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which will prepare us for that happy home where the weary are at rest.
By the use of the present or perfect participle instead of the verb; as, FIe was called to the exercise of the supreme power at a very early age, and evinced a great knowledge of government and law's, and was regarded by mankind with a respect which is seldom bestowed on one so young.
In this sentence the use of the participles removes one of the conjunctions, which young writers are very apt to repeat unnecessarily; thus, Called to the exercise of the supreme power at a very early age, and evincing a great knowledge of government and laws, he was regarded by mankind with a respect which is seldom bestowed on one so young.
By the use of the participles instead of the relative clause, as, " The smiles that encourage severity of judgement hide malice and insincerity.” Smiles encouraging severity of judgement hide malice and insincerity.
For the sake of emphasis, or to gratify a taste for singularity, some writers have adopted the poetical style in prose, placing the verb before its nominative ; thus, When we go, for go we must, &c. Proceed we now to the second subject of our consideration. Recognize we here the hand of an Almighty power.
In some instances, perhaps not strictly proper, we find the definite article placed before the relative pronoun; as, TL 3 things, the which you have seen and understood, &c. It is to be observed, that in all the changes suggested
che foregoing models, there must be some slight change in the idea, but still the identity of the thought is sufficiently pre: served in all the changes suggested. *
* Under the head cî variety of expression, may be noticed some few poculiarities and improprieties, which are sometimes heard, especially in colloquial intercourse, and which, in some instances, are not notioed by any grammatical authority. And first, the improper use of if for whether, as follows: “She asked me if I would go with her.” It should be, “ She Asked me whether I would go, &c. Again, the improper use of mo for my self, and of you for yourself. As, I am going to wash me. Do you intend to wash you? It should be myself and yourself. Again, The use of as for that; as, I do not know as I shall go. I do not know as I could tell when. It should be that. I do not know that I shall go. I do not know that I could tell when. Again, The use of any and got with a negative ; as, I have
Examples of some of the preceding methods of inversion and transposition.
The mind is sustained by hope.
Example 2d. Idleness, ease, and prosperity, tend to generate folly and vice.
The tendency of idleness, ease, and prosperity is tu generate folly and vice.
Idleness, ease, and prosperity have a tendency, &c.
not got any book. It would be better to say, I have no book. Such words as fetch for bring, sweat for perspiration, and many others of a similar character, are considered, to say the least, inelegant, and are to be avoided. The word so is sometimes heard in use for therefore ; as, Charles did not wish to go, so I did not urge him. It should be, Charles did not wish to go, therefore I did not urge him. Other is sometimes improperly followed by but instead of than; as, I saw no other but him. It should be, I saw no other than him. We sometimes hear the demonstrative pronoun improperly used for the personal pronoun; as, Those who hear must obey. It should be, They who hear must obey. We sometimes heas such expres sions as this: I know of hardly for scarcely) a passage, &c. It would be better to say, I know of no passage, &c. The past tenses of the word lay ito place) are very frequently and improperly used for the corre ponding tenses of' lie (to lie down). Thus, The water laid in the pool. It sh uld be, lay in the pool. You have laid abed too long. It should be, You have lain, &c. Again, We frequently find a want of correspondence in the different parts of a sentence, as follows: He did not mention Leonora, nor that her. father was dead. It is better to say, He did not mention Leonora, nor the death of her father. These expressions fall under grammatical rule.
In sentences where the negative adverb occurs, it should be followed by the negative conjunction. Thus, " Thou canst not tell when e it cometh and whither it goeth," should be, Thou canst not tell whence it cometh nor whither it goeth.
In the use of prepositions we find many manifest improprieties. As nú certain rule can be laid down with regard to them, a few examples are pre bented, to show whai prepositions may be properly used with certain words It may, however, be remarked that the same preposition that follows a verb or adverb, should generally follow the noun, &c., which is derived from it, as, confide in, confidence in; disposed to tyrannize, a disposition to tyranny, &c. Accuse of falsehood. Differ from.
Polly and vice are too frequently the consequences of illo aess, case, and prosperity. *
Exercises on the principles of the preceding methods of Inver
sion and Transposition. Providence alone can order the changing of the seasons.
Can you expect to be exempted from these troubles which all mus suffer?
Earth shall claim thy growth, to be resolved to earth again.
Indeed, if we could arrest time, and strike off the wheels of his chariot, and, like Joshua, bid the sun stand still, and make opportunity tarry, as ong as we had occasion for it, this were something to excuse our delay or at least to mitigate and abate the folly and unreasonableness of it.
* The word it commonly called the neuter pronoun, is sometimes very serviceable in enabling us to alter the arrangement. Thus, It is hope that sustains the mind. It is by hope that the mind is sustained, &c. Ser Whately's Rhetoric, Part 3d, Chap. 2d, Part 11th.
person, in a thing.
