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church arose in consequence, and was formed, betwixt three and four sun. dedicated to the then Pope, Clement dred years old at the period of its the Second, or probably, as his reign dissolution (which was very lately), was very short, it might only be termed and from the style of the building " the Church of the Danes," and ac- I have reason to believe this informaquire the addition of St. Clement dur. tion to be correct, for notwithstanding ing the time of the Crusade, i, e. in the it had heen frequently patched and reign of Richard the First, as it is well plaistered, there was something of rude. known that Clement the Third, who ness in its construction which is not then filled the papal chair, not only to be found in the wooden buildings took an active part in the Holy War, of a more modern date. It contained but, by the means of the Knights Tem- four itories remarkably low, and the plars, and other orders, had a much upper jutting over the under, like the greater influence in this country than ward-room lights, lower and upper any of his predecessors : it is therefore balconies, in the stern of a man of war. probable he might become the nomen. The rooms within bore a {trong relemclature of this as of many other blance to cabins, the beams of oak ftill churches, which he was fond of having remained, and, with respect to the dedicated to St. Clement the Martyr *, joiner's work, exhibited stronger traces in the second century:

of architectural rudeness than even the The well, which derived its name outlide. from the same source, was, about this I have often thought, as I have ob. period, much resorted to on account of served this building, which, in former the virtue of its water. It was lituated ages, was unquestionably the habitation in Clement's-lane, and is still in use, of perfons of conliderable opulence, having a pump erected over it ; but its that its history, on account of the many water has, I believe, loog cealed to be revolutions of its tenants, the variety esteemed, either for its fanctity or efi. of changes in circumitances, manners, cacy in the cure of cutaneous and principles, and modes of life, that had other diseases, for which it was once fo taken place in it from its firit foundacelebrated t.

tion, must have been curious. On the west side of this lane, betwixt The internal transactions of palaces St. Clements and Holy Well, was, till and fuperb manfions, even when unvery lately, an inn, the Lamb, in an connected with the politics of the age cient times the Holy Lamb, which, and country, feldom are suffereri to pais previous to the Reformation, was as intirely unobserved ; fathion acts with much frequented by, persons who vi- regard to the great world as a stimulus fited these itreams, either for devotion to curiosity, and we in fome event or or health, as its neighbour the Angel other generally find their domestic Inn was, and perhaps still is, by Cornilh history connected with the history of and Wett Country lawyers.

the times ;

we learn through this At the corner of this lane and the channel, from the earliest ages to the Butcher Row, connected behind with present, many circumítances respectthe Robin Hood, had stood for ages a ing the private life of legislators, herocs, house, which I have frequently contem- philofophers, divines, lawyers, phyliplated as an object of veneration, the cians, men and women eminent for lower part of this manfion was occu. their talents, their beauty, their vices, pied as a grocer's shop; this had been their virtues, and misfortunes; all who in some small degree modernized, but have made a confpicuous figure upon the fabrick was, as I have been in the ancient or modern theatre of the

St. Clement, whom this Pope termed his Patronimick, was ordained Bishop of Rome in the year of our Lord 93 ; he governed the Church about ten years ; he was banished to the Chersonelus by the Emperor Trajan, and afterward, by his command, thrown into the sea, with an anchor about liis neck, where the Christians might delpair to find him.

† Round the City again, and towards the North, arise certain excellent springs at a Imall diftance, whose waters are sweet, salubrious, and clear, and " whole runnels murmur o'er the shining stones." Amongst these, Holywell, Clerkenwell, and St. Clement's Well, may be esteemed the principal, as being much the most frequented, both by the scholars from the School and the youth from thie City, when in a luinner's evening they are disposed to take an airing. Fitzitephens' London.

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word are here identified : we know to tradition has preserved, and only aided a certainty that one Emperor was the by thote scanty materials which are ather of his people, and that another thinly scattered over the pages of our amused himfelf with impaling flies civic' historians. It has been stated, upon the point of a bodkin, and that that even antecedent to the foundation be probably was the founder of that of St. Clement's Church, which has, as ingenious feet by 115 termed Aure. I have alluded, been, upon the unitable lians. All these, and an infinite num. batis of conjecture, fixed to the time of ber of other things, we know with King Ethelred •, near this spot ftood respect to palaces, but in houses of an inn for the reception of pilgrims the description of that to which I have and penitents who came to St. Clealluded, wbich have been always de- ment's Well, that a religious house was voted to the reception of the middle in process of time established, and that class of citizens, the transactions, whe, the church rose in consequence. Be ther merry, or serious, that have oc- this as it may, the Holy Brotherhood curred, unless very remarkable indeed, was probably removed to some other pass away like the lives of the inhabit. Situation; the Holy Lamb, as I have ants, and are as soon obliterated from obterved, received the pilgrims ; and the memory. Yet it certainly would the monattery was converted, or rather be in fome instances amuling, in others perverted, from the purposes of the useful, especially for the elucidation of gospel to those of the law, and was local history, if memorials of this class probably, in this profession, considered of persons had been more frequently as a house of very conliderable antipreserved. The only traces of their quity in the days of Shakfpeare ; for existence, in many instances, now to he, who with respect to this kind of be found, are upon tomb.stones, occa. chronology may be fafely quoted, sionally in the tablet of benefactions to makes, in the second part of Henry churches, and latterly in the parilh re. the IVtlı, one of his Justices a member gilters.

