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strated. The object of my journey, was to introduce the British system of education into Russia; but arriving at Homel, the estate of Count Romanzoff, where the first school was to be established, an unforseen obstacle presented itself; not more than 30 or 40 boys could be collected in one village, and the villages were so distant from each other, as entirely to preclude the possibility of the children of one village attending the school of another. Count Romanzoff being informed that the advantages of the new system would not be conspicuous in a school of 40 boys, and that 200 would be necessary to display it to advantage, was quite at a loss how they were to be collected; and this circumstance seemed for a while to cloud my prospects of success. Having however, in my journeys through the different villages of the Count's estate, observed a number of miserable ragged dirty children begging from door to door, and being informed that they were orphans, who had no means of support but soliciting charity, I conceived the plan of rescuing these poor little creatures from misery, ignorance, and vice, by 'the establishment of a School of Industry,' in which they might by their own labour contribute something to wards their support. The plan was objected to by many as being impractica ble: the chief argument urged was, that the children being accustomed to a life of vagrant idleness, could never be brought to contribute in any material degree toward their own support. But fortunately the two principal persons of the place were of a different opinion, and upon a proper statement being made to Count Romanzoff and General Derabin it was resolved to erect a large building for the accommodation of the boys; and to inclose a considerable piece of land for a kitchen garden, in which they were to labour during the The erection of the building necessarily occupied a considerable time, but the Count granted
me the use of the right wing of his own house, and I soon collected 50 poor boys from the villages. The barbarous rudeness of their manners, corresponded with their miserable appearance: the generality of them had long filthy hair, dirty faces and tattered garments; no shoes, no stockings; and with looks expressive of hunger and misery: such they were, and such they would have continued to be until, being completely accustomed to a wandering, idle, vicions life, and quite unfit to fill. any useful station, they would have turued out pests to society, had they not been rescued by the benevolent kindness of their noble master. About a fortnight afterwards they were all neatly clothed, and on the 9th of December, 1818, the school was publicly opened and consecrated according to the rites of the Greek Church. The ragged little beggars were now metamorphosed into clean orderly scholars, who seemed to pride themselves not a little on their improved appearance.
There are 17,000 male peasants on this estate, one town, and between 80 and 90 villages.
+ General Derabin, a gentleman of eminent talents and liberal sentiments, had the entire management of the estate, the Count being too feeble to take an active part. The General had been in England, and spoke English well.
CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 244.
"They had all by this time learned the alphabet, and some to write upon slates; and they performed the evolutions of the system, to the admiration of the spectators, who began to be convinced that peasants, though slaves, are human be ings. My chief object in taking these fifty boys under instruction before the school-room was built, was to prepare them to act as monitors, and the rapidity with which they learned was truly astonishing. Their excessive natural stupidity had been urged as a reason for not attempting to instruct them; but it now appeared that human nature is the same in every country and in all classes, and that the difference which we observe between the highly polished inhabitants of France, England, and other countries of Europe, and the barbarian, arises solely from habit, example, and education. Order was soon introduced into the new institution, and the children were arranged into different classes of labour according to their age and strength: the eldest of the boys were appointed to be carpenters, shoemakers, or smiths, according to their own choice, while of the younger and more feeble, some were employed in splitting the bark of the Linden tree, and others in platting it into shoes; some platting straw for hats, others in preparing willows for making baskets, and some in making fishing nets. The hour of assembling in school during summer, was 2 L
seven in the morning; and they came out again at ten; three hours a day being amply sufficient to teach them reading, writing and the four first rules of arithmetic, in two years. From ten to eleven they were allowed to play; at eleven the dinner bell rung, and they proceeded two and two to the dining-room, where grace was distinctly pronounced by the Monitor of the day, whose duty it was to read to his companions, while eating their dinners, a portion of the holy Scriptures. At twelve o'clock they arranged themselves in classes according to their employments, and proceeded to their different masters to their work, from which they generally returned about eight in the evening; at nine they supped, and immediately after supper their names were called over by the monitor-general, and those absent marked down for inquiry the following day; which being done, and the evening hymn sung by them, they retired to rest. Eight months after the opening of the school, more than 60 children went in proces sion to their benefactor Count Romanzoff, dressed in clothes and shoes of their own making. Such was the delight experienced by his Excellency on this occasion that he ordered them a better dinner than usual, and promised to partake of it with them, which promise he fulfilled, to the inexpressible pleasure of the poor children. From this time the
[APRII., institution continued to prosper, and praising it: the children made rapid even those who had opposed it joined in trades, and became cheerful, obliging, progress both in learning and their and industrious.
"A strict observance of the Sabbath was not forgotten in the institution, and that part of the day not spent in church from the holy Scriptures. was appropriated to reading extracts
"By means of the school at Homel, spread to Poland, where hitherto the the British system of education was instructing the peasantry. Mr. Radostrongest prejudices had existed against vitch, a young man of an amiable disposition, was sent by the university of Vilno, to study the system, which he did with the greatest assiduity; and established for the poor, upon the new soon after his return, three schools were plan, and according to the last accounts from thence, they were actively employed in the establishment of more,
being completely established and a plan "In April 1821, the school at Homel laid down for extending the means of instruction to all the villages of the England, and never shall I forget the Count's estate, I left Homel to return to artless demonstrations of sorrow and children at my departure." affection which were manifested by the
VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.
