, and habituate them to deliver their sentiments with clearness, ease, and propriety. It will likewise enable those who may be engaged in studying other langua ges, not only to construe them with more facility into English, but also to observe and apply more readily, many of the turns and phrases, which are best adapted to the genius of those languages.'

A few examples of this kind of exercise, will be sufficient to explain the nature of it, and to show its utility.

The brother deserved censure more than his sister.
The sister was less reprehensible than her brother.
The sister did not deserve reprehension so much as her brother.
Reproof was more due to the brother, than to the sister.
I will attend the conference, if I can do it conveniently.
I intend to be at the conference, unless it should be inconvenient.
If I can do it with convenience, I purpose to be present at the conference.

If it can be done without inconvenience, I shall not fail to attend the con ference.

I shall not absent myself from the conference, unless circumstances ren der it necessary.

I propose to be present at the conference, if I can do so consistently with my other engagements.

purpose to be at the conference, unless I am prevented by other avoca tions.

Unless I am restrained by other imperative duties, I shall cortainly be a the conference.

I will be at the conference if nothing unforeseen prevents.
If I am master of my own time I will not neglect the conference.

I shall by no means nbser.: my self from the conference it I van possibly attend it.

deemed important in theso Exercises to exact strict verbal accuracy. .

Example 1st.
He continued the work without stopping.
He continued the work without resting.
He continued the work without cessation.
He continued the work without intermission.
He continued the work without delay.
He continued the work without leaving off:
He continued the work without interruption.
He continued the work without obstacle.
Hz continued the work without impediment, &c.

Example 2d.

He is free from care.
He is free from solicitude.
He is exempted from anxiety.
He is without concern, &c.

Example 3d.

I found that he was an enemy.
I found that he was a foe.
I found that he was an adversary.
I found that he was an opponent.
I found that he was an antagonist.

* Exercises.

Law and order are not remembered.

On that elevated ground where the verdant turf looks dark with fire, yen terday stood a noble house.

Thinking deeply on the nature of my existence, the contradicticns I had suffered filled me with humbleness.

I began to think that there was some deception in the sensation conveyed by my eyes.

How loved, how valued once avails thee not,
To whom connected or by whom begot;
A pile of dust is all remains of thee,

'Tis all thou art and all the great shall be. The boy translated the book to my lodgings, and conveyed a chair to the table; and I sat down with the intention of bringing the first chapter, which holds a very interesting story from the French into the English language, in a style suitable to fetch the author's meaning clearly to everv intellect

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We get up from our thinkings with hearts softened and conquered and we come back into life as into a shadowy vista where we have “disquieted ourselves in vain."

Thus he went on until the sun drew near to his mid-day and the augmented heat, preyed upon his force. He then cast round about him," for some more commodious path.

Charity, like the sun, rubs up every object on which it shines.

He who is used to turn aside from the world, and hold communication with himself in retirement will sometimes at least hear the veracities which the world do not speak of to him. A more sound teacher will elevate his voice and rouse up within the heart those hidden suggestions which the world had overpowered and put douri.

Among all our bad passions there is a strong and intimate joining. When any one of them is taken as a child into our family it seldom for sakes us until it has fathered upon us all its relations.

The Creator endowed man with a lofty countenance and directed him to look up to heaven.

In the following extracts the student may alter the words in Italic, so as to complete the rhymes; as in the following


Did sweeter sounds adorn my flowing tongue,
Than ever man pronounced or angel chanted ;
Had I all knowledge, human and godlike,
That thought can reach, or science can define; &c.

Rhyme completed.
Did sweeter sounds adorn my flowing tongue,
Than ever man pronounced or angel sung ;
Had I all knowledge, human and divine,
That thought can reach or science can define, &cb


A shepherd's dog, unskilled in sports,
Picked up acquaintance of all kinds,
Among the rest, a fox he knew;
By frequent chat their friendship increased.

Says Ren'ard,“'T is a cruel case,
That man should stigmatize our generation.
No doubt, among us, rogues you find,
As among dogs and human sort.
And yet, (unknown to me and you)
There may be honest men and not false.

Thus slander tries, whate'er it can,
To put us on the foot with the human race

Not in the solitude,
Alone, may man commune with Heaven, or behold,

Only in savage forest
And sunny vale the present Deity;
Or only hear his voice
Where the winds whisper and the waves are glad.

Even here do I behold
Thy steps, Almighty! here, amidst the crowd

Through the great city rolled,
With everlasting murmur, deep and strong-
Choking the ways that wind
'Mongst the proud piles, the work of human kind.

“ Without a vain, without a grudging heart,
To him who gives us all, I yield a portion ;
From him you came, from him accept it here-
A frank and sober, more than costly, entertainment."
He spoke, and bade the welcome tables spread;
Then talked of virtue till the time of rest,
When the grave household round his hall repair,
Warncd by the bell, and close the hour with supplication

At length the world, renewed by calm sleep,
Was strong for toil; the dappled morn arose
Before the pilgrims part, the younger crept
Near the closed cradle, where an infant slumbered,
And writhed his neck; the landlord's little pride
O strange return !-grew black, and gasped, and expired.
Horror of horrors ! what! his only son !
How looked our hermit when the deed was completed !
Not hell, though hell's black jaws in sunder part,
And breathe blue fire, could more assault his breast.

Confused, and struck with silence at the deed,
He flies; but, trembling, fails to fly with haste.
If all our hopes and all our apprehensions,

Were prisoned in life's narrow limit;
If, travellers through this vale of tears,

We saw no better world beyond;
Oh, what could check the rising sigh?
What earthly thing could pleasure bestow ?
Oh, who could venture then to expire ?

Oh, who could theni endure to live?

A few examples are presented below, in which the words en Italic are improperly used for others which in some respects they resemble.

Example 1st. “ The lamb is tame in its disposition."

Here the word tame is incorrectly used for gentle ; tameLess is produced by discipline; gentleness belongs to tho watura! disposition.

E.cample 2d.


Newton discovered the telescope, and Harvey invented the circulation of the blood."

In this example the words discovered and invented should change places. We discover what was hidden; we invent what is new.

Example 3d.

“ Caius Marcus displayed courage when he stood unmoved with his hand in the fire ; Leonidas displayed his fortitude at Thermopylæ when with three hundred Spartans he opposed the entire army of Xerxes.”

Here also courage and fortitude should change places. Courage enables us to meet danger; fortitude gives us strength to endure pain

From such examples the student will learn the importance of proper attention to the exact meaning of words. A loose style of writing is the result of the careless use of words, improperly considered as synonymous.


I heard a large noise, which, though made at a big distance, must hav been made by a very great animal.

The work is capable of great improvement, although it was written by a very susceptible man.

Múch men were present, and their united voices caused many confusion.

Franklin framed the fact that lightning is caused by electricity. Sir Isaac Newton discovered the telescope. Solon invented a new set of laws for the city of Athens.

A wicked man fabricates sorrow for his sins, and often feigns an excuse for his crimes.

The book has many vices, but the defect is not in the author, who has sufficiently shown his abhorrence of faults.

I know the man and am acquainted with his faults. We are agreeably amazed to see our friends returning so soon. We are surprised that they accomplished their business so early, as well as astonished at the unexpected events which nearly threatened their ruin.

We often know the spot where a thing is, but it is not easy to find our the exact place where it happened.

When dissensions arise among neighbors, their passions often interfere to hinder accommodations; when members of a family consult inti rest or humor, rather than affection, there will necessarily be variances ; and

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