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'T: hard dental, is pronounced by raising the fore part of the tongue, and placing it hard againit the root of the upper teeth, to as to stop the breath in its attempt to pass out. By this means the upper part of the tongue forms a line leaning forward, descending from right to left, which is its proper character.' And so of the rest.

Their next object is to shew, that the characters, as above applied, are convenient for use, in due proportion to the free quency of their occurrence in the English language. For this purpose they ascertain the comparative frequency of every letter. in common writing by means of a letter-founder's bill, and furnish a table containing the several proportions ; from the inspection of which it appears, that those recur most frequently which are the most easily written, and the more complex the more rarely.

This alphabet thus determined, is particularly commended for its beauty as well as for its convenience. They observe,

that in each class a beautiful analogy is maintained among the characters-that the ascending and descending lines, occuring with equal frequency, must preserve the writing lineal that many of the characters being of a curvilinear form, will render it the more beautiful.' Belide all these advantages, our Authors add, that since the vowels, as well as the consonants, are marked by lines, there is no occafion for taking off the pen in the writing of any word, except for the sake of some advantageous contraction.'

Ufe, however, it is natural to remark, is in this connection far superior to elegance and beauty. Circles, ellipses and the va. rious segments of these curves, are of all lines the most unfit for expedition. The direction of the pen must be altered in every part of the smallest arc; and this change of direction is equally inconvenient with the actual removal of the pen; to which it may be added, that circles and ellipses, where celerity of writing is the main object, are with great difficulty preserved distinct. These are material objections to the simplicity of their plan ; for though they have rejected arbitrary characters, and introduced the use of thole to which in their opinion nature directs, the characters they have substituted in the room of these, are very far from subserving the desireable purposes of ease and dispatch. We must therefore be excused if we say, that we can by no means subscribe the declaration, " that enough bas been said to thew how natural, short, simple, rational and convenient the alphabet itself is.'

The objections already suggested, may be urged with, still greater force against the expreffions which they have adopted for the most usual compound sounds. The length of lines, and

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the size of semicircles, are very indeterminate representations of
such sounds.

For their method of contraction, rules of writing, and speci-
mens, we must refer to the work itself.

The appendix to this work contains what the Authors apa prehend to be the most natural, convenient and expeditious character for inarticulate founds, as expressed in music. The feven letters by which the notes are named in the gamut, are fignified by their correspondent characters in the short-hand alphabet. And directions are given for expressing the distinction of these seven notes in different octaves--the time of sounding each note, and the other symbols which occur in music.

The curious will be entertained by the perusal of this work, and will have realon to commend the ingenuity and industry of the Authors.

But, upon the whole, we cannot help remarking, that the performance is more ingenious than useful that it is better calculated for amusement than profit-that though the method of ftenography here proposed be more natural than many others, it is not entirely what we could wish in point of ease and expedition.


For JA NU A R Y, 1771.


The Spirit of Liberty: or, Junius's Loyal Address. Being a Key to the English Cabinet: or, an humble Dissertation upon the Rights and Liberties of the ancient Britons.

With a political Tale upon the Characters of an arbitrary Ministry both in Church and State, and the Unhappiness that flows therefrom to us and to our Children, as to the Strength of the Constitution, the Spirit of the Laws, the Lives and Liberties of the People, Humbly addrefled to his Majesty. By Junius, Junior. To which is added, A Polemical Tale; or, The Christian's Winter Piece : wherein the great contention among the Christians is decided, respecting the Privileges of the Magna Charta of that ancient City of Salem ; in which the Spirit, Liberties, Laws, and Dignities of that ancient City are again revived and set forth in their primitive Life, Beauty, and Order. The Whole being an Enigmatical Key to the original Rise, History, Progress, Poffeffion, and sacred Treasures of those ancient People who were first called Christians

at Antioch. 8vo. 3 s. sewed. Wheble. 1770. 1

F from the perufal of this long and fingular title, the Reader

should suspect the Author to be some wrangling Fanatic, he will, very possibly, not be much out in his conjecture. We have feldom met with a more egregious rhapsody ; such an odd medley of politics and religion. The Author Iets out with lamenting our injured rights of election, and warmly expatiates on illegal representation,