FRANCE, whatever may be its external appearance of tranquillity, is evidently far from being in a state of repose. Paris indeed is quiet, and the insurrections in the provinces appear to have been suppressed; but the very circumstance of various plots having been discovered shews the feverish state of the public mind. If it be true that the army also is discontented, its obedient and willing concur rence, in the case of any popular ferment, for the support of the measures of the present government, would of course be somewhat problematical. The ministerial estimates of expenditure have been carried in the chamber of deputies, but not without consider
able opposition from the left side. On the discussions which have taken place spects the colonies, and which inon that part of the Budget which reand the re-possession of Hayti, we volves the question of the Slave-trade, shall hereafter have much to say, as well as on the course which the same questions have taken in the chamber of peers. Our limits are too contracted to admit of our entering on the subject this month.
The viscount de Chateaubriand, well
appear to be improving. The partial
are not probably more frequent or more serious than were naturally to be expected under all the circumstances of so complete a revolution as that country has undergone; and to such disturbances it may continue occasionally liable, as long as the memory of their losses remains fresh in the minds of those who have suffered by the late changes, or any hope, however feeble, is entertained by them of subverting the new order of things. The priests are some of the chief agents in these disturbances; and their influence over the minds of the Spanish population, it may reasonably be supposed, continues to be very considerable. In the mean time, the new Cortes are pursu ing their labours apparently with firmness and prudence; and they seem anxious to maintain, what is essennally necessary for the consolidation of the late changes-a good understanding with the executive government. We would trust that their late measures, as respects the suppression of the Slave-trade, if they are adopt ed in good faith, will bring down the blessing of God upon their future plans and deliberations.
TURKEY.-The question of a Russian and Turkish war has continued to be debated throughout Europe,with as much contrariety of opinion as ever. All that wears the appearance of certainty on the subject is, that Turkey persists in refusing to accede to the Russian ultimatum; and that, contrary to the wishes of most of the powers of Europe, both parties are preparing - Russia offensively, and Turkey defensively-for hostilities. A few weeks, at most, will now probably put a period to this suspense. Russia certainly is not likely to lose, in protracted negociations, the favourable season for opening the campaign, which is fast approaching. The ardour and fanaticism of the Turkish populace are also stated to be excessive; and it is much to be feared that the first breaking out of war will be attended with fearful torrents of Christian blood; unless timely flight
should rescue the victims from the barbarity of their oppressors.. DOMESTIC.
The usual recess at Easter has abridged the sittings of Parliament, and suspended the discussion of some of the important subjects which are entered on its Journals for investigation. Still, the month has not passed without some interesting discussions. The state of the agricultural interest, in particular, has undergone much consideration. The Report of the Committee appointed to inquire into the subject, has served chiefly to shew, that the distresses complained of are not within the scope of legislative alleviation, ex cept by ineasures which would be most injurious and unjust to the community at large. The Report indeed scarcely goes beyond mere hints and suggestions. One of its principal recommendations is, that the sum of one million of money should be advanced by the public on grain, to be placed in deposit, and thus temporarily withdrawn from the market. Such a measure would be too limited in its effects to make it an object of much public concern, whether it is adopted or not; but the principle is clearly an unwise one; and should Providence mercifully bestow another plentiful harvest, the measure would recoil with augmented injury on those who sought the benefit of the provision. Another suggestion in the Report is, that a variable duty should be imposed on foreign corn, to be regulated by the average prices; these prices being reduced in proportion to the increased value of money since 1815. The Report, in conclusion, strongly recommends, that, whenever circumstances will allow of it, a fixed and uniform scale of duties should be substituted for the present system.-A most important debate has also taken place on the state of Ireland, but at too late a period of the month, to permit our adverting to it so fully as we wish to do. We shall reserve the subject for our next Number.
Rev. C. J. Blomfield, D.D. (Rector of St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate), to be Arch. deacon of Colchester.
Rev. G. Holcombe, D.D. to be a Prebendary of Westminster; vice Blomberg.
Hon. and Rev. J. E. Boscawen, M.A to be Canon or Prebendary of Canter bury; vice Holcombe.
Rev. John Greenly, to St. Thomas's Perpetual Curacy, Salisbury.
Rev. A. Owen (Rector of Stapleton, and Minister of St. Julian's, Shrewsbury), to be Archdeacon of Salop.
Rev. F. W. Blomberg, M.A. to be Canon Residentiary of St. Paul's Cathe dral, vice Dr. Samuel Ryder Weston, dec. Rev. Richard Conington, Minister of the new Chapel at Boston.
Rev. Charles Ingle, Orston V. Notts. Rev. H. Boucher, Hilton V. Dorsetsh. Rev. John Henry Hogarth, Stifford R. Essex.
Rev. Edward Elms, Itchingfield R. Sussex.
