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SIR JOSEPH BANKS, BART. K. B.

(WITH A PORTRAIT.) F to support the dignity of the first auspiciously, and further efforts were firmness and candour to conciliate the age wis résolved on, under the command regard of its members ; if rejecting the of Captain Cook, for the benefit of ailurements of dislipition io explore astronomy and all the arts dependant scenes unknown, and to cultivate the on it, to observe, in the latitude of moit manly qualities of the human Oraheite, an expected tranît of the heart; if ro dispense a princely fortune planet Venus over the Sun. In this in the enlargement of science, the en: voyage Sir Joseph Banks resolved to couragement of genius, and the alle fail with Cook.

His liberal spirit viation of distress ; be circumstanceś and generous curiosity were regarded which entitle any one to a more than with admiration, and every conve. ordinary fare of respect, few will dil nience from the Government was reapute the claim of the person whose por- dily supplierl "to render the circum. trait ornaments the present Magazine. Atances of the voyage as little unplea

fant to him as possible. SIR JOSEPH BANKS, we have been in: Far, however, from foliciting aný formeci, is descended from a family of accomodation that might occasion g. eat respectability in Sweden, and his expence to Government, he was ready paternal grandfather was the first of it to contribute largely out of his own who settled in England.

private fortune towards the general He was born about the year 174* 2 purposes of the expedition. He enand received his education at Eton, gaged, as his director in natural history from. E...nce he removed to Oxford, during the voyage, and as the compawhere he pursued his ftudies with suc- nion of his researches, Dr. Solander, cers, and foon shewed that Natural Hits of the Britif Museum, a Swede bý tory was the branch of fcience to which birth, and one of the most eminent he'liad the greatest attachment, and pupils of Linnæus, 'whore scientific accordingly cultivated it with the merits had been his chief recommendagre.:teft ardour.

tion to patronage in England. He At the time of his quitting the uni took with him also two draughtsmen, verfity, in the year 1763, he went on a one to delineate views and figures, tlie voyage across the Atlantic to the coats other to paint subjects of natural hisof Newfoundland and Labradore. 'Ih tory. A secretary and four servants this voyage he made his first eflay in 'formed the rest of his suite.' He took the fervice of science, and collected care to provide, likewise, the necessary. many objects of natural history, which instruments for his intended observa. dillacoin bis manlion.

tions, with conveniencies for preserva But a more arduvus undertaking was ing fuch specimens is he might collect foon to be entered on. The discoveries of natural or artificial objects, and with in the South Seas had been begun very Stores to be distributed in the remote

ides

iftes he was going to visit, for the im- good people and the Englith, which provement of the condition of Savage was indispensably requisite to prevent life.

the chief purposes of the voyage from On the 26th of August 1768, thė being frustrated. His conduct was Endeavour failed from Plymouth on thar, not merely of a raw, adventurous this great expedition. Lieutenant young man, or of a naturalift unfit for Cook was commander : but Sir Joseph aught but collecting specimens-but Banks went in circumstances which of a man who knew himself and human made it improbable that he should be nature, and possessed, in a high degree, subjected to any disagreeable controul. the talent of beneficially guiding the No unfortunate accidents occurred in designs and controuling the passions of the early course of the voyage. Even in others. The specimens of natural his. the passage to Madeira, Sir Joseph and tory which he and his companions cola his companion discovered many marine lected at these illes were very numeanimals which no naturalist had as yet rous and interesting. described. At Madeira, and as they On the 15th of August 1769, the failed on to Rio Janeiro, their vigi. Endeavour failed from Oteroah, the lance was till eagerly awake, and was last ise of this groupe which they fufficiently gratified by observations visited. On the oth of October they and specimens new 'to science. The descried New Zealand, which had not jealousy of the Portuguese greatly dir. been seen by any former navigator appointed their curiosity, by forbid. but Tarman. An Otabeitear Priest, ding those researches at Rió Janeiro, of the name of Tupia, who had voof the fruits of which they had con- luntarily accompanied them from that ceived very high hopes. On the coast ille, acted as interpreter between them of Terra del Fuego, in an excursion to and the inhabitants on this new coast, view the natural productions of the who spoke his native language. The country, Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. whole coatts of the two ides forming Solander had nearly perished by a that which is called New Zealand, were form of snow. With extreme diffi. circumnavigated and diligently sure culty, with the loss of three of the veyed : the streight between them was persons who had accompanied them, carefully explored : much pains was and after passing a night on land employed in attempting a friendly in. amidst the storm, in worse than the tercourse with the inhabitants. The agonies of death, they at lait made acquifitions in natural and artificial their way back to the beach, and were curiosities which Sir Joseph Banks received on board the ship.