of that Society.

“ He must to the Inns of Court. I CLEMENT'S INN.

was of Clement's once myself, where It is impossible, in even a fight fur- they will talk of mad Shallow itill." vey of this parilli, to pass by an estabı. But to return from the uncertainty Jiliment of lich antiquity as Clemeni's of conjecture, the instability of tradiInn, " which probably derived its ap- tion, and the licence, if any in this pellation from St. Clement's Well, intance was taken, of poetry, to the near which it is situated, and which unerring guidance of legal records, from a house wherein the students of it appears, that in the 20 year of the law relided at so early a period as the reign of Henry the VIIth, Sir Jolin reign of Edward the Fourth became an Cantlow, by a lease bearing date 20th Inn of Chancery, as may be seen in the December, demi:ed this Inn to John Book of Entries 19 Edw. IVth, titulo and William Elyot, probably in truit Misnomer, where the defendant, to for the Students. About the 20th of thew that the right place of his abode Henry the Villth, Cantlow's right was not named, pleaded, “ dicit, quod delcended to Sir William Holles, then tempore impetrationis brevis ; fuit de bof Lord Mayor, and froin him to the Earl picio de Clements Inne, in parochia S. of Clare, with whole heirs it continues. Clements. Dacorum, extra barram Novi Templi Lon. in Comitatu Middlesexiæ ;

LINCOLN'S-INN-FIELDS NEW BUILD. quod quidem hofpicium eft, & tempora ante

INGS, &c. impetrationis brevis & diu ante, fuit quod It may not be improper in a specudam hofpicium hominum Curiæ legis tem- lation of this nature, before we proceed poralis, necnon hominum Confiliariorum further westward in search of the vera ejufdem legis.

tiges of Old buildings, to turn a little With respect to the former inheritor to the North, and confider fome that of this Inn, the obliteration occafioned are comparatively. New, taking at the by the lapse of time can only be jup fame time a cursory glance at others plied by the imperfect vestiges which which have arisen from the brick kilns

Ethelred the Second, during whose reign, and the short one of his successor Edmund, the frequent incursions of the Danes ended in their final conqueft of the ilaud 1017, little more than a year after his decease.

on

on their -Stes, which may with great Justices of the Peace for the County propriety be termed their bot-beds, with of Middlesex, in which it is ttated to such rapidity, that, like many of the be “his Majelty's express pleasure and forced productions of horticulture, did commandment that the erection of new we not know the excellence of their buildings in Lincoln's-inn-fields thould ftamina, we might almost be led to be restrained (this is stated to be prindoubt, whether they were even annuals, cipally done at the request of the Stuand were we their tenants, in the literal dents of Lincoln's Inn), and requiring sense of the word, to tremble, for the the said Justices to apprebend and comperiod of their existence.

mit to gaol any who ihall be found lo In the year 1580, Queen Elizabeth offending, or to take sureties of him or issued a proclamation forbidding the them to appear before the privy counlaying new foundations for houses cil to answer the charge." about London, the object of which How far this order was acted upon, it was stated to be the preservation of is imposible now to say. It does not the health of the inhabitants. This seem, if we may judge by the valt inproclamation, owing perhaps to the in. crease of buildings northward, any crease of trade * which induced such a more than the proclamation of Elizavait multitude to flock to the metro. beth t, to have had much effect ; but polis, and caused such a demand for it appears that the learned profession, houses, that its restrictive operation who were then the complainants, upon seems to have been but little attended account of the disturbance which new to, was, I think, never enforced; for it buildings created, have since been the is a curious circumitance, that at a encouragers of the speculators, as well subsequent period it was, by the fuc- as owners and tenants, of those superb ceeding Monarch, thought necessary to mansions which have, in the sevenpublith a partial renewal of the prohi. teenth and eighteenth centuries, not bition. There is extant a letter, dated only been erected upon the prohibited 4th September, an. 1613, 11 Jac. sent spot, but also on the valt space from the by the Lords of the Privy Council, other side of Holborn to Pancras, and under the fignatures of G. Cant. T. thence “ God knows where !” WheEllesmere Canc. H. Northampton, E. ther the inconvenience which in the Stanbope, &c. and addrelled to ceitain said letter it was augured would be felt