Rev. Thomas Marwood, English Bick. nor R. co. Gloncester.
Rev. John Boyse, Kitnor, alias Cal borne, R. Somerset.
Rev. Thomas Fownes Luttrell, Minehead V. Somerset.
Rev. Mr. Williams, Fitz R. Shropshire. Rev. C. Penrice, Little Plumstead R.: with Witton and Brundall annexed, Norfolk.
Rev. W. W. Bagnell, to the Perpetual Cure of Clyst Honiton, Devon.
Rev. T. Livingstone, Bigbury R. Devon.
Rev. G. Bellett, Sampford-Arundell V.Somerset.
Rev. James Hoste, Empingham V. Rutlandshire.
Rev. N. M. Hacker, Kiddington R. Oxon.
Rev. T. Thompson, Adlington V. Yorkshire.
Rev. Henry Ingilby, Swallow and
Rev. F. Ellis, Lassam R. Hants.
Rev. Richard Waldy, A.M⚫ to be Do mestic Chaplain to the Dowager Lady Vernon.
Rev. H. K. Bonney, to the Archdeaconry of Bedford.
Rev. J. T. Hurlock, D.D. to the Prebend of Husborne and Burbage, at Salisbury.
Rev. John Moore (Archdeacon of Exeter), to a Prebend in Exeter Ca thedral.
Rev. T. Watson, Thurlton R. Norfolk.
Rev. W. H. White, St. Mary Bredin V. Canterbury.
with Witton and Brundall annexed, Rev. C. Penrice, Little Plumstead R. Norfolk.
Rev. H. Wilson, Collingburn Ducis
Rev. R. Skinner, Sampford Peverell
Perp. Cur. Liverpool.
Rev. Dr. Wylde, Waltham R. Norfolk. Rev. J. Hodgkinson, Leigh R. Lancashire.
Rev. W. Wilkinson, Sowerby Chapelry, near Thirsk, Yorkshire.
Rev. C. Ford, Billingford R. Norfolk.
Rev. J. Hurt, Beeston V. Notts.
Rev. C. Boyle, Tamerton Folliot V.
Rev. J. Hodgkinson, Leigh V. Lancashire.
Rev. H. T. Grace, Westham V. Suss. Rev. Henry Comyn, Monathon, otherwise Manacan V. Cornwall,
Rev. John Jeffery, D.D. Exton R.
Rev. H. Boulton, Sibsey V. Lincolnsh.
Rev. P. George, Aycliffe V. Durham.
the Church of Tiverton.
Rev. J. Spurway, Pitt Portion R. in
Rev. W. J. Birdwood, Holme V. Devon.
Rev. George Coke, Aylton R. Here fordshire.
Rev. Wm. Nourse, Clapham R. Suss.
Rev. M. Vicars, Allhallows R. Exeter.
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.
SCRUTATOR; PHILO-CLERICUS; W. D.; B. B.; λqμans; "NOTICE SUR M. R.;
The Rev. G. T.'s packet is at our Publisher's.
It is not consistent with our plan to enter into the engagement J. L- -R
P. 175, col. 2, instead of line 3, read the human body and sont.
[No. 5. Vol. XXII.
HERE ever have been, and no doubt ever will be, numerous objections urged against the Christian religion, more or less dangerous according to the degree of plausibility and ingenuity exercised in their contrivance. In almost every class of society, there are persons, actuated either by the pride of displaying their powers of argumentation, however sophistically employed; or by the ambition of making converts to their opinions, or by a spirit of misanthropy, which seems to enjoy a pleasure in destroying the happy feelings and delightful prospects of others; who endeavour to undermine the religious sentiments of all within their influence. Among the lower classes of the community, the objections to Christianity are, for the most part, little more than an apology for a refusal to sacrifice the gross pleasures of sensuality to the purity required by its precepts; but in the higher orders of society, there are, in addition to these objections, others of a more refined nature, connected with intellectual enjoyments. The attempts to difCHRIST, OBSERV. No. 245.
fuse a spirit of infidelity and anarchy among the poor and ignorant, have succeeded less than the promoters of the scheme expected; and we may indulge a hope, that the circulation of the holy Scriptures, and of moral and religious writings grounded on them, with the co-operative exertions of enlightened and good men, will effectually check its progress. But, in the higher orders, where evil principles are far more detrimental to the well-being of society, not only by their effects on the individuals immediately concerned, but by means of the influence of their example, it is much to be feared, that infidelity exists to a great degree, and indecision of religious character to a still greater.
The objection which is the subject of the present remarks, is, in some circles, of frequent occurrence. It is urged, that the Christian religion is inimical to the welfare of society, from the alleged circumstance that a strict conformity to its doctrines and spirit militates against the best interests of mankind, by producing an indifference to science and literature. The objection is not one of the most formidable character; but, as even trifling and accidental objections are often found to operate with a force to which they are by no means entitled, it merits investigation, in order that it may be divested of that indistinct and dangerous influence, which the most impotent objection may assume when its real claims are but little understood. In common with almost every other objection, the one in question applies not so much to a mere nominal 2 M