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wbo were at Sambawa at the time, were the only part of the population who escaped. There were not fewer than 12,000 individuals in Tomboro and Pekate at the time of the eruption, of wbom only five or six escaped. The trees and berbage of every description along the whole of the north and west sides of the peninsula were completely destroyed, with the exception of one point of land, near the spot where the village of Tomboro stood.

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A jubilee in honour of this, the greatest artist of whom, in the fifteenth century, Germany could boast, was held on this day (the anniversary of his death) at Nuremberg. A statue in bronze, to the expense of which that enlightened friend of artists and the fine arts, the King of Bavaria, has contributed 3000 florins, is about to be erected to his memory

12.- PALM SUNDAY. This day commemorates our Lord's triumphal entry into Jerusalem; see our former volumes : for an account of the festival of torches, consult T.T. for 1828, p. 67.


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A most singular custom is still retained at Caistot church, in Lincolnshire, on Palm Sunday. A large ash whip of ten feet in length is procured by a deputy' from Broughton; it is wrapt with white leather half way down the stock; the thong, too, is of white leather, and very large. This whip is denominated a 'gad whip,' (pronounced by them ged whup.) The deputy, about the commencement of the first lesson, places himself at the north porch door, and cracks this whip loudly three times in front of the porch door; after which he twists the thong round the wbip handle, puts some strips of mountain ash lengthwise on it, and binds them together with whupcord tightly. He then takes a purse, containing two shillings (formerly twenty-four silver pennies),

and ties it to the top of the whip stock, and throwing them across his shoulder, he walks into the church, and places himself before the reading-desk till the commencement of the second lesson:

he then approaches nearer the clergyman, and waves the purse over his head; at the end of which he kneels down on a cushion, and continues holding the purse over the clergyman's head till the end of the lesson.

The whip, purse, &c., he then carries into the manor-house of Undon, adjoining, where he deposits them. Certain lands in the parish of Broughton are held by the tenure of this custom. The word gad, or ged, means, in Lincolnshire, a measure of ten feet.- Mirror. *13. 1827.-CAPTAIN HUGH CLAPPERTON DIED,

At Sockatoo, in Africa, aged 40. He was born at Annan, in the year 1788, where his father was long established as a surgeon Unfortunately for himself and others, he was careless rather than careful of money; but on the other hand it is due to him to state, that he married early-became a widower-married again, and was the father of no fewer than twenty-one children. Of the fruit of the first marriage, six sons and one daughter grew to man and woman's estate, and the youngest of these was the justly celebrated African traveller. In his person he resembled his father greatly, stood at least six feet bigh,

bad great breadth of chest and expansion of shoulders, nerves of steel, and sinews o iron, and was altogether a handsome, athletic, powerful


From circumstances that need not be detailed here, be received po classical instruction, and could do little more than read and write indifferently, when he was placed under the care of Mr. Bryce Downie, a man of general information, though chiefly celebrated as a mathematician. Under him the deceased acquired a knowledge of practical matbematics, including navigation and trigonometry, At the age of seventeen Clapperton was bound an apprentice to the sea, and became the cabin-boy of Captain Smith, of the Postlethwaite of Maryport, to whose notice he was kindly recommended by the late Mr. Jonathan Nelson, of Port-Annan. The Postlethwaite, a vessel of large burthen, traded between Liverpool and North America, and in her he repeatedly crossed the Atlantic, distinguished even when a mere youth for coolness, dexterity, and intrepidity. On one occasion, the ship, when at Liverpool, was partly laden with rock-salt, and as that commodity was then dear, the mistress of a house which the crew frequented, very improperly enticed Clapperton to bring her a few pounds ashore in his bandkerchief. After some entreaty the youth complied, probably from his ignorance of the revenue laws, was caught in the act by a custom-house officer, and menaced with the terrors of trial and imprisonment unless he consented to go on board the Tender. He immediately chose the latter alternative, and, after being sent round to the Nore, was draughted on board the Clorinde frigate, commanded by a very gallant officer, who is now the Hon. Captain Briggs. Here he was ranked as a man before the mast; but feeling a desire to better bis situation, he addressed a letter, detailing his mishap and recent history, to a friend, Mr. Scott, banker, in Annan, who had always taken a warm interest in the family. Mr. Scott, as the likeliest channel that occurred to him, applied to Mrs. General Dirom, of Mount Annan, who happened to be related to the Hon. Captain Briggs; and through the influence of that lady, combined with his own professional merit, the brave Clapperton was speedily promoted to the rank of midshipman-a circumstance which tended in no mean degree to fix his destiny, and shape his future fortunes in life. It has often been remarked, that what at first appears to be a misfortune, is sometimes the happiest thing that can befal us, and so it chanced in the present instance. Had he stuck to the American or coasting trade, be might have become first a mate, then a master, then ship's husband and part owner, and finally returned to his native burgh with a fortune of a few thousand pounds, and vegetated tranquilly for ten or twenty years, reading the newspaper or playing at billiards in the forenoon, and smoking cigars and drinking whisky-punch or negus in the evening. But where would have been bis laurels—where his glory-where his zeal in the cause of science-wbere his defiance of death and dangerwbere bis niche in the annals of Britain ?--Previous to 1813, our sailors, in boarding, used the cutlass after any fashion they pleased,