Art. 17.


minifterial violations of the constitution, &c. but he soon quits this melancholy walk, and sets out for the holy city of Salem; where being arrived, down he fits, to give us the history of the people called, or, as he will have it, miscalled, Anabaptifs : for whom he is a zealous itickler. He derives this sect from John the Baptift; he contends that the Baptists are the only Christians; and he totally condemns the other denominations among professed believers, as grossly erroneous, and utterly ignorant of the truths of the Gospel. He has a great deal to say to most of the sectaries, and among others of their leaders on whom he bestows a spriritual drubbing, are Meffrs. Whitefield and Wesley. Part of what he says of these Gentlemen may serve as a specimen of his manner.

Theophilus alks Philagathus (for this work is written by way of dialogue) what he thinks of Mr. Wh. -d's zeal ? Philagathus answers : « That Ir. Wh d has been a man remarkable zeal. ous for God, and I believe a good man, yet I think little of all his zeal and stir-because it is mixed with so much art, and with so much ignorance ; mixt with so much art, (which is too natural to him) to raise the passions of the people by his rhapsodies, seeming raptures and extasies--and the poor people are carried away with him, as tho' they were drinking the wine of the kingdom,thinking it is all heavenly rapture in the dear man, when there is often no more fire of love in his heart than there is in a millfone, for it is what is natural to him, and he much improves it; for if he fails by attitudes of body and seeming raptures of mind--then he tells his people such a train of pretty stories, what Paul calls old wives fables, many of them very moving to the pallions, some of them very tragical ; what is this but a zealous art to move upon the passions of the people, while their understanding in the Gospel is exceeding dark, as is too evident by conversing with them.

And what is it but zealous art, to be conformable as a dissenter 2t one end of the town,--and conformable as a churchman at the other; tho' by the way let him remember that as a diffenter he got his Tottenham Court liberty,—but if the Lord be God let him follow him, and if Baal be God then follow him, for it is a shame for a teacher in Israel to halt thus between two opinions,

· Tho' I believe that there is some good thing in Mr. Whto the Lord God of Israel, yet how often has he afflicted my soul by so ignorantly (bare with the expression, for there is nothing like plainness and honesty) I say so ignorantly, for is it not Ignorance in the higheit degree for him to say to the people, “ Here I offer you Chrift, here take him, take him now, take him to-night, or else you may be damned before the morning?”

Of Mr. Wesley, Philagathus thinks very honourably, as a gentle. man and a scholar: “ That he is a man of surprizing parts, a great historian, and is as enterprizing as he is great ; his natural temper is warm, and his genius taking a turn for religion, he has been like the Pharisees of old, very zealous, being in labours more abundant ; compafling, like them, both fea and Land to make profelytes, and much good I believe he has done by way of order and economy among the people ; that he has civilized many hundreds, if not thousands in the kingdom, and brought them into a very orderly

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and regularly way of living, in which respect they are become better fubjects, better masters, better neighbours, and better servants :-in this respect I believe Mr. Wesley has done a great deal of good, but as to Mr. Wesley being a Christian, I dare not, Theophilus, attempt to deceive him or you in thinking fo.

Theoph. O Sir! What, Mr. Wesley not a Christian? What, a man of such labour and such universal love not a Chriftian? O! Sir.

Phila. Dear Theophilus, let not your zeal, like the zeal of many, carry you to an extreme ; for do you not know, that that charity that is not grounded upon truth is not charity, but a delufion, and therefore mistake me not; here I do not say but that there are many well meaning weak preachers under Mr. Wesley's care, and many weak, dark and ignorant Christians among his societies, but as to Mr. Wesley, by all the fermons he has preached, and by all the writings he has wrote, if we compare one part with the other faithfully, I see no scripture ground to believe that he is a real Christian, or a true lover of Christ, and salvation alone in his name.-1 don't say that Mr. Wesley may not be saved, -God only knows what turn of heart his grace may give him ; but this I say, nay I will affirm and maintain it from the word of God (and let him deny it if he dares) that if the Scriptures be true, it is impossible for him to be saved in the state he is in, or upon all he has done, or upon the faith he has confessed to the world.

