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ments should be accompanied with him health, temperance, and incertificates of Canadian origin. dustry, and one or two hundred

Any interruption to the timber pounds, I am persuaded that in trade would diminish the market the ordinary course of things, he for grain; since a very large body would be remunerated a thousand of consumers are found in the rafts- fold for bis privations. men, who collect and convey the And, notwithstanding all I have timber froin the lakes and rivers said of the difficulties of the early to Quebec, and in the crews of five settler without money, a young man or six hundred vessels who reple- of industry, enterprize, and agrinish some part at least of their cultural habits, without family, or stores at that port. The raftsmen with the means of leaving ihem are in a great measure the link of for a year or two with his own or communication between the Mon- his wife's friends, who should come treal and Quebec merchants on the out to Canada, and hire his serone hand, and the emigrants and vices till he could have a log-house back-woodsmen on the other-the built, and two or three acres clearchannels through which British ed, would probably find himself manufactures flow into the interior, in the prime of life an independent and country produce to the coast. farmer on his own estate, with

Although, therefore, I have a abundance of the necessaries of list before me of fourteen heads of existence, andwith prospects brightfamilies, with eighty-six children, eping as he advanced towards the who, beginning the world with evening of his days. But the sicknothing but their industry, have, ly, the shiftless, ihe idle, the timid, in the course of fifteen or twenty and the destitute, with large famiyears in Canada, accumulated an lies, will, I have no doubt, suffer aggregate amount of property of far less in living from band to mouth 35,5001., about 2,5001. each, I in England, than in encountering conceive that a farmer removing the difficulties of emigration to thither from Europe, for the pur- Canada. pose of making money rapidly, The soil of Upper Canada is would certainly be disappointed. generally extremely good, and the On the other hand, if his object climate, with the exception of a were to prevent the diminution of long and severe winter, unobjecwhat little property he actually pos- tionable. To persons on the spot, sessed, and to secure independence possessed of accurate local informafor himself and a career of pros- tion, opportunities, I bave no doubt, perous industry for his children occur of making advantageous inio purchase, by the sacrifice of the vestments of capital in land on spemany comforts of an old settled culation ; but the inducements to country, the advantages of a less such projects will probably be crowded population and a cheaper limited, and to a certain degree acsoil-to withdraw from the bur- cidental, while Government contidens, without retiring from the nues to grant lands either gratuiprotection, of his native land, and tously or as a reward for military witbout assuming those obligations services. to another Government which might

Philadelphia, Nov. 21, 1820. make him the enemy of his own- My last letter conveyed to you 10 settle, though in a distant co- pretty fully the ideas which occurlony, among his countrymen and red 10 me, in my visit to Canada, on fellow.subjects, within means of the subject of emigration thither. instruction for his children and I think I did not overstate the priopportunities of public worship vations which emigrants must unfor his family;- if these were his dergo; but I am persuaded that, objects, and be could bring with in spite of them all, while it continues under the British Crown, it emigration so interesting when I will be a happy asylum for thouleft home, that it has secured my sands, who will gradually arrive, attention during every part of my through various degrees of suffer- route through the United States; ing and disappointment, at comfort but I was perhaps led to endeavour and independence.

to qualify myself to form more clear The facilities and intrinsic value and decided views of the various of Canada-the fertility of its soil advantages which different sections -the beauty of its scenery, and of the country respectively offer, by the salubrity of its climate, greatly finding, soon after we commenced surpassed my previous ideas, and, our journey, that my servant James as far as I had an opportunity of was beginning to wonder how be judging, the ideas generally enter and his wife would look on this tained in England. Americans also side of the Atlantic. I did not at appear to me universally to return all check the idea, but offered to from Canada with far higher ideas assist him in getting all the informaof its importance than they had tion in our power; observing only, before conceived; though I am that I would recommend him to strongly of opinion, that, as an ac- decide on nothing till he had been quisition to the United States, nei- in Canada, as I should think much ther the American Government nor better of him, if he preferred, with people regard it as particularly de- the same inducements, to settle in a sirable. How far Great Britain is British colony than under a foreign interested in retaining it, has often government, that if the United been doubted; but, without express. States, however, presented greater ing any opinion on this subject inducements, I would give him rendered more difficult and com- every assistance in settling there. plicated by its connexion with con. I also advised him to make his siderations of much importance to inquiries as extensive and minute Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and as possible, in order that if, as I the West Indies, and its relation thought probable enough, after a to the just claims and expectations few months' familiarity with solitary of the inhabitants--my feelings, I log-huts and frontier settlements, confess, would now lead me to and the exertions and privations protest strongly against the relin- attendant on clearing forests and quishment of so fair a portion of subduing a wilderness, he should the globe; a beautiful romantic be satisfied that England, after all, country, watered by a river which was the best place for him, there discharges, according to the esti: might be classes of his countrymen mate of American geographers and to whom his information would be surveyors, one half more water important. than the Mississipi, into which the With these views we proceeded tide flows more than four hundred through the new settling districts miles, andwhich is navigable for five in Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, bundred and eighty miles for ships Mississippi, Tennessee, and Virgiof five hundred tons. After being nia; living almost entirely among frequently induced to cast an envi- very recent emigrants, sleeping ous eye on the fine unoccupied land with them in their log-buts, erected of the south-western part of the in many cases the week before, and United States, I was delighted to through the sides and roofs of which find that we loo hrad a spacious the stars twinkled upon us as we territory, and a virgin soil, where lay on the floor, with a brilliancy millions may, with common indus. quite unknown in our little island. try, attain ease and competence. My conversation with these hardy

