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bands. But in all countries unusual punishments are had recourse to in times of insurrection and civil war, For example, the government of England is nothing the less mild in its general character for having still more recently than 1849 blown Hindoos from the cannon's mouth, or for having applied torture in various forms to the same people. If it be said, as indeed it truly may, that the home government of England had not ordered either course, but, on the contrary, censured the authors of each as soon as the facts were known, a similar plea has been put forward on the part of the Austrian government. And who can take it upon him to say that the latter, as well as the former, did not deprecate the barbarity committed in its namie.
The taxes also, levied by Austria in the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, seemn to be exaggerated in the present volume. According to the official statistics of the Austrian government, the annual amount is less than seventyfive millions (75,000,000) of florins, while in the Histoire de l'Italie Nouvelle it is estimated at one hundred and twenty-four inillions (124,000,000), nearly as much more. Probably the truth lies between the two statements-perhaps half way; for Austria had as strong a motive for practising subtraction as our authors had for addition or multiplication. At all events, notwithstanding the defects mentioned, the new History will be read with interest. The survey, in the present volume, of the condition of the principal Italian States, from 1815 to the death of Charles Albert, embraces a large amount of well-attested facts, which will be new to most readers. The style throughout is agreeable, often brilliant. No one is at a loss to understand either author, even when he is most speculative. The language, at least, is always perspicuous—that of M. De la Varenne especially, affords as good a speciinen of French style as the most fastidious foreigner need wish in a work like that before us. The Last Travels of Ida Pfeiffer ; Inclusive of a visit to Madagascar, with
an Autobiographical Memoir of the author. Translated by H. W. DULCKEN. 12mno, pp. 281. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1861.
The author of this handsome duodecimo was one of the best travellers of modern times, and few had the talent of rendering what they saw and heard more agreeably available for the instruction and entertainment of others. Her recent death imparts an additional interest to the present work, au interest heightened still more by the biography given by her son, froin notes left for that purpose by herself. The author's account of her visit to Madagascar may be ranked among her best efforts. Historical Sketches of Europe, containing accounts of Interesting Events,
Distinguished Actions and Merits of Princes and Celebrated Men,
to give an idea of its character. In our opinion, the original drawings, by which it is illustrated, are more valuable than the letter-press. Not but the latter embraces inany fine sketches, including anecdotes of eminent men, few of which are to be found in other works.
“ Historical Sketches” is published in monthly parts, each containing eight quarto pages of reading matter, and four engravings. It is to be completed in twenty-four numbers, the last of which is to contain a full index. Judging from the seven numbers now before us, we have no doubt but the work will prove a valuable addition to the family library. Among the engravings in these, are illustrations of such historical events as, the Sicilian Vespers, Queen Christina's accession to the Swedish throne, Pope Gregory VII. in conflict with the Emperor Henry IV., institution of the Legion of Honor, the foundation of the Turkish Empire, arrival of the Anglo-Saxons in England, Bajazet confined by Tamerlane in an iron cage, and his wife treated as a slave, assassination of Rizzio, Queen Caroline Matilda on her trial before the Commissioners, the Battle of Aboukir, the Earl of Essex in the Tower presenting Elizabeth's ring to the Countess of Nottingham, Charlemagne destroying the Idols of the Saxons, &c. Most of these are by distinguished foreign artists. The illustrations form an admirable feature in the work. In short, with the exception of certain peculiarities of expression, which occasionally occur in the letter-press, such as might be expected from any foreigner, however well he may have studied our language, we find nothing in the “ Historical Sketches,” in the hurried glance we have been able to give through its pages, which we cannot entirely commend. M. De Buelow is an utter stranger to us; but we think he deserves to be encouraged in his present enterprise. Memorial Volume of the First Fifty Years of the American Board of
Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Boston: N. BROUGHTON, Jr. 1861.