here made,

allo numerous. On Wednesday, April 12th, 1769, Although the plants and animals were the Endeavour arrived at Otaheite. For leis various than, for such an extent of three inonths, the voyagers continued country, miglt have been expected; at this and the finaller contiguous illes; yet the specimens were comparatively refreshing themselves after their late many, which were worthy of being hardships ; making those astronomical admitted in the collection of the natu. observation for the fake chiefly of ralist. which Lieutenant Cook was sent out; From New Zealand they pursued cultivating the friendship of the na their voyage to New Holland. They tives; laying in stores of fresh provi- failed, northward along its coait to fions ; furveying, as navigators, the Botany Bay, which owes its name to coasts of the different ifles ; collecting the rich treasures of botanical objects Specimens of the natural productions that it was found to afford. New spe. peculiar to them ; studying the lan cies in zoology were likewise observed guage, manners, and arts of the island on the fame fores. Divant excurers; and refitting the thip for the far- ficns into the interior country dispoled ther prosecution of the voyage. them to regard it as a scene that might

At Otahcite, Sir F->ieph Banks, by plove exceedingly favourable for colo. the prudence, benignity, vigilance, niai fettlement. The voyage was conand spirited activity, which he emi- tinued along the eastern coait of that nently exercised in the intercourse great territory, and to the track adja. , with its inhabitants, contributed in the cent was given the name of New South most effential manner to prevent dila Wales. As they advanced, the ship fontions, and disorder, and to promote struck upon a rock; an opening was tbac mutual Harmony between those made in her bottom; they were in

extreme

were

extreme danger of perishing at sea, recorded in his journals; and the fpeand escaped but as by miracle. In cimens, hefore unknown, which he every fituation, Sir Joseph Banks was brought, at so much risk and expence, Aill 'distinguified by uncommon firm- to enrich the science of natural his. pefs and presence of mind. At the tory; deemed to set him greatly above mouth of a river which they named almost every other young nian of rank after their ship, Endeavour, they re- and fortune in the age, both for persopaired, in the best manner they could, nal qualities, and as a benefactor to the damage which the vessel lad fuf- mankind. At court, among men of fered. In the reparation, (such were science and literature, at home and the continual difficulties of this scien- abroad, he was equally honoured. tific enterprise !) the position of the A new expedition of discovery was thip occafioned a sudden admittance of soon after fent out, in which he at first water, by which a part of Sir Joseph wished to embark, though he was Banks's collection of specimens was afterwards induced to decline it. But entirely spoiled, -and even the rett his directions and aslistance were not were not 'lived without the greatett witbheld, lo far as these could promote anxiety and trouble. As the com the success and usefulness of the voypany continued to advance northward age. along the coait, many thells and marine Iceland was said to contain many productions of unknown fpecies were natural curiosities, highly wortlıy of gathered, in occasional visits to the the inspection of one whose love of ihore. The discovery of the Kangoroo nature had led him to circumnavigate enabled them to offer an interesting the globe. Sir Joseph Banks, there, addition to the natural history of qua. fore, hired a vessel, and went, in comdrupeds. No opportunity was neg- pany with his friend Dr. Solander, to leated of making new aitronomical visit that itle. The Hebuda, those observations. On the 23d of August celebrated illets scattered along the 1770, they left this coalt, and iteered north-west coast of Scotland, were confor New Guinea.

tiguous to the track of the voyage : The rest of their voyage was through and these adventurous naturalists were known seas, and among illes which induced to examine them. Among other European navigators had before other things worthy of notice, they visited and described. The noxious discovered the columnır Itratification climate of Batavia amicted a number of the rocks surrounding the caves of them, during their necessary stay of Staffa; a phenomenon till then there, with fevere diseale. Tupia, the unohlerved by naturalilts, but which Priest from Otaheite, died of an ague ; was no sooner made known, in a deand his boy, Tayeto, of an inflamma: scription by Sir Joseph Banks, than tion of the lungs. Sir Joleph Banks it became famous among men of science himself and Di. Solander were for throughout Europe. The volcanic some time exceedingly ill. Every mountain, the hot springs, the fili. person belonging to the ship was fick ceous rocks, the arctic plants and during their itay at this place, except animals of Iceland, with all its other the tail-maker, an old man, between native productions, were carefully fur. leventy and eighty years of age, who veyed in this voyage, A rich harvest got drunk every day. Seven died at of new knowledge and new specimens Batavia ; three-and-twenty more in comper, fated for its toils and expence. the course of the next six weeks after Dr. Von Troil, a Danish clergyman of the departure of the thip from that great merit, was a co:panion in this harbøur. On Wednesday the 12th of philosophical adventure, and was thus, June, 1791, the survivors brought the by the beneficence of Sir Joseph Banks, vessel to anchor in the Downs, and enabled to make communications to the came alhore at Deal.