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and were trained to po particular method in the management of that formidable weapon. It was suggested, however, that this was a defect, and, with the view of repairing it, Clapperton, and a few other clever midshipmen, were ordered to repair to Portsmouth Dock-yard, to be instructed by the celebrated swordsman Angelo in what was called the improved cutlass exercise. When taught themselves, tbey were distributed as teachers over the fleet, and our countryman's class-room was the deck of the Asia 74-the flag-ship of Vice Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, since engaged at Navarino. The Asia was then lying at Spithead, and continued there till the end of January 1814 ; but her Admiral had been entrusted with the command of our whole naval force on the coast of North America, and was making every thing ready to sail for his final destination. Clapperton's services as a drill sergeant were to be performed during the passage out to Bermuda ; and he was afterwards to make the best of his way to the Canadian Lakes, which bad then, or were just about to be come the scene of important naval operations.

While at Bermuda, and on the passage out, nothing could exceed Clapperton's diligence in discharging the duties of his new occupation. Officers as well as men received instruction from him in the cutlass exercise; and his manly form, and sailor-like appearance on the quarter-deck, tended, in the opinion of all who saw him, to fix the attention and improve the patriotic spirit of the crew. At bis own as well as the other messes, where he had the honour of being a frequent guest, he was the very life and soul of the party; sang a good song, told a merry tale, painted scenes for the ship's theatricals, sketched views, drew caricatures, and, in one word, was an exceedingly amusing and interesting person. Even the Admiral became very fond of him, and invited him to remain

on board the Asia, under the promise of speedy promotion. But the warm work going forward on the Lakes had more attraction for bis enterprising mind, and, having procured a passage in a vessel to Halifax, be bade adieu to the flag-ship, to the regret of every individual on board, from the venerable Admiral down to the cabin-boys. From Halifax he proceeded to Upper Canada, and shortly after his arrival was made a lieutenant, and subsequently appointed to command the Confiance schooner. While she rode at anchor on the spacious shores of Lake Erie or Lake Huron, her enterprising commander occasionally repaired to the woods, and with bis gun kept him. self in fresh provisions. In these excursions he cultivated an acquaintance with the aborigines, and was so much charmed with a mode of life, full of romance, incident, and danger, that he at one time entertained serious thoughts of resigning bis commission when the war was ended, and becoming a denizen of the forest himself. But the fit fortunately was not permanent; his country had stronger claims on his talents, and the tinge of ro

mance, which formed a part of his nature, yielded to more patriotic impressions, and the spirit-stirring scenes in which he was engaged. At this time be occasionally dined on shore, and as few men excelled him in swimming, he not unfrequently plunged into the water, and made for the schooner, without either undressing or calling for a boat. This he did for the double purpose of showing his manhood, and keeping his crew on the qui vive. In the year 1817, when our flotilla on the American lakes was dismantled, Lieutenant Clapperton returned to England, to be placed, like many others, on half-pay; and ultimately retired to his grandfather's native burgh of Lochmaben. There he remained till 1820, amusing himself with rural sports, when be removed to Edinburgh, and shortly after became acquainted with the amiable and lamented Dr. Oudney. It was at Dr. Oudney's suggestion that he first turned bis thoughts to African discovery; and through all the varieties of untoward fortune-suffering and sorrow, sickness and death, he clung to his friend with the constancy of a brother. After closing his eyes in a miserable hut, far from the decencies and comforts of Britain, be even assisted to dig his grave, and read over the lonely spot the burial service of the Church of England.

Captain Clapperton himself died at Sockatoo, where he had been detained for five months, in consequence of the Sultan Bello of Sockatoo not permitting him to proceed, on account of the war between him and Bornou. He had waited there in hopes of getting permission to go on to Timbuctoo, and lived in a small, clay hut belonging to the sultan's brother. He was attacked by dysentery, and his illness lasted thirty-two days; he latterly feil away rapidly, and became much emaciated. Two days before he died, be requested his servant to shave him, as he was too weak to sit up. Ou its completion he asked for a looking-glass, and remarked he was doing better, and should certainly get over it. The morning on which he died, he breathed loud and became restless, and shortly after expired in his servant's arms. He was buried by him at a small village (Jungali), five miles to the S.E. of Sockatoo, and followed to his grave by his faithful attendant and five slaves. The corpse was carried by a camel, and the place of interment marked by a small square house of clay, erected by bis servant, who then got permission from the sultan to return home. He accordingly journied to Badagry, which occupied him seven months, and was taken off the coast by Capt. Laing, of the merchant brig Maria, of London, in January, 1828, to whom he expresses himself most grateful for his attentions and the preservation of his being. He states that he nearly lost bis life wbile at Badagry, from the Portuguese setting the minds of the natives against him, and that they attempted to administer, poison to bim in his drink. He landed at Cape Coast, whence he was brought by the Esk. While travelling to Badagry he


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