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THE NEW OUTLOOK

BY HENRY HOYT MOORE
MANAGER ILLUSTRATION AND PRINTING DEPARTMENTS OF THE OUTLOOK

M

Mr. Moore has been for many years connected with The Outlook in various capacities. Entering the service of this journal more than a quarter of a century ago as apprentice-boy in its composing-room, he has successively served it as journeyman, as expert proof-reader, and finally as superintendent of printing and as manager of the illustration department. On the literary side of the paper Mr. Moore has been a frequent contributor, not only in signed articles, but in many of the editorial departments. His artistic inclinations outside of office hours have led him into many fields of travel, in which he has used a camera to the frequent edification of our readers and of the public in numerous exhibitions, the latest being that of the American Institute of Graphic Arts in New York City. Mr. Moore speaks to our readers, therefore, with a certain background of technical authority in his familiar talk about the “new” Outlook, which follows.—THE EDITORS.

ANY considerations have influenced He had very definite notions as to type faces,

the adoption of a larger-sized page, and during one of his visits abroad he found

I which will be the most noticeable fea- a copy of an old Venetian book that emture of The Outlook's new form, which will bodied his ideas of a readable type—"firm appear on January 3 next.

The advantage in lines, flat enough to take a generous color of seeing the contents of the periodical with and to withstand strong impressions.” Under less turning of leaves, the opportunity for a Mr. Houghton's directions this letter was bolder appeal for reading matter and illustra- made into a style of type called the Riverside tion when desired, the expressed wish of many Series. This series, with certain modificareaders for a more legible type, the insistent tions suggested by the writer, has been renecessity for economy in the use of paper—for vived and cast by the American Type Founthe smaller the page the more space relatively ders Company for the use of this journal, must be given to margins—and the better and is to be called by the type founders The adaptability of the larger page to the character Outlook Series. The size employed for of The Outlook as a weekly reporter and The Outlook is known as ten point. Here interpreter of current life, have constituted the is a specimen of the new Outlook Series, mingled yarn of motive which has resulted in showing the size to be used in the new form: the decision to make the change. As to an

When, in the course of human other influence, that of fashion, if it is right

events, it becomes necessary for one and seemly for a man or woman from time

people to dissolve the political bands to time to order a new suit or gown, and to

which have connected them with anfollow the prevailing mode in the cut thereof,

other, and to assume, among

the

powit seems equally fitting that a periodical

ers of the earth, the separate and should consult changing taste in matters

equal station to which the laws of journalistic when the appropriate time arrives

nature and of nature's God entitle for it to consider new habiliments.

And as with fashions in human costume, so It will be observed that the new type is in typography, the tendency is to hark back both larger and heavier than that now used, to the things of former days. The Outlook's which is one of the many variations of the new size will closely approximate that in so-called Caslon Series. Yet it occupies no which it appeared to its readers twenty years more space. Printing types, it may be exago. Its letterpress will, in its new form, plained, consist of a “ body," or base, on the revert to a much older fashion. The type top of which is cast the “ face,” which is the which has been chosen for The Outlook is part that appears in printing. The face may an adaptation of an old Venetian letter de- occupy a larger or smaller surface on the signed in the early days of the printing art. body. The old face used by The Outlook, Its history is briefly as follows:

in which these words are set, and the new The late H. O. Houghton, who estab- type are both on “ ten point” body, about lished the present publishing house of seven lines to the inch. The larger face Houghton Mifflin Company, and who was was obtained in this way: The letters g, j, also the founder of the Riverside Press, of p, q, y are known as descending letters. Cambridge, Massachusetts, was a printer of If the parts of these letters that fall below taste and discernment. He won a well- the center of the line, “ descenders ” as they merited reputation as a maker of fine books. are called, are shortened, larger size,

printed is one-quarter of the actual size in both the old form (at the left) and the new form (at the right). The general effect of the new and bolder type for the reading matter and headings is also shown on this page, at the right. Its greater legibility can be better understood by the sample printed in the body of the accompanying article.