“ Though the operation of trade,' says an ingenious speculator on this fubje&, " has caused a progreslive increase of the metropolis from the first, yet this increase has been accelerated during the last thirty or forty years, from a cause well known, though little considered in this point of view, which has affected other towns as well as London. It is found upon an average, that the natural linall-pox deltroys, one in feven ; it is now above foriy years since this disorder began to be inoculated upon prepared b: dies, of which the Bishop of Worcester, in his celebrated fermon on this subjeet, informs us, that but one in five hundred were found to die; hence, in every five hundred children inoculated seventy lives are preserved to fociety, though few reflect how much this circumstance must advance population. Since the Bishop of Worcefter's time, the hazard is almost reduced to nothing ; and the practice obtaining chiefly in towns, they will increale falter than the accession of new comers will occasion." Nörthouck's History of London, published 17-3.

Death seems, with respect to this disease, to have been ablolutely difarmed of his dart, fiace the introduction of the vaccine inoculation ; and what, though, not quite so material, is certainly of considerable importance, its influence upon personal beauty is totally counteracted. We hould now as soon expect to lee a calf pitted with the small.pox, as a child that has undergone this procels, which I think circumscribes the malignity of the disorder to one pudlule upon tbe arm, and, as the circulation of a cow is suppo!ed to be purer than that of the human lyftem, prevents the introduttivo of humours baneful to the conftitution, which a vulgar eiros predominant in the minds of many mothers and nurses induces them to believe inight be engendesed under the former regimen.

# In the year 1604 (2d Jac.), another general proclamation was issued against inmates and the increase of new buildirgs, which being lille regarded was renewed two years after, with an addition, commanding that the fore fronts and windjes of new huildings should be of stone ; for the disobeying which many were called to the Star Chamber, and there fined. Baker's Chronicle, p. 420,

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by the "swelling multitudes of people, profeffional habits obliged them to be which the new erections occasion to be to well acquainted with the laws of drawn together from all parts of the their country, muft at leaft have thought kingdom, in regard to provifions and their firft application regular, and that, victuals, which (fay the Lords of the in consequence, the Justices of MiddleCouncil) are now grown to a high rate,' sex were bound to commit any man to has increased or diminished, it is not gaol who chose to let his ground upon possible for me to determine ; but it is a building lease, or, the still more atro. certain, that the annoyance complained cious offender, who dared to pile břicks of by the learned Society to which I and mortar upon it. How extremely have alluded, has, in my apprehension,

different do the same objects appear in a hundred fold encreased; though, different ages! In the eighth year of with respect to its operation upon the George the Second, an Act passed to exquisite sensibility of the nembers encourage building, to enclofe Lin. that have, from the date of the letter coln's-inn-fields, which were, previous down to the present period, composed to that period, the resort of loose, idle, it, we must conclude, either that the disorderly persons, gamblers, mounteirritability of their nervous system banks, &c.*, as we remember Upper must have been rendered obtufe, that Moorfields, before the building of their feelings must have been blunted, Finsbury-square, to have been, to apor, as it frequently happens with respect point Trustees to carry its enactments to noise, and many other disagreeable into effect, and, in fact, to render that circumstances, that they have been so fpot, the buildings around which had long accustomed to the nuisance, that at first lo annoyed the Students of the they have become callous to its dif adjacent Inn, and produced the order agreeable effects; which naturally leads of Council to which I have alluded, me to observe upon what flight grounds and which, by the bye, should rather matters which, from the mediumtlırough have been an order to the Justices to which they pafs, affume an aspect of the fend their Officers to disperse, or, under utmost gravity and importance, are 39 Eliz. to apprehend the vagrants fometimes erected, and to conclude there assembled, one of the greateft that a body of men fo learned, whose ornaments of the metropolis.

CRITICAL REMARKS ON AN ODE OF GRAY.

Line s.

