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ates. In this quiet life, at Laleham, there were born to him six of his nine children; the remaining three first saw the light at Rugby. In one of these children, Matthew Arnold, poet, all the susceptibility to culture, though with far less of the fire and earnestness of the father, reappears on the stage of contemporary literature. Beyond the assurance that it was an eminently happy one, and much indirect evidence corroborative, we are allowed by the biographer to know extremely little of this marriage. The matron of the Teachers' household at Laleham and Rugby recedes quite out of sight within a little world of presumed domestic duties; but the "elevating influences” of her society, and the “keen sense of thankfulness consciously awakened by every distinct instance of his many blessings, [and] which more than anything else explained his close union of joyousness with seriousness”—these hints sufficiently disclose to us the light which that domestic world contained, and which could not be hidden, because it shone in the exalted character and fortune of its head—the faithful and successful instructor. It was at Laleham, and under influences such as these, that the vague restlessness and uncertainty of Arnold's earlier years gave place to the unity of purpose and earnestness of his after life. This man, we are told, walked henceforth in a

deep consciousness of the invisible world.” His religion is a real love and adoration, coupled with a profound humility. And yet he is, so he believes, naturally one of the most ambitious men alive.” Above all else, his taste would lead him to be "prime minister of a great kingdom, the governor of a great empire, or the writer of works which should live in every age and in every country.” Three such great works, at least, he long and fondly meditated; one, an exposition of Government from the Christian point of view; or, “Christian Politics ;" a second, a Commentary on the New Testament; the third, a History of Rome. Of these, the first was considerably advanced, but never completed; of the other two there exist only the fragments, inscribed on the hearts of his pupils and admirers. In 1826, he writes: “I hope to be allowed, before I die, to accomplish something on Education, and also with regard to the Church; the last, indeed, even more than the other, were not the task, humanly speaking, so hopeless.” He adds the opinion that, while the Church of England seemed to have retained the sure foundation, she has overlaid it with a very sufficient quantity of hay and stubble, which [he] devoutly hopes to see burnt one day in the fire.”

It was fortunate for Dr. Arnold, and more so for the world, that the form of government and phase of society in which he lived are such as, whatever their repressive influence in other directions may be, do usually permit the real a plot01, the truly highest and best minds of any period, to find their due position, and to accomplish for men the special work for which the mental constitution of the one party and the needs of the other alike imperatively call !

In 1827, the Head-Mastership of Rugby School became vacant. Upon announcement of this vacancy by the Trustees, a large number of applicants sent in their names and testimonials. Arnold hesitated; when he did apply, he was among the last in order, and to his judges quite the least known. His letters were few and modest ; but they spoke unanimously and strongly of his qualifications and worth ; while that of the Rev. Dr. Hawkins, an appreciating Oxford classmate, predicted that “if Mr. Arnold were elected, he would change the face of education all through the public schools of England.” Through this discernment on the part of a friend, and a responsive good sense and integrity of purpose in the Board, real talent carried it against however much of title, station, or influence of names we venture to hope that the dry rot of nepotism did not at all come into the contest! And yet, in Arnold's opinion, even then, there was—and known of him so far as he himself had become well known-enough of radicalism and outspoken dissent from received authority in Education, State and Church, to have put a quietus on the man in some regions in which "authority” is presumed to be quite a tractable and harmless affair, and where, it is deemed, independence of mind and manhood is quite the allowable and common possession.

Arnold took charge of Rugby School in August, 1828; receiving priest's orders and his degree of D.D. in the course of the same year. One of the conditions of acceptance with him was, that he should be allowed a very large discretion in respect to all details of the management of the school : the Trustees may approve, or disapprove, of the ends attained in his teaching and government; but he stipulates that he shall be entirely free in the selection and carrying out of the means to these 'ends. And here, with a larger field before him, his views rise to larger and more completed form. His letters show with what earnest and real pleasure he entered into all the departments—of oversight, organization, and Tabor-required by his new office ; and he plainly enough declares in them, as the result at last shows, that this interest is largely that of the innovator upon, and the reformer of, a faulty system of education. But he knows that he is dealing with men ; and he publishes his first volume of sermons at this juncture, to correct a prevalent and mischievous impression, that his views were more radical and revolutionary than in reality they were.

Intellectually, a chief evil of the English higher schools at this period was, that they attempted to teach little more than the classics, and these to a limited extent, and in a mechanical way.