Altogether apart from its religious character, there is much that is interesting in this volume. Its contents are multifarious, embracing rerniniscences of travel, observations on the manners and customs and religious, social, and political conditions of various nations of the world, remarks on the peculiarities of their languages and literature, &c. Indeed, the amount of information of this miscellaneous kind which it includes has agreeably surprised us, for there is nothing in the title which seemed to us to promise anything more than a narrative of the labors of the missionaries in different parts of the world, together with some account of the results of those labors. This would have satisfied most of those for whom the work is particularly intended; but the general reader expects something more. This, we may remark in passing, is a fact too often lost sight of by the authors and compilers of religious books. They forget that, in order to secure the perusal of the whole, it is necessary to
interest the non-religious reader, by introducing secular topics. But in the work before us, unpretending as is its title, the student of history, the linguist, and the ethnologist, are interested in turn. An extract or two will sufficiently illustrate this; and we are sure they will prove acceptable to our readers. The Secretary of the Greek Mission frankly acknowlodges in his report that the Greek people set at defiance all efforts at converting them to Protestantism.
“The Greeks,” he says, “have retired from us. To a most affecting extent, they have become inaccessible to our preaching, our books, and our influence. They will no longer hear us; and there is reason to believe it is now true, that few of them read when we address them through the press on the subject of vital godliness. I do not see where, or in what way, the Greek mind is, to any considerable extent, approachable, just now, to a spiritual influence from Protestant ministers of the gospel. The political state of the Greek mind-grasping after the recovery of Constantinople and the restoration of the Eastern Empire, and relying on the unity of the Greek Church as a means to this end-has a wonderful influence on the thoughts and feelings of the whole community, especially the higher classes. I am reluctant to mention also the national pride of the Greeks, which has been much increased since the revolution, and their strong aversion to strangers, and certain other traits in their character, all combining to render it difficult for foreigners to gain their confidence or awaken their gratitude by acts of kindness and benevolence. And then there are the high, arrogant assumptions of the Greek Church, which is more exclusive than the Roman ; claiming for her clergy the only Apostolical succession, and for her trine immersion, performed by her clergy, the only baptism ; and regarding that baptism as having a regenerative power, and all who are not thus baptized as beyond the pale of the Christian church and the hope of salvation. Of course all Protestant preachers of every name, episcopal and non-episcopal, are looked upon as unbaptized heretics."-355.
This affords new evidence in support of the theory that the descendants of the ancient Greeks and ancient Romans have alike persistently rejected Protestantisin, while the descendants of the Northmen and ancient Germans have as persistently evinced a prejudice against Catholicism. Even the languages of the different nations mentioned are supposed to predispose those who speak them to one religion or the other. Thus the Italians, French, Spanish and Portuguese, are Catholics; whereas the Germans, Danes, Swedes and English-all in whose dialects the German element predominates—are Protestants. This seems strange, but it is not the less true.
The missionaries, without regard to sect, will, in time, become the best linguists; many of them are so already. None others have such opportunities, or, rather, none find it inore necessary to learn foreign languages to perfection. The following extract will serve as an agreeable illustration of this :
“Of new translations into languages already having alphabets and versions of the Scriptures, perhaps the most important is the Arabic. As the Arabic is the language of the Koran, and therefore the sacred languåge of the whole Mohammedan world, it seemed a duty to furnish the millions, who read that language, with the Scriptures in a form that would command their respect, for both its literary and its mechanical execution. There had been for centuries two Arabic versions, both esteemed respectively good, and they had long been in print; but they failed to commend themselves to the taste of native Arabic scholars, and it was commonly supposed in Europe and America that the Mo
hammedans regarded the printing of sacred books as a profanation, and would never allow the Koran to be printed. This was found, on more perfect acquaintance with native readers of Arabic, to be a misapprehension. Their objection to printed books arose from the bad, unscholarly appearance of the letters, and not from the manner in which they were produced. With great labor and patient research, numerous specimens of approved Arabic calligraphy were collected ; the letters in the best of them were taken as models, and types were made, and books were printed, acceptable to the critical taste of literary Arabs. The new type was not only used by the mission at Beirut, but was immediately adopted by the most respectable publishers in Europe. By this achievement, the art of printing was first made practically available, to any considerable extent, to the nations whose native or sacred language is the Arabic."--pp. 376.