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THE STORY OF THE WAR

make this a slow process : First, the distance
THB FALL OF MONASTIR

and natural obstacles involved in the cam-
The war history for our week (November paign, and, secondly, the unsatisfactory state
15-22) may almost be summed up in two of things in Greece. That the leaders of the
words, Monastir and Craiova. Each stands Allies in Greece have come to the end of
for a great achievement and for long-reaching their patience with the tortuous and treach
consequences in the progress of the war in erous conduct of the Greek King became
the Balkan region.

evident last week, when sweeping demands
In the capture of Monastir the Servian were made upon the nominal Greek Govern-
army, once crushed by the Teutonic forces, ment, first, for the surrender to the Alles of
now reorganised and again in splendid fight- a large portion of the army's munitions and
ing order, though in all probability smaller artillery of the Greek army; and, secondly,
than it was, must feel exultant. Aided by for the immediate departure of the diplomatic
their French allies and by a detached Russian representatives of Germany, Austria, Bul.
force, the Servians again occupy one of the garia, and Turkey now in Greece. The first
most important cities of their country. In the step is justified by the treachery of the Greek
whole campaign which has resulted in the cap army to Greece in its failure to resist Bul.
ture of Monastir the Bulgarians have been out: garian invasion, the second, by the plotting
maneuveredandoutsought. Their retreat from and intngues of the Ministers of the Central
Monastir (so the Allies' despatches say) was Powers. Meanwhile, the Greek people are
little less than a rout. Strategically the gain likely to turn more and more to Venizelos,
is a large one. Despite the fact that the rail the head of the Nationalist Government, who
way on which Monastir is situated ends at that has just issued a proclamation calling upon
place, its occupation opens up, through the the people to wipe out the stain placed upon
valley of the Cerna River, a road toward Nish, Greece by the disregard of its treaty obliga-
to capture which must be the great effort of tions to Servia and by the tame submission
the Allies' armies on the Salonika front to invasion by Bulgaria

The direct approach to Nish is of course
northward from Salonika, through the valley of CRAIOVA AND RUMANIA
the Vardar River, and by the railway running The second great event of the week above
through that valley. The present situation is noted was the capture by General von, Fal-
that the left wing (or western force) of Gen- kenhayn's army of the Rumanian town of
eral Sarrail's total army is now well advanced Craiova. This is not an important place in
and in good position, and if the right wing. itself, but its occupation has tremendous sig.
in which the British predominate, is once nificance. It lies on a railway running in its
placed in a good position to the eastward, the general direction from west to east through
long-expected main advance of the center of western Rumania. As the German forces
this vast army made up of several nationalities under Falkenhayn have pushed the Ru-
may begin to move toward Nish.

manians south out of Transylvania, through
ture of Nish would cut in two the only rail the passes, and back into Rumania, the left
communication between Teutonic forces in or west wing of the Rumanian army has held
the north and their allies, Bulgaria and Turkey, Orsova. Now the only rail communica-
in the southeast

tion between Orsova and Bucharest is by
When that great drive will come it is im- this railway which passes through Craiova.
possible to say Those who impatiently The occupation by the Germans of the latter
demand why General Sarrail does not come place seems to cut off the Rumanian army at
to the rescue of the Rumanians hardly take Orsova from its base of supplies. The Ru
into account the two obstacles which will manians there are facing attack from two

693

THE STORY OF THE WAR:

have pushed the Romanians south out of Transylvania, througb THE FALL OF MONASTIR

the passes and back into Rumania, the left or west wing of he
The war history for our week (November 15-22) may almost Rumaniai army was held Orsova. Now the only rail communi-
be summed up in two words, Monastir and Craiova Each

cation between Orsova and Bucharest is by this railway which
stands for a great achievement and for long-reaching conse passes through Craiova. The occupation by the German of the
quences in the progress of the war in the Balkan region.

