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lip the Second, King of Spain, ulti- says our Author, "of a few years only
mately gave so decisive a blow to its raised Britain to an equal weight and
Aaval power, that it never, even fince credit in the naval world with those
its emancipation from that foreign who had been labouring, with the ute
yoke, has recovered any of its former most affiduity, to effect the same pur-
lustre. is a proof of the great cxtent pose, nearly as many centuries." His
to which Marine Architecture had second Chapter comprises a narrative of
been carried by them, even in after the principal naval transactions of the
times, a Portuguese carrack was cap- reigns of Henry the Seventh, and his
tured by Sir John Barrough, an Eng. Successor Henry the Eighth.
lith Naval Officer, in the year 1992,

The invention and use of gunpowe
which is thus described. “This caro der, and the introduction of cannon
rack was in burthen no less than 1600 into thips, were of no ancient date;
cons, whereof goo were merchandise ; when Henry the Seventh ascended the
the carried thirty-two pieces of brass throne, and fifteen years afterwards,
ordnance, and between fix and fever the contrivance of port holes was an-
bundredt pallengers ; was built with other.improvement, attributed to Defa
decks, feven forey, one main alope, charges, a French ship-builder at Brejł,
three close decks, one forecastle, and which, in addition to the above-men-
a spare deck, of two Hoors a piece. tioned, rendered very material altera-
According to the observations of Mr. tions in the conttructions of ships built
Robert Adams, an excellent geometri. for the purposes of war effentially ne-
cian, it was in length, from the beak. cessary ; more especially, an enlarge-
head to the itern, 165 feet, in breadth ment of their dimensions. Previous
near 47 feet; the length of her keel to the cominencement of this new
100 feet; of the main-matt 121 feet; system, no distinguishing line of fep?
its circuit at the partners near li ration existed between those few veliels
feet ; and her main.yard 106 feet.” which had been built for the King's
But though the Portuguese ftill pos. service, and such as were used for mere
felled a number of commercial velfels 'cantile purposes ; but from this time,
of this class, its fun of maritine glory about six or seven hips that belonged
appears to have set with the deftruc. immediately to the King formed a
tion of the whole Spanish Armada, of distinct and secluded class; and from
which a squadron of twelve Portuguese this feeble origin sprang the Royal
galleons formed a considerable part. Navy, and the first regulations for the
The Spaniards, in their turn, became administration of its atfairs in the next
masters of the Seas, and of immense reign. The largelt thip in the time of
wealth, from the discovery and con. Henry the Seventh was called la Grace
queit of South America ; but their de Dieu, which our Author calls the
power was not suffered to be of long Parent of the Britih Navy, concerning .
duration ; opulence produced indo the identity of which much dispute
lence, and luxury enervated the cruel has arisen amongit antiquaries, fome
subverters of the empires of Mexico contending, that there was but one thip
and Peru.

of this name built by Henry the Eighth, “ But the temporary success of the whilst others maintain, with Mr. Chara Portuguese, and the immense riches nock, that the first becoming, through acquired by the Spaniards, were closely age and decay, unfit for service, a fucwatched with a jealous and politi. ceffor was built, to which the same cal eye, by another nation rising gra. naine was transferred; and he ob. dually into consequence, ordained serves, that the custom of transmitting by Providence to surpass both, and, in the name of the principal hip of the procefs of time, to acquire a perma- Navy became the practice; to in the nent superiority of naval power, a reign of Charles the Firit it was called mnore perfect knowledge of the science the Sovereign; and in our time ebe Royal of Marine Architecture, and a more Gcorge.. The Harry Grace a Diev, frum. decided genius for maritime affairs, a drawing preserved in the Pepylian tban any of its predecessors."

collection ai Cambridge, of which an The enterpriling fpirit of the Englith elegantly-engraved plate by Newton began to expand itself in the reign of is given to front p. 32 of this volume, Henry the Seventh, which forms a new our siuthor suppoles was the original and very diftinguished era in our naval hip built by Henry the Seventh, and history, for the serious attention," noi that of later construction. She is

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described as having five mafts, but only his Atreams, wherefore they had de four are upright, the fifth is fixed served to die by the law, and to be obliquely, and in modern times re- hanged at low water mark. Then said ceived the name of the boltsprit. This the Scots, We acknowledge our number of masts for first-rates conti: offence, and ask mercy, and not the nued, without alteration, till nearly the law. Then said a Priest, We appeal end of the reign of Charles the First. from the King's justice to his mercy.'