Disappointed in or of. † Profit by.
Provide with, for, on
Reduce under or to.
Regard to or for.
Worthy of. **
* Addison has, "conversant among the writings, &c:: and, conversant about worldly affairs. Generally speaking,
with is preferable. We are disappointed of a thing when we do not get it; and disappointed in it when we have it, and find that it does not answer our expectations.
1. Glad of," when the cause of joy is something gained or possessed ; and ". at,"' when something befalls another; as, “Jonah was glad of the gourd ; " He that is glad at calamities," &c.
$ " Reduce under," is to conquer or subdue."
i A taste of a thing, implies actual enjoyment of it; but a taste for it, implies only a capacity for enjoyment; as, “When we have had a taste of the pleasures of virtue, we can have no taste for those of vice."
** Many of these words sometimes take other prepositions after them, to express various meanings; thus, for example, "Fall in, to comply; " " Fall off, to for. sake; " " Fall out, to happen; * Fall upon, to attack ;" *Fall to." to begin en gerly," &c.
The records of Scripture exhibit no character more resnarkable and mstructive than that of the Patriarch Joseph. He is one who is beheld by us, tried in all the vicissitudes of fortune; from the condition of a slave rising to be ruler of the land of Egypt; and in every statiou, favoj is acquired by him with God and man, by his wisdom and virtue. When he was overseer of Potiphar's house he proved his fidelity by strong 'emptations, which were honorably resisted by him.
When the artifices of a false woman threw him into prison, he was soon rendered conspicuous even in that dark mansion by his integrity and prudence.
Poetry is sublime when any great and good affection, as piety or pat riotism, is awakened in the mind by it.
But in this dark and bewildered state an opposite direction is taken by the aspiring tendency of our nature and a very misplaced ambition is fed The mind is sustained by hope. Idleness, ease, and prosperity tend to generate folly and vice.
The beauty displayed in the earth equals the grandeur conspicuous in the heavens.
Solon, the Athenian, effected a great change in the government of his country:
The Spartans considered war as the great business of life. For that reason they trained their children to laborious exercise, and instilled into their minds the principles of temperance and frugality.
He sacrificed his future ease and reputation that he might enjoy present pleasure.
When virtue abandons us, and conscience reproaches us, we becoma terrified with imaginary evils.
Expect no more from the world than it is able to afford you.
It is a favorite opinion with some, that certain modes of instruction are more profitable than others, or at least that there are some branches of study which give more full and constant employment to the intellectual faculties.
While many considerations allure the young and enterprising to com mercial pursuits, the amount of capital which is needed, tends to limit the number of those who thus employ themselves.
The eye could scarcely reach tħe lofty and noble ceiling, the sides be. ing regularly formed with spars, and the whole place presenting the idea of a magnificent theatre, that was illuminated with a vast profusion of lights.
An endless variety of characters, dispositions, and passions, diversifies wie wide circle of human affairs.
A crowd that obstructed his passage awakened him from the tranquillity 01' meditation. He raised his eyes and saw the chief vizier, who had returned from the divan and was entering his palace
Let us remember that of small incidents the system of human life is chozfly composed.
Her temper and her capacity were the foundation of her singular talents for government. She was endowed with a great command over herself and she soon obtaired an uncontrolled ascendancy over the people
Few sovereigns of England succeeded to the throne in more difficult circumstances, and by none was the government unifornily conducted 60 sucessfully and felicitiously.
The enemy was subdued and the garrison was silenced, and the victori ous army returned triumphing.
To be docile and attentive is required of the young.
Miss Hannah Moore's writirgs have produced no small influence on the morals of the people.
The elegance of her manners is as conspicuous as the beauty of her person.
He took great pains that he might obtain the reward.
Providence has furnished us with talents for performing our duties and reason to gui le in their performance.
We can see the wisdoin of God in all his works.
FORMATION OF COMPOUND SENTENCES FROM SIMPLE
In every composition there should be a due intermixture of long and short sentences. For this reason the student should understand how to form compound sentences from simple ones. In the prosecution of this work, he must recollect that in every sentence there must be some connecting principle among the parts. Some one object must reign and be predomi. nant. There is commonly in every well-formed sentence, som person or thing which is the governing word, and this should be continued so, if possible, from the beginning to the end of the sentence.
Another principle, which he must also bear in mind, is that
* Professor Newman says, in his Rhetoric, that “ Vivacity of Style is sometimes attained by the omission of conjunctions and the consequent division of the discourse into short sentences." The following example illustrates his remark:
“A3 the storm increased with the night, the sea was lashed into tremen dous confusion, and there was a fearful sullen sound of rushing wares and brcken surges, while deep called unto deep.”
“ The storm increased with the night. The sea was lashed into cremendous confusion. There was a fearful sullen sound of rushing waves and bruken surses. Derp called unto deep."