latter place seems to cut off the Rumanian army u Orsov
In the capture of Monastir the Servian army, once crushed from its base of supplies. The Romanians there are facing
by the Teutonic forces, now reorganized and again in splendid attack from two directions. or, as some say, from three diree
fighting order, though in all probability smaller than it was;

tions, and their position is perilous in the extreroe.
must feel exultant. Aided by their French allies and by a But this is not the only way in which the capare of Craiova
detached Russian force, the Servians again occupy one of the

threatens Rumania. This same railway runs from Craiova east
toost important cities of their country. In the whole campaign

and northeast until it joins another railway running in a south-
which has resulted in the capture of Monastir the Bulgarians erly direction to Bucharest frorr Kampulung where the Ru.
have been outmaneuvered and outfought. Their retreat from

tianians have been carrying on a strong resistance to the Ger.
Monastir (80 the Allies' despatches say) was little less than a mans, aided materially by Russian forces. If the German forces
rout. Strategically the gain is a large one. Despite the fact ‘at Craiova follow the first railway to Pitesci, the junction of the
that the railway on which Monastir is situated ends at that two roads, the Romanians at Kampulung may be caught between
place, its occupation opens up, through the valley of the Cerna

two armies. Altogether, the outlook for Rumania is a bad one.
River, a road toward Nish, to capture which must be the great

and her capital, Bacharest, is in serious danger
effort of the Alies' armies on the Salonika front.

The offset to the prediction of disaster we have just recorded
The direct approach to Nish is, of course, northward frith

lies in the question whether Falkenhayn has sufficient forces or
Salonika, through the valley of the Vardar River, and by the can get them from Germany and Austria to carry out such
railway running through that valley. The present situation is large plans involving movements in different directions. If he
that the left wing (or western force) of General Sarrail's total can, and there is real uncertainty as to this, he has a good
army is now well advanced and in good position ; and if the pect of capturing Bucharest and joining his forces with those of
right wing, in which the British predominate, is once placed in

General von Mackensen in the Dobrudja.
a good position to the eastward, the long-expected main advance On the other war fronts little of note took place during the
of the center of this vast army made up of several nationalities

week.
may begin to move toward Nish. The capture of Nish would
cut in two the only rail communication between Teutonic forces
in the north and their allies, Bulgaria and Turkey, in the

THE GERMAN DEPORTATION

OF BELGIANS
southeast.
When that great drive will come it is impossible to say,

The atrocious deportation of Belgians by Germany continues.
Those who impatiently demand why General Sarrail does not Beyond question it constitutes industrial enslavement and ex
come to the rescue of the Rumanians hardly take into account patriation on a large scale. One report of the deportation in
the two obstacles which will make this a slow process: First,

six villages in the district of Mons says that twelve hundred
the distance and natural obstacles involved in the campaign men, the cream of the industrial workers, were taken from
and, secondly, the unsatisfactory state of things in Greece. these places alone. The well-known Belgian writer, Emile
That the leaders of the Allies in Grewe have come to the end Cammaerts, commenting on the acts of deportation, calls thew
of their patience with the tortuous and treacherous conduct of "slave raids," and says, "Trains roll through Germany packed
the Greek King became evident last week, when sweeping de: with human cattle," and adda :
mands were made npon the nominal Greek Government, first,

These things have been ing on since October 15. Ten days
for the surrender to the Allies of a large portion of the army's

ago fifteen thousand had been taken in Flanders alone. How
munitions and artillery of the Greek army; and, secondly, for

many are there now? Between twenty and thirty thousand. If
the immediate departure of the diplomatie representatives of things are allowed to go on at this rate, we shall witness the
Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, and Turkey now in Greece. The wholesale deportation of an entire people reduced to slavery.
first step is justified by the treachery of the Greek army to This, indeed, is a disaster worse than invasion, worse than
Greece in its failure to resist Bulgarian invasion; the second, the retreat from Antwerp, worse than the wholesale massacres
by the plotting and intrigues of the Ministers of the Central of Louvain, Tamides, Andenne, Dinant--worse even than the
Powers. Meanwhile the Greek people are likely to turn more

Ceaseless persecutions of the last two years. What is Belgium's
and more to Venizelos, the head of the Nationalist Government,

answer to this new crime? To-day her soul is strieken, Every

one of these captives has to choose between death and dishonor. who has just issued a proclamation calling upon the people to

Their spirit is broken by the slow, gnawing torture endured in wipe out the stain placed upon Greece by the disregard of its

complete isolation. treaty obligations to Servia and by the tame submission to isvasion by Bulgaria.