The present situation of Eng- pioneers turned naturally on the laud had rendered the subject of peculiarities of their situation, their

past sacrifices, or present difficul. a single crop, it was coinmon for ties, and their prospective com- them, till the late depression of pensation ; and as I made it a rule, prices, to obtain a fair remuneration from which I deviated only in one for the labour employed. instance, to get rid before night The first night we lay out in of any companions whom I might the woods, in Alabama, one of the happen to have picked up in the points discussed by some Carolinian course of the day, I was usually Emigrants, who came to our fire enabled to make myself one of the to have a little chat before bed. family, and by sitting down with time, was the eligibility of stopping them at their meals, or over their on the road a year, to make and fire, to draw them out, and render sell a crop from the public lands in them very communicative. By this their way, or of proceeding withplan I not only escaped the effects out delay to their ulterior destiof the possible ill-temper, or want nation in the State of Mississipi. of suavity, of a travelling compa- They appeared pretty nearly denion, under the little trials of our cided on the forıner pian. novel accommodations, but, bycreat- The Southern States presenting, ing less bustle in the family, I saw as it appeared to me, no adequate things more in their ordinary state. inducement to indigent English

In our course through the above. Emigrants, I turned my especial atmentioned States, we met with only tention to the advantages offered three or four cases in which the in the Western part of the State emigrants regretted the change; of New York, where it has been although the price which some of understood that many of those those in Alabama had been obliged destined for Canada finally settle. to pay for their lodian corn the I found it impossible to learn with first year, (and which amounted any precision to what extent the in the case of one family to six tide of Canadian Emigration is dollars per bushel, and for one still diverted to the State of New purchase eight,) had thrown them York; but I am disposed 16 beback three or four years in their lieve, that fewer in proportion pass calculations. All these, however, over into the American limits ihan were Slave-States; and I was glad formerly. Neither could I entirely to find that my servaut considered satisfy myself as to the inducements that a decided objection to settling to do so, especially as the soil is in them. Indeed, as no title could not superior in the state of New be obtained but by purchase, York; and it is not very uncomthere were no decided inducements mon for Americans to go over into to those, who, like him, have only Canada to settle. I believe, howfrom 801. to 1007.

ever, that the principal reasons are We found many families living to be found in the extreme activity very comfortablyon land which they of the agents of the Holland Comhad taken possession of, and had pany and Sir William Pulteney's cleared, on the presumption that estate (who are very solicitous to some peculiarities in the situation promote the rapid 'settlement of would prevent its being brought to their respective tracts), and in the sale for many years, and that they aid which they afford the emigrant should obtain something for their at his outset, in letting him settle improvements, even if they should on their lands free of rent for the not bave realized sufficient in the first two or three years; assisting mean time to purchase a title to bim, perhaps, in raising a little their occupation. It is very unpo- cabin, or lending him a little Înpular to bid against these " Squat- dian corn. ter's ;" and for the improvements of These trilling services, especially a single year, and the produce of to an emigrant who has no money with which to pay bis fees in Cana- some idea of what farmers, who da, are not only very seducing in bring with them a few thousand, prospect, but essentially contribute instead of a few hundred, pounds, to lessen the first and severest way expect to do in different parts difficulties of a new settler. Ul- of the United States. I will, at timately, however, I am disposed the same time, tell you all I can to think they are disadvantageous learn respecting Mr. Birkbeck's in the majority of instances; the settlement. New York settler having to begin I had not intended to confine to provide for rent and instalments this letter to such dry statistics ; (which, even under the alleviated but it is too late to begin on any pressure of bis situation, it would re- other subject.–James, I believe, is quire both self-denial and good a disposed to think, that he is better nagement to save) at the very time at home than in America; except when the Canadian setiler is emerg- in his present capacity, in a city ing from his greater difficulties, where his

wages might be ten and deriving a liberal subsistence pounds per annum higher than in for his family from bis own unbur. England, and where his wife's serdeaed estate.-I have been told, vices as a dress-maker, fine washer, that very few persons under the &c. would be productive. former system ultimately maintain