« On the accession of Henry the Then the Bifhop asked the Priest, if he Eighth, be applied himself, with the were authorifed by them to fay fo ; utmost earneftness, to improve and aug. and they all cried, Yea, yea. Then, ment that inconsiderable force which said the Prelate, you shall find the his father had lived long enough to see King's mercy above his justice, for the necessity of; and that neceffity where you were dead by the law, yet fully manifested' itfelf in the third by his mercy he will revive you ; year of the young King's reign, when wherefore ye thall depart out of this Andrew Barton, a Scottish man, under realm within twenty days, upon pain the pretext that the Scots bad war of death if ye be found here after with the Portingales (the Portuguese), twenty days and pray for the King, with only two thips, had the audacity and so they passed into their own to rob the ships of all nations, and so country. stopped the King's streams (the Britih “ The King of Scotland hearing of Seas) that no merchant vesel almost the death of Barton, and the capture of could pass. Henry, on receiving in his two thips, was much incensed, and telligence of these depredations, in- sent letters to the King of England ftantly ordered Sir Edward Howard, requiring reftitution, according to the Lord'Admiral of England, and Lord league of amity between them. Henry Thomas Howard, fon and heir to the wrote with brotherly falutation to the Earl of Surry, to get ready two thips, King of the Scots, recounting the roband put to sea in all haste; this was beries and evil doings of Andrew Bar. done accordingly, and they were sepa. ton, and that it became not one Prince rated by stress of weather. Lord to lay a breach of a league to another Howard lying in the Downs discovered Prince, in doing justice upon a pirate Barton making for Scotland in his ship and a thief, and that all the other Scots the Lion, and chased him so closely, had deserved to die by justice, if he had that he came up with him, and a very not extended his mercy: and with this fevere battle ensued. The Englishmen answer the Scottish hirault departed were fierce, and the Scots defended home." themselves manfully ; but in the end, Thus, from a simple circumstance, the Lord Howard and his men entered an unexpected event, did the Royal the main-deck, and Andrew Barton Navy of England derive its first regular was taken prisoner, being, however, so formation into a national establishmeni, forely wounded that he died there, for Henry was too able a politician to and the remnant of his crew with the fulfer such injuries to pass unpunished thip were captured. All this while in future, for want of a sufficient naval was the Lord Admiral in chace of the force to prevent them in the first inbark of Scotland called Jenny Perwyn, Aance, and to guard againk the refentwhich used to fail in company with the ment of any weak or imprudent SoveLion, which he boarded, and few reign or Siate that might take upon many, making the rest prisoners. Thus them to countenance or support their were the two thips taken and brought fubje&ts in such practices. He, thereto Blackwall, on the second day of fore, formed an agreement with the Auguft, in the year 1912.

fame Sir Edward Howard, to maintain a “ After this, the King sent the Bi. certain number of mariners, soldiers, shop of Winchester, and certain of his and others, for the service of the Royal Council, to the Archbishop of York's Navy. The conditions and different Palace, where the Scots prisoners were particulars are clear and extremely cu. kept ; and the Bishop rehearsed to rious ; the whole comprising not only them, “ Whereas peace is yet between a very concise account of the internal England and Scotland, that they con- regulations at that time adopted in the trary thereunto, as thieves and pirates, service, but a lift, which muit undoubt. bad robbed the King's subjects within edly be considered as complete and

authentic,

authentic, of all the ships and vessels Charnock is of opinion, that this was at that time composing the English the second hip called the Henrye Grace Navy Royal.

a Dicu, and was built by Henry VII. in Here follows a copy, page 36, Vol. II. lieu of the first, which was worn out ; of the indenture ; the title in Latin and on the accellion of Henry VIII. her runs thus :

name was changed for that of Regent.

The next step taken by this Founder Henry VIII. anno regni tertio, anno Dom. of the British Navy for its improve1512.

ment and augmentation was, the formIndentura inter Dominum Regem et ing a Navy Office, and establishing res Edwardum Howard, Capitaneum Genera. gular arsenals at Port Imoutli, and other km Armatæ fuper Mare, witnelleth, that places, as Wool wich and Deptford, for the said Sir Edwird is retained towards its support and better equipment. our Sovereign Lord, to be his Admiral These appointments facilitated the in Chief, and General Captain of the King's delign of acquiring a formidable Army, which his Highness hath pro. Navy, which he accomplished about posed and ordained, and now setteth to the year 1544, when the fleet of Eng. the Sea, for the safe-guard and sure par- land is said to have amounted to one fage of his subjects, friends, allies, and hundred and fixty fail, all great thips ; confederates." The conditions annexed but as this fleet was fitted out for an may be regarded as the outlines, or expedition against France, our Author Iketch of the constitution of the Admi. fupposes it included several vessels ralty in subsequent times.

hired of the merchants for the occaMany curious documents follow, fion ; for the highett authentic enumeconcerning the famous first rate called ration of Henry's Navy raises it to no Henrye Grace de Dieu, which puts it out more than seventy-one velfel; of differof doubt, that the ship bearing that ent sorts, the aggregate burthen of name was the thip delineated in the which amounted to 10,550 tons. ancient picture preserved at Windsor A thort time before the death of Cattle, on board of which King Henry Henry, a peace being concluded with VIII. is represented standing on the France, the neceslicy of any further main richly drelled in a garment of naval exertions cealed; the youth of cloth of gold, edged with ermine, the Edward the Sixth, his successor, and fleeves crimson, and the jacket and the turbulent reign of the bigoted breeches the saine : his round bonnet tyrant Mary, tended to depress, rather is covered with a white feather laid on than advance, the active spirit of im. the upper side of the brim. She is provement : under these circumstances represented as just sailing out of the the Royal Navy was reduced to fortyharbour of Dover, May 31, 5520. fix fhips, many of which were of inte.