The proposal in Great Britain to appoint a controller of food and to regulate food supplies and prices is not a confession of

weakness, but the evidence of strength.
CRAIOVA AND RUMANIA

Germany acted wisely when, long ago, under the preasure of
The second great event of the week above noted was the the food question she instituted thorough Government super-
capture by General von Falkenhayn's army of the Rumanian vision and regulation. As with Germany, so with England;
town of Craiova. This is not an important place in itself, but the action was at first taken to indicate a greater extremity
its occupation has tremendous significance. It lies on a railway than actually existed. It was wise becanse under war condi.
running in its general direction from west to east through tions food should be controlled so as to prevent speculation and
western Rumania. As the German forces under Falkenbayn to secure as far as possible an even distribution of the burden

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"eleven point,” can be cast on a ten point body, thus providing a larger type without losing space.

This is what has been done in the case of the new Outlook Series.

As to the type for the headlines, the initial letters, the placing of the page on the sheetthe "margins ”—the type used for quotations, the spacing of poems, etc., all these minutiæ have received due consideration. And here comes a digression. As in doubtful cases a doctor calls in a brother physician for counsel, an architect gets the advice of another member of his profession, or a law. yer calls upon a disinterested legal friend for an opinion, so The Outlook at this juncture obtained the advice of a well-known expert in matters typographical-Mr. Bruce Rogers, lately of Cambridge, Massachusetts, now on his way to establish himself in Hammersmith, England, near the former home of the famous Kelmscott Press. Mr. Rogers's standing in the book-making world may be indicated by this extract from a recently published book by Henry R. Plomer called “ A Short History of English Printing :” “Mr. Rogers, .. in a series of books too little known in England, has shown himself one of the surest and at the same time the most versatile of modern printers.” The typographical form of the new Outlook has in almost all its details been submitted in proof-sheets to this competent authority, and his valuable suggestions and criticisms have been constantly availed of in preparing the new format.

The headings are to be uniformly set in what is called Bodoni type, a letter which harmonizes excellently with The Outlook Series. It is named after a famous Italian type-cutter and printer, Giambattista Bodoni, who was born in 1740 and died in 1813, and who has been characterized by De Vinne in his work on Typography as a founder and printer who has fairly earned the highest honors.” “ Bodoni” is a letter which is clear, legible, and yet condensed enough to make it available for crowded columns, while at the same time it admits of the increased legibility obtained by “ letter-spacing”-i. e., inserting thin spaces or strips of cardboard between the letters of a word-as in the specimen line printed below:

THE STORY OF THE WAR The initial letters with which the contributed articles begin, it will be observed, are to be of a lighter series—the “ Book Bodoni”— it being found on trial that the Bodoni initials were somewhat too heavy in appearance for

this purpose. Incidentally, it is interesting to note in this connection that Mr. Rogers, like other broad-minded men, has no conceit that he “ knows it all in advance of experiment. “ Try it and see” is his motto. 'The value of his advice consists largely in his fertility of suggestion as to what to try and what to avoid trying.

The margins of the new Outlook page, while not as generous as in some sumptuous books, owing to the necessity of utilizing to the full the precious commodity on which it is printed, are, it is believed, correctly spaced -with considerably more white surface on the outside and bottom edges than on the top and inside ones. This is not only “ orthodox," but much more pleasing to the eye than when the space is equally divided.

Many readers of present-day magazines rebel against the current practice of beginning articles in the front of the magazine and then compelling the reader to search the back pages to find the conclusion of the article. This objectionable practice is not to be countenanced in The Outlook in its new form. Appropriate reading matter will be used on the advertising pages where space permits, but the reader will not be subjected to the annoyance complained of.

The handsome appearance of the new page, as well as its relative size as compared with the present form, is shown in the facsimiles of the cover and text pages of the old and the new size of The Outlook on the two preceding pages. The facsimiles are reduced to one-quarter of the actual size. The “ constant reader ” of this magazine will be gratified to notice that there is a familiar look about the new pageit is merely an enlargement, as it were, of a well-liked photograph.