Morally, their great defect was, that in them the sway of a cold and unsocial routine had quite left unattempted the cultivation of the higher sentiments, or that incorporation of the moral and Christian elements needful to a truly symmetrical character. With both these defects Arnold's large and earnest nature, not less than his quick apprehension of their existence, brought him directly in conflict. He instinctively foresaw in the peccadilloes of the school-boy the vices of the future man, and the perils of the future citizen ; and though he did not directly Tabor to produce a school of Christian boys, this was because by indirect and more far-reaching measures he strove that, out of those turbulent and unreflecting boys, there might in time be moulded a class of Christian gentlemen. With this end before him, he was continually devising fresh plansproposing and testing new measures. The safety of this part of his course was probably in that limit which discloses, in fact, a fundamental weakness. Had he possessed more of original and organizing power, he would, doubtless, have struck out at the first one comprehensive plan, to realize and perfect which would have employed all his subsequent effort. But revolution, as this would have been, should have come but once; or, if repeated, must have demanded, in the accomplishing, proportionally greater force of intellect and character. Arnold took the system which he found: he did not supplant it; and though perpetually modelling it anew in parts, the general structure was permanent; and his pupils, confused at times with change, learned in reality to approve the motive and to co-operate with the mover, through the evident spirit of a search for the best, which pervaded the whole course of his administration. But, besides, the vehement self-assertion of the boy was now more than reproduced in the man; and where tact was largely disregarded, it often required all the candor, sincerity, and rectitude of purpose of the new Head Master, backed by all his unflinching firmness, to lay the storms which his impetuous advocacy of the right and the best sometimes raised. In every way, however, he soon became the animating spirit of the vast school of which he had the charge. His biographer says:

“It was precisely because he thought so much of the institution and so little of himself, that, in spite of his efforts to make it work independently of any personal influence of his own, it became so thoroughly dependent upon him, and so thoroughly penetrated with his spirit. From one end of it to the other, whatever defects it had were his defects, whatever excellences it had were his excellences. It was not the master who was loved or disliked for the sake of the school, but the school was beloved or disliked for the sake of the master. * * Throughout, whether in the school itself, or in its after effects, the one image that we have before us is not Rugby, but ARNOLD.”

And yet this man, who taught the boys of the Sixth Form-the most advanced, and usually about thirty in number; who visited and examined the other Forms at stated times; who had meetings for counsel and advice with his associate teachers; who had not only to devise, but to carry out in greater part the government of the school, and to deal with special crises and cases of delinquency; who found time to ramble with members of own family, or select parties of the boys, over the neighboring country, to boat, to swim with them, to watch their games of ball, and to invite a few of them by turns to his private library ; who sat down after a day of such labors in the evening to write his Roman History or his sermons, and who occupied a large portion of the Sabbath in preaching and the other religious exercises called for by his position—even he was not mechanicalized by his absorbing avocations. On the contrary, the man ever rose above the teacher; and his home life was not less intensely realized-perhaps by so much the more so, as a relief froin the steady line of duty in which the larger portion of the day was consumed.

“It was from amidst this chaos of employments that he turned, with all the delight of which his nature was capable, to what he often dwelt upon as the rare, the unbroken, the almost awful happiness of his domes

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tic life. It is impossible adequately to describe the union of the whole family round him, who was not only the father and guide, but the elder brother and play-fellow of his children; the first gs of enthusiastic love and watchful care, carried through twenty-two years of wedded life -the gentleness and devotion which marked his whole feeling and manner in the privacy of his domestic intercourse. Those who had known him only in the school can remember the kind of surprise with which they first witnessed his tenderness and playfulness. Those who had knowp him only in the bosom of his family found it difficult to conceive how his pupils or the world at large should have formed to themselves so stern an image of one in himself so loving. Yet both were alike natural to him."

Arnold was an enthusiastic lover of the beauties of nature; but this seems to have been rather the tesult of the intensity of all enjoyment and feeling with him, than of that large and overmastering love of beauty in and for itself, which enters indispensably into the truly poetic nature. Very positive in his opinions, and finding great difficulty in appreciating the grounds or feelings of one who opposed views that fully commended themselves to his own judgment, he yet showed a keen appreciation of distress and privation, and not only administered freely to those in want about him, but added to his many other labors that of visiting, and on occasion watching with, the sick poor in his neighborhood.

It will be unnecessary now to sum up at any great length the leading characteristics, or ruling faculties, of Dr. Arnold's mind. We have seen that, among the strongest impelling forces of his life, were his moral and religious convictions ; pre-eminently, his love of the right and of the true; his repugnance to all that was mean, false, or hurtful ; his benevolence and humanity; and to these we must add withal, his powerful friendship, and strong love of the places that had been his home, of wife, and of children. He lacked that phase of reverence which accepts age as a test of truth: and that facility of management, secrecy, and self-control, which would have aimed at its ends under cover of more plausible and less alarming measures, but, for ends such as his, with extremely little prospect of true success. no more the mission to be achieved by cunning, than was the soul his that could endure the employment of such an agency. To the ruling motives of his life must of course be added his love of knowledge, lacking which he must have chosen some other pursuit than that of educator, and among the most potent of all, his frankly acknowledged ambition, doubtless often the sharpest spur under which his intellectual powers

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