It appears (p. 343) that books have been printed, by the presses owned by the Missionary Board, in no fewer than forty-three languages, including the Sanscrit, the Hebrew, the Persian, the Syriac, the Malay &c. We have now before us (p. 342) the Cherokee alphabet, several of whose characters bear so remarkable à resemblance to the Greek. The Lord's Prayer is given in the same language, with the pronunciation of each word according to the alphabet, which is followed by a literal Eng"lish translation. Even this hasty glance will show that the “Memorial Volume” is no ordinary record of noble efforts in the cause of religion and civilization.
An Ecclesiastical Dictionary, containing Definitions of Terms, and Expla
nations and Illustrations of subjects pertaining to the History, Ritunl, Discipline, Worship, Ceremonies, and Usages, of the Christian Church, with brief Notices of Ancient and Modern Sects, and Biographical Sketches of the early Fathers and Writers of the Church. By the Rev. William STAUNTON, D. D. 8vo, pp. 700. New York: General Protestant Episcopal Sunday School Union.
The matter we have just transcribed from the title-page sufficiently indicates the value and interest of this work. Little need be added, further than to say that the author has accomplished his task with remarkable success. It can hardly be alleged that he has introduced anything sectarian, in the ordinary sense of that term. We do not, indeed, remember any sect whose history he does not give, at greater or less length; but he does so, not as a controversalist, but as an historian. In other words, far from evincing any bigotry, he treats all denominations with that forbearance and gentleness which are among the best characteristics of Christianity. As the imprint would naturally imply, more attention is paid to the Episcopal Church than to any other more perhaps than to all other churches or denominations put together. But a large portion, if not the greater part of what is applied to the Episcopal Church, is equally applicable to each of the other principal denominations. Then, altogether independently of its religious character, the Ecclesiastical Dictionary is well calculated to afford important aid to the historical student, for it exhibits an amount of learning and research, especially in reference to the early ages of the Church, which is not often found in a modern work.
La République Américaine, ses Institutions, ses Hommes, dc. Par ZAVIER
EYMA. Paris : M. Levy Frères. 1861. Although this volume had been written before the present rebellion commenced, there is much in it that has a direct bearing on that subject. Indeed, there are passages here and there that are singularly prophetic. The author had previously written a good deal on the United States and its destiny; but chiefly in the form of essays for periodicals and papers. It had always been his impression that, sooner or later, the South would revolt pretty much as it has done; but he thought that the North was not sufficiently united to attempt to coerce it. Further than these predictions, there is nothing very remarkable in the book, excepting some grave errors which he falls into, in instituting comparisons between the United States and the Republics of Central and South America. The work seems to be designed principally for schools, a purpose for which it would have been admirably calculated, had it not been for the defects alluded to, the style being at once simple, graphic, and sparkling-such, that it may be characterized by the well-known sentence of Plutarch, as translated by the author's countryman, Amiot
- Tu tiens sans propos beaucoup de bon propos."
The Armies of Europe ; comprising Descriptions in Detail of the Mili
tary Systems of England, France, Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sardinia ; adapting their advantages to all Arms of the United States Service, dec. By GEORGE B. MOCLELLAN, Major-General U. S. Army. 8vo, pp. 499. Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott & Co. 1861.
The multifarious, well-arranged contents of this fine volume have agreeably surprised us. Altogether independently of its value at the present moment, in a military point view, embracing as it does an exceedingly lucid and comprehensive treatise on the art of war, it contains a large amount of information, of which no writer or speaker on international law should be ignorant; and which is interesting to all. Nowhere else can the American reader find so accurate an estimate of the military and naval forces of the principal nations of Europe. Still less can the soldier, let his grade be what it may, meet with a work in the English language from which he can learn so much as to the more important differences between the various systems of drill used by the French, English, Austrians, Prussians, Russians, &c.
That it is important to understand these differences in reading of great battles and their results, with the view of profiting by the lessons which they teach, need hardly be stated. It was precisely for this and kindred