It only remains to be said that it is confidently believed that the readers of The Outlook, those who have seen it in all the various “ dresses ” that it has worn through the fifty-odd years of its existence, as well as its newer friends and its friends yet to be, will unite in regarding the new Outlook as most legible, convenient, and attractive in its physical form. As to its intellectual and spiritual appeal—that is another story, and one the editors must tell. The new and beautiful medium through which they are to tell it ought to, and no doubt will, inspire them to maintain the standards of the past and if possible bring them to still finer issues in the new day that awaits The Outlook and its readers.

1916

THE GREEN GOLD OF YUCATAN

825

a

made Governor by Carranza. Now Alvarado 1038 cents, of which the planter now receives is an unusual Mexican, as most men who know 7 cents. That still leaves 338 cents between him admit, whether they agree with him or not. the selling price in this country and the plantHe is a natural social radical, heart, soul, and er's share. Of this 33/8 cents 1 74 cents goes bones. Finding himself more or less isolated out for freight between Progreso and New from the man who had appointed him, and York. There remain to be deducted charges in control of the only soldiers in Yucatan, he for marine insurance, warehouse insurance, proceeded to put into effect many reforms and dock labor as well as a commission for. which had been advocated by Carranza and the bankers who financed the Reguladora. some others, which were part of Alvarado's It is difficult to estimate the exact total own private conception of the social millen- of these items, but there is left a small nium. But in order to do these things sum, perhaps more than a cent, perhaps money was necessary, and in Yucatan money less, on each pound of sisal still unaccounted is henequen. The obvious thing to do was for. This profit goes to the State of Yucato put himself in control of the henequen tan. The enemies of Governor Alvarado crop, and Alvarado did it.

say that this is his personal " rake-off.” As a machine to accomplish his ends he The Governor says that, in accordance found the Comision Reguladora del Mercado with the rules of the Reguladora, this profit de Henequen ready to hand. The Reguladora will be divided among the members of the had not been regulating, but when Alvarado Reguladora, which includes all the planters took hold of it it began to regulate very and himself. He said that this division quickly. The machinery had been failing would take place at the end of the first year because the planters had not been putting of the Reguladora's operations. This year their combined power behind it. Alvarado expired about the end of November. It reforced them to get behind it, and he bor- mains to be seen on December 6, as this rowed $10,000,000 from American bankers article goes to press, whether Alvarado will as working capital, whereupon the Reguladora keep his promise to divide. Most of the became as powerful and all-inclusive a piece planters have treated this promise as of trade-controlling machinery as the world joke. perhaps has ever seen.

Inasmuch as the Governor has raised the Every planter was forced to contract to price of henequen received by the planter from sell his henequen to the Reguladora for five 45/8 cents a pound to 7 cents, it may not at years by the simple expedient of forcibly pre- first be apparent why the Governor is very venting the shipment of all sisal from Yuca- unpopular with the planters. One reason is tan which had not passed through the Com- that, while he has increased the amount which mission. The planters were forced to lend the planter gets, he has also greatly increased money to the State Government—which was the taxes which the planter must pay to the Alvarado—and were given bonds in the Regu- State ; and another reason is that he has exladora in return.

tracted forced loans from many of the plantSince Governor Alvarado established the ers, and otherwise dealt with them in an Government sisal monopoly the price of hemp arbitrary manner. In short, what he has to the American manufacturer has risen given to the planters with one hand he has greatly. In late November, 1915, when the taken away with the other.

At the same monopoly was established securely, it was time he has established a minimum wage 65/8 cents a pound. By the end of 1915 it which they must pay their laborers, has had reached 736 cents, and now it is 1038 established an eight-hour day for all labor, cents. These figures are for New York. and has forced each planter to establish on The figures for other American ports vary his hacienda a school large enough to provide slightly. But do not fall into the error of for the education of all the children of that believing that the Yucatecan planter got this planter's employees. price for his green gold. By no means. I visited several henequen ranches in YuWhen the price was 658 cents in the United catan. Some belonged to planters who supStates, the planter in Yucatan was getting ported the Governor, but most were the 45/8 cents, and about half of the residue was property of his private and political enemies. taken up by freight charges. Later the A henequen plantation is a picturesque planter was given 5 cents as his share ; and affair. If it is far from Merida, you run out still later the price in New York rose to to the railway station nearest the plantation

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