Theoph. O Sir! what! a man that has done so much good, and so many great things in CHRIST's


not saved? · Phila. Dear Theophilus, his doing many great things in CHRIST's name, is no real evidence at all of his being in a saved state ; Lord! Lord! have we net propheficd in thy name, and in thy name done many wondrous works, and yet not in a safe fate? Were not the Pharisees of old as religious as Mr. Wesley? Were they not for fastings and praying as well as him? Were they not as honest men as Mr. Wesley ? Did they not pay tithe of all they posleffed? Were they not as zealous as Mr. Wesley; for did they not like him, compass fea and land to make profelytes ? And what does Paul say of them with all their zeal, but as ftrangers to God, and unacquainted with the true way of salvation ? Rom. x. 3. I bare them record that they have zeal for God, but not according to knowledge, going about to establish a rigbteousness of their own. Having not fubmitted themselves to the righteousness of God, and therefore what was all their pharifaical religion but a pious way to hell? And what is Mr. Wesley's more than theirs of whom Christ says, I know you (notwith ttanding all their zeal) that ye bave zor the love of God in you.'

The Author employs many pages in support of what he has thus so roundly intimated against Mr. W. but we have had enough of this subject, and we doubt not but our Readers are satisfied too.

This Junius the younger is so far from resembling Junius the clder, in his manner of writing, that he seldom is able to express himself in common grammatical English; but he says a number of Shrewd things, and sometimes he is really diverting, especially where · he seems to be most serious, and aims at being pathetic.


Art. 18. A Journey into Siberia, made by Order of the King of

France: By the Abbé Chappe D'Auteroche, of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris, &c. Containing an Account of the Manners and Customs of the Russians, &c. Illustrated with Cuts. Translated from the French. 4to. 11. Is. Jefferys. 1770.

Our readers will find a very full account and character given of the original of this work, on consulting the 40th and 41st volumes of our Review *, Little more therefore remains to be said concerning the present publication, than to give a short view of the design and execution of the anonymous translator. The original work was publihed in two large volumes in folio; the first of which was divided into two parts. The second volume, which related solely to the history of Kamtschatka, was formerly translated into our language by Dr. Grieve t. The present article is a translation of the first of these volumes, with some alterations in the arrangement of the different parts of the work, and fome omissions. The translator, in particular, has very judiciously omitted the numerous processes and calculations of the Author, relative to his laborious enterprize of taking an exact level of the surface of the earth, throughout the course of his extenfive rout; of the dryness of which we were very fenfible during our perusal of the original : but he has given the conclufions deduced from them. He has left out likewise, perhaps with equal propriety, the particular altronomical observations contained in the original work: but we do not so cordially approve of his omission of the Abbe's electrological observations; as they relate to a matter pretty generally intereiting, and would not much have increased the bulk of the volume. There are likewise a few other omiflions of less importance.

With regard to the translation, it appears to us, as far as we are enabled to judge from the sole perusal of it, (the original being now out of our hands) to be tolerably juft to the sense of the Author. It is in general, however, too servile, and the phraseology, consequently, in many places, inelegant, at least, if not aukward. Nevertheless, this publication may be considered, upon the whole, as an useful and cheap abridgment of an expensive work. We should add, that of the nie merous maps and plates which enhance the price of the original, eight of the latter are here given, representing the figures and habits of the Ruffians, Tartars, Wotiacs, and Samoyedes, accompanied with a general map of the Russian empire. Art. 19. The Academy Keeper; or, Variety of useful Directions

concerning the Management of an Academy, the Terms, Diet, Lodging, Recreation, Discipline, and Instruction of Young Gen

tlemen. With the proper Methods of addressing Parents and i Guardians, of all Ranks and Conditions. Also, necessary Rules

for the proper Choice and Treatment of Academy Wives, Ushers, and other menial Servants : with the Reasons of making them public. 8vo. 1 s. Peat, 1770.

See Appendix to vol. xl. page 585; and vol. xli. December 1769, page 431. ť See vol. xxx. page 282.



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