“ We now come in reality,” says rior rates. Respecting the state of the our Author, “ to the ship which has naval force in 1578, twenty years after occafioned so much controversy. It is the accession of Queen Elizabeth, we truly said to have been built in conse- apprehend there is some mistake, which quence of the destruction of The Re. we recommend to the consideration of gent, and we may naturally suppose the Author, for we cannot conceive by was launched in the sixth year of the what means it could have been reduced King's reign, that is to say, in 1915, till further, in that period, fu low as as we find the following entry concern- twenty four thips of different forts, ing it in a very curious Ms. now pre- the largest of which was The Triumph, ferved in the Augmentation Office. burthen a thousand tons, and the Giallo This document gives the particulars of eft The George, not quite fixty ; especie the cost of building, equipment, &c. of ally as he lays, after animadverting on the said ship.

the neglect of the marine department “ The Regent was set on fire, and in the two preceding reigns, " Far totally destroyed, in a close engagement otherwise was the cafe after the accession with a French caricke that her people of Elizabeth ; for though the augmeng. had boarded, which the French gunner ation did not take place the instant the observing, set fire to the gunpowder. was feated on the ihrone, the immediroom, and both fhips being grappled ately found it expedient, and necessary together, so that they could not lepa to the safety of her kingdom, to equip rate, were entirely consumed.” Mr. a fleet for the protection of the Seas,"

&c. VOL, XLII. AUG. 1802,

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&c. See Chap. III. p. 54: Her great a purpose. From hence may be atiention once fixed upon this great inferred the high value of money in national object, and being then in those days, the economy and care used possession of forty-six mips left her by in the disbursement, and the cheap rate Queen Mary, how is it reconcileable at which all naval stores were then fold. with her enterprising and active dis. The total number of the Queen's actual position, that the should have suffered Navy, at her death was forty-two, of a diminution, instead of an augmentation, which twenty-four remained serviceof her naval Arength, for so long a space able in the year 1618, the 15th of James of time as the firit twenty years of her the First. glorious reign!

The Crown of England on the dea Be this as it may, after the expedition mise of Elizabeth parfed into a new of Sir Francis Drake, which provoked family, new measures were adopted, the resentment of Philip the Second and the whole political state of public against the Queen and the English na affairs appeared in one instant iotally tion, the found it necefiary to make changed. The suspenfion, therefore, every poffible exertion to resist the for a considerable time, of naval armainvincible Armada, which had been ments and expeditions from England, long preparing for the invasion, and on the accession of the pacific James, hoped for, fubjugation of her doni- gives the Author an opportunity to nions to the Spanish yoke. Her vigi- devote Chapter IV, to the history of Jance and activity upon this occasion the internal or civil regulations adoptmust have been beyond all example, ed by foreign states in the management since the list of the thips opposed to the of their Marine, and of the various Armada consists of one hundred and iinprovements and inventions used by ninety-seven vessels of different de. then, as well for defence against, as in' scriptions, their burthen amounting to annoyance of, their enemies. The nearly thirty thousand tons. But it fundry particulars of this Ctspter are must be remembered, that a confider- very curious, and demonstrate the great able part of this fleet consisted of thips pains the Author must have taken to fitted out by the city of London, and collect such extraordinary materials, inother sea-ports, for the occasion, which cluding the naval transactions of all the belonged either to corporate bodies, or maritime Powers of Europe from the to particular opulent merchants con- middle of the fifteenth to the end of the cerned in foreign commerce ; some of sixteenth century. Amongst other hirthem being hired by Government, and torical anecdotes, the earliest claim of others volunteering their services. the Dominion of the Seas particularly