Danish Government, of which they Sir Joseph Banks was received in afterwards availed themselves for the England with eager admiration and improvement of the condition of the kindness. The designs with which he ide. had gone on the voyage ; the pru. In the year 1777, Sir John Pringle dence, fortitude, and vigilant activity, renigned the Presidentthip of the Royal he had exercised in the course of ii ; Sociсty, which was immediately con. the perils through which he had ferred on Mr. Banks, wlio, on the 24th palled ; the invaluable information of March 1781, was created a Baronet.

OF

of the feuds which afterwards arose in He is tall, largely made, with a manly sirat respectable allembly we shall be countenance, expressive of dignity and flent, except that those who wish for intelligence. He has for some years information on this forgotten subject occasionally been amiated with the may find it in our Magazine, Vol. V. gout. His manners are police and P. 265. and Vol. VII. p.31.. Since attentive, his converlation instructive, that period a better temper has pre. frank in communicating information, vailed, and the business of the Society unaffected, and not without vivacity: has not been interrupted by jarring ani. He pollesles more inforination, than molity and vulgar difcord.

those will believe who confider him Sir Joseph Banks a few years

frce as a me e naturalist. In short, he is had the dignity of Knight of the oth entitled to every praise that içience, conferred on him, and he has been liberality, and benevolence, Can bestow sworn of his Majesty's Privy Council. on their molt diitinguished favourites,

LYCOPHRON'S CASSANDRA.

L. 979-920.
Κράθις δε τύμβους όψεται δεδεσπότου, ,

'Ευφαξ 'Αλαίου Ταταρέως ανακτόρων. T! "nis portion of Cassandra's narra close of the narrative. There, in its

tive respects Philoctetes. The due place and order, is the fory of his various occurrences of his life are interment told, Thus it appears, that here comprised within a narrow.comis the words τυμους διδουπότος 2τe not pafs. For the tablet, though small, applicable to the tomb of Philocteres, has many compartments ; each of but of Hercules, the fallen heroe. which is embellished with a pieture The fite of this honorary tomb is de: that fi ls.it:

scribed. It was placed by Philoctetes Interpreters have not bestowed å himself on the banks of the Crathis, single note on these lines; which seem and fronted the temple of Apollo. By to have a better claim to their atten- him also was this temple built for ibę tion than many others. For the words reception of the bow and arrows of Téjézus oidCuTiTac are applicable either Hercules. They were here conseto the tomb of Philocietes or of Her. crated to the bowyer.god. By such cuies. To which of these heroes they acts of pious muniticence was the at. ought to be applied, the following tachment of Philoctetes to his illur: illufiration is intended to few. The trious friend distinguished. funeral-pile of Hercules was kindled

-Ξένην εποικήσαντας εθνείαν κόνιν. . near mount (Eta by Plisloctetes ; who

L. 926. entered with reluctance on a work, which others had refused to under. A strong north wind, says Caffandra, take. But the importunity of his dy- mall drive far distant from their home ing friend prevailed. Hercules bad those Rhodians, who are about to settle proinised to reward him for this lift in a foreign land. Perhaps instead of act of friendship with his bow and his é coxycautas we onght to read in the arrows; or, in the figurative language future i7oiunccurac, rightly rendered by of Lycophron, with his Ccythian dia

Canter bubilaturos. Eéven and 'Svaíces, gon and its deadly teeth. But, says be applied as epithets to xón. Proba

being synonymous words, cannot ooh Caflandra, Crathis Mall see the tomb of him fallen. That the tomb, here bly the poet wrote tirre, i. e. gs. mentioned, was not erected to the Thus he has written in anothier place; memory of Philoctetes, is evident

επί ξένης ξένοι. from this circumftance; viz. that the si xpón pe, déO TOT', is téso {ivos ; poet has intentionally reserved the

Sop!. Philocl. inention of this herce's tomb for the

R.

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