PERFECTION is not to be found in the

works of inan, elle, from Gray's ex And ye that from the stately brow. tensive learning, nice talte, full leisure, Here je undoubtedly refers to diftan? and the great attention he was known ffires and antique towers in line 1; but, to give to his poetical productions, from the conftruction, one would at one would have expected them in the firit take it to refer to living spectators, end to have been perfectly accurate in &c. compohtion. This appears, however, not to be the cafe ; and by way of amuse

Of grove, of lawn, of mead furvey ; ment, let us here, with a view only to

Whose turt, wbose jhade, whose flowers that particular, just criticise a little

among, closely his beautiful Ode on a distant

Wanders the boary Thames along

His filver winding way. Prospect of Eton College.

To have arranged the correlates of Stanza 1,

the two first lines properly, ought not That crown the wat'ry glade. either the first of them to have stood Granting the term wat ry to be thus, of lawn, of grove, &c. or the locally just, as it contains an unpleafing other thus, W'bofe shade, whose turf, &c. ? idea, it seems not to be well chofen. Moreover, in the two last lines the

line 2.

The letter to which I have alluded does not fare, nor even hint, that the Searned body complaining bad fuffered the least inconvenience from this disorderly allemhiage of perions, in the repressions of which the Magiftrates might properly have interfered, bút merely from ihe new buildings, which were more likely to drive them away than attract them.

Thames

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Thames is evidently personified as an mical use of the term, has absolutely old man with a boary head; but in the denied. latter of them the personality feems to be in the waters of the river, simply as Stanza 8, line 5. flowing or existing in the whole length The stings of false bood these shall try. of their channel,

which two-fold image certainly manifests an incongruity, and What try means here is not evident on I am afraid of the kind, too, which is a cursory glance. At first it seems to figured by the whimsical idea of a man signify attempt actively considered, but leaping down his own throat. For its just fignification must be pailively what else can we call the Thames repre. taken as meaning prove, or put to the test. fented as a man, wandering along a In cases of this kind, however, it canchannel at the same time represented not always be easy to say, whether á to be his identical self. This fault poet fails in due perfpicuity, or his (if I am correct in judging it to be one) reader in due apprehension. might very easily have been avoided hy putting a different epithet (as gentle)

And happiness too swiftly flies,

Thought would destroyibeir paradise. in the place of boary, and changing bis into its.

No more ; where ignorance is bliss, In Stanza 2 I can find nothing ex

'Tis folly to be wife. ceptionable, save it be in the fourth How a poet of that curious ear spoken line, A stranger yet to pain ;, where of by Majon * (a no less curious judge) pain seems to itand for care ; the care could suffer the concluding lines of which annoys the more advanced stages this Ode to contain four such successive of life. To this annoyance children terminations as flies, dise, bliss, wise, is may be said to be strangers, as is more

not easy to conceive ; especially as fully expressed Stanza 6,

there seems to be so obvious a way No sense have they of ills to come,

to avoid their monotony, and to pro

duce the full and varied cadence which No care beyond to day.

should diftinguith the clife of every But as to pain itself, it is doubtless an poem, but more particularly one in evil to which they are as liable, and rhyme. Had he written the two middle which they feel as keenly, as people in lines thus, we should have had exactly more mature years. This the author the same sense, and a much more tunecould not fail of knowing ; but the able sound : rhymes, lucklessly, would not admit of Thought would their paradise destroy. the proper term. In the first line of Stanza 4, Wbile

No more ; where ignorance is joy, &c. some on earnesl business bent; it might be

This Ode, it may be observed, like just asked, if the word business be suffi- most others of our author, where the ciently poetical?

lines are short, contains many faulty Gay hope is their's by fancy fed,

rhymes (as towers, adores-brow, below

cleave, wave-doom, come-train, men Lefs pleasing when pollefs d.

- beneath, death men, train— groan, There initial lines of Stanza 5, I own); but here they appear to be justipresume, exhibit a considerable, though fiable, as perfect rhymes falling so near not uncommon, inaccuracy. Hope in one another might have a rather cloy. the first of them means the paflion or ing effect. Heroic lines, indeed, seem affeélior of hope ; while what is asserted to be of about such a length as to of the fame hope in the second can exclude this indulgence. Hence, one evidently only refer to the obječt of would infer (by-the-bye), that the hope ; a very different thing. Hence, many bad rhymes in Pope's Esay on Man allowing the fact, that the objects of (in particular) are a blemish which (as our hopes mostly disappoint us in frui, far as composition is concerned) fome tion, yet those hopes themselves must little impeaches his industry in rea ever be pleasing, and that too in the vision ; fince we scarce can attribute degree they are felt ; a truth which the it to inaccuracy of judgment or want latier line, fiom the double or metony- of ear.

)

* In his Englih Garden, b. iii. Vol. XLII, JULY 1802,

D

Gray

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