(To be continued.) possession of their lands; but that, after supporting themselves and their-families in greater or less abundance, they are compelled to Tothe Editorof the ChristianObseryer. abandon their improvements for It seems 'very desirable that the arrears in rent or instalments, and, provision of an Act of Parliament, joining the forlorn hope on the passed last session—to enable genfrontiers, to repeat their laborious tlemenwho shall have taken a degree and interminable efforts to convert at Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin, the wilderness into a fruitful field. to be admitted as attorneys and In passing through the State of solicitors, after a service of three New York, I heard a great deal of instead of five years, with the the distress, which at present ex. grounds upon which it passed ists from inability on the part of the should be made generally known, emigrants to pay their rents and and particularly to the clergy, to instalments, and of the hard names whose children it may be of use. which the agents had to bear for You will, perhaps, therefore have the proceeding to extremities. Still, kindness to state to your readers however, an active, prudent man, the outline and object of the Act. would, under ordinary circumstan- The stat. 2 Geo. II. c. 23, proces, succeed under the system, hibits any person from acting and probably as rapidly at least as an attorney or solicitor in any as in Canada ; but it would re- of our courts of law or equity, quire greater self-denial to impose without a previous clerkship of five ibe necessary severities on himself years. The object of the Act of in New York, than to submit to last session is, to render any perthem when unavoidable in Canada. son eligible who shall have taken, -The general observations which or shall take, the degree of bacheI made concerning the classes to lor of arts in the university of wbom emigration to Canada would Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin, prove a real benefit, are equally on serving a clerkship of three applicable to emigration to the years instead of five; leaving the United States ; but in a future let- period of service in other cases the ter I will endeavour to give you same as before. It is not intended by this Act to make a university the degree of A. B., will now proeducation necessary for solicitors, bably consider the profession of a but merely to open a just and solicitor advantageous, and as aflong-wanted facility to those who fording an appropriate field for the have had the benefit of such an exercise of their talents, since they education, and to whom a service can enter it without the sacrifice of of five years must operate almost time which the law, as it before as a probibition. The effect will stood, required from all, without be to render a respectable and im- distinction of education or age. portant profession more accessible The measure cannot deteriorate to men of academical education, the legal profession, or introduce who were deterred by the length persons less filled to perform its of service before required from duties. For - clerks to solicitors attempting to enter into it; and it are generally articled at sixteen is conceived that it will particularly or seventeen years of age, for five benefit the sons of many clergymen years; but there can be no doubt and others, who put themselves to that a person, with those habits great inconvenience to give their of industry and application which, sons a liberal education.

from the strictuess of the examinaBut besides those who think that tions at our universities, are necesa liberal education is both an or- sary to enable him to take a degree, nament and a substantial advantage is more likely to acquire a competo a solicitor, and with that view tent knowledge of the profession, wish to send a son, designed for the and to become capable of conducta Jaw, to the university, there are ing the business of a solicitor at many young men educated at the twenty-four or twenty-five years of universities with objects in which, age, than a youth who, having from unforeseen events, they are served a clerkship of five years, disappointed, who might embrace commencing at sixteen or seventeen, the profession, and find in it a fit begins business at the early age of sphere for tbe exercise of their twenty one or twenty-two. abilities and industry, with advan- lo ihe case of persons designed tage to the public and profit to for the bar, the distinction between ihemselves. In general, the degree an academical and a common edu. of A. B. is taken between the ages cation bad been long recognized. of twenty-one and twenty-two. A Before a law student can be called service of three years, commenc- 10 the bar, it is necessary that bis ing at these ages, may be borne name shall have been five years on without much inconvenience; and the books of one of the Inns of it would be rendered less irksome Court, unless he shall have taken from the consideration, that a per- the degree of A. M. or LL. B. in son cannot enter into the church one of the universities; in which till pearly the time at which such three years are sufficient. a clerkship would expire ; but a Now, if three years, with an uniservice, which requires two years versity education, be considered beyond the age of twenty-four or an adequate period to qualify a twenty-five, makes an inroad into man for the bar, surely a clerkship a period of life which ought not to of three years, with a similar edu. be spent, and which few are in- cation, must be sufficient for a clined to spend, in preparations solicitor.-It is almost superfluous for a profession. It is a season

to advert to the difference between when men expect to be actually the degrees of A. B. and A. M., as proceeding in that business of life the former degree is the real critefor which their education has pre- sion of academical proficiency. pared them. Many persons, taking



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