Some improvements took place at attracted our notice, as it serves to this period, which are properly no prove that this claim, which in proticed ; such as the introduction of the cess of time was generally recognized friking or jointed top-masts, which is as due to the valour and superior maridiscernible in the engraving by Tomkins, time power of Britain, was successively of a British man of war, from the contended for by the Venetians, and, tapestry in the House of Lords, repre. in 1478, acknowledged by Frederick senting the memorable defeat and dif. the Third, Emperor of the Welt, who perfion of the Spanish Armada. Page wrote to the Doge of Venice, requeft: 65. Also, the first use of the chain. ing, as a special favour, that he would pump ; and with respect to seamen, it grant him permission to transport corn amust not be omitted, that either before from Apuleia through the Adriatic or after the engagement, her Majesty Sea. The Genoese exerted the fame founded that benevolent charity called authority in the Ligurian Sea, or Gulph Ibe Cheft at Chatham, for tlie benefit of of Genoa, and interdicted the coma wounded seamen, which hears the date merce of any State or Prince they of 1588. In the year 1550, the Queen thought proper. Portugal, Spain, made several new arrangements and Denmark, Sweden, Poland, and even regulations for the improvement of her the liuscovites, a?] laid claim (and Navy, in order to put it on a much most of thein maintained that claim fuperior footing to what it had pre with effect) in a sovereignty over parviously beer. Asa preliminary flep to ticular parts of the Ocean, which their this purpose, the regular yearly sum of respective territories i rrounded, and 89701. was affigned for repairs : a fum in forns intances on which they only the deemed fully equivaient to fo bordered,

Chapter

Chapter V, contains a retrospect of In Chapter XI. an account is given the civil economy, or internal manage of the squadrons fitted out againīt the ment of the Royal Navy during the Algerines in 1618 and 1620, and of reigns of Henry the Seventh and the additions made to the Royal Navy Eighth ; and here we are once more towards the close of this King's reign. under the neceity to arraign the Au. It

t appears also that Charles I. from the thor's distribution of his lubjects; as time of his accession, bestowed the same the principal contents of this Chapter attention on the naval force of his might have been incorporated with, kingdom, which had been given to it and more properly belongs to, the ma- latterly by his father. A variety of ritime history of those reigns in the prudent measures were adopted, among second Chapter. A further continua which was that of restraining thipa tion of the same subjects through the wrights, or any other artificers conreigns of Edward VI. Mary, and Eli- nected with the naval branch, from zabeth, recapitulating the number of passing beyond the Seas, and entering ships computing the Royal Navy in into the service of foreign Potentates. their times ; comparative statements ; In the year 1637, Tbe Sovereign, a first the pay of Admirals, Officers, and Sea- rate, was built at Woolwich, “ to the men, &c. and limilar eltimates relative great glory of the Seas of the English to the marine department, uccupy nation, and not to be paralleled in the Chapter VI.

whole Christian world." An extract In Chapter VII. we have an account from the description of this thip, by of the condition of the Venetian, Ge Thomas Heywood, and an exact repre. noele, Spanish, French, and Dutch sentation, will be found in this Chap. Marine, from the commencement to ter, from p. 281 to 285; the engraved the middle of the seventeenth cen- plate is copied from Heywood by Greig, tury. Of the principles adopted by Another representation of the fame European nations in the science of thip, taken from a picture painted by Ihip building ; together with their Vandevelde immediately after the resto. variation in respect to decoration and ration of Charles the Second, is placed ornament. A ftatement of the prin- between p. 286 and 287, without any cipal dimensions and force of the dif name of the engraver. It is remarkferent classes of thips of war belonging able, that this celebrated thip, known to the maritime Powers of Europe ; afterwards by the name of The Royal and a description of the improvements Sovereign, was in almost all the great in Marine Architecture, proposed by engagements that had been fought in Sir Robert Dudley, commonly called the reign of Charles the First and SeDuke of Northumberland, about the cond, that the continued in the service year 1594 ; they consist of seven dif- after the glorious Revolution, and was ferent ipecies of construction, and are not laid up at Chatham, in order to be jepresented in four large prints drawn rebuilt, till the beginning of the year by the Author, and engraved by New 1696, when the was set on fire in the ton.

Dock, and totally consumed. The eighth Chapter carries on the " The wonderful Itride made to. history of the British Navy, in the fame wards the improvement of thip-buildmanner as in the preceding eras, ing in general, and more particularly through the reign of King James 1. of vefleis intended for purposes of war, and extends the account of the allows appeared to promite a rapid afcenfion ances and pay to Flag Officers from to what should experimentally be con1591 to 1663. The same subject is fidered as the ne plus ultra of perfection. continued in Chapters IX. and X. Amidit every surrounding foible, and and contains the report of the Com- improvident mark of conduct, the missioners appointed by his Majesty to attention of Charles I. to this great enquire into the Itate of the Navy, the naval concern was apparent in every reduced number, and bad condition of action of his regal life, so long as he many, forms part of the report ; the was permitted to exercise the functions waste of stores another ; the creation of of a King, uncontaminated, and with. useless offices a third ; and proposals out restraint. The civil war put an for improving the state, and lefiening end to his exertions for the national the expences of the naval department, benefit. After the Reitoration, the by the introduction of a set of new tide of improvement appeared to keep regulations.

a perfect level throughout the whole

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