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“ Widened at the expence of nals ; neither is it very easy, were it The Corporation of London. material, to trace the precise boundaHarvey Christian Combe, Mayor. ries of the priory, which were cer1800,"
tainly much more extensive than the In digging the foundation of the space comprehended within the Close. new houses at the corner after the fire, One of the exterior gates of the monasparts of the old building were found, tery is fill Itanding, and it is stated by which were evidently a continuation Stow, that, with the priory and church of the vaults of which the view re.
(upon the site of which the present ferred to is an accurate specimen, and small parochial edifice, dedicated to St. which, from their mode of construction, John, is probably huilt), it was preseemed to have promised a much longer served from the general spoil and diladuration. The church of St. James, pidation of religious houles so long as at the b. ck of these ruins, role upon King Henry the Vļlith reigned, and the dilapidation of Trinity Priory and also that a part of these buildings was Norfolk House, in the mayoralty of used as a fore house for the King's Sir Edward Barkham, in the reign of toyis and tents, for hunting and for James the First. There is a poetical the wars; but that in the reign of inscription over the door on the north Edward the Vith, the greater part of side the chancel, which gives us no
the church, that is, the body and Gde very favourable idea of the literature ailles, with the large bell tower, of this, as it has been termed, learned most curious piece of workmanship, age. The last four lines may be fuffi. graven, gilt, and enamelled (to the great cient to give the reader a taste of the beautifying this city, surpassing all style of the whole poem, which extends others), were widermined, and blown to forty:
up with gunpowder, and the stone “ The Cities first Lord Mayor lies by. employed in building the Lord Proried here,
tector's house in the Strand." Fitz-Alwin of the Drapers Company. of which even the most permanent ma
This short notice of an establishment And the Lord Mayor whole fame dines terials have been long since annihilated,
now so clear, Barkham, is of the same fraternity.” forth as an object of public attention,
would certainly not have been drawn At the bottom of this court, a passage had it not been deemed at least a curious runs betwixt the Jewish soup-house and speculation to consider the nature of the Mitre public house into Duke's the ornamental part of this beautiful Place, which it is well known is the edifice. It has been stated, that the quarter wherein the lower order of decorations were graven, gilt, and jews have been driven from other parts enamelled. With respect to the first, of the city, and wbich contains, be. I apprehend the term was aptly, applied lides the parish church of St. James to the sculptured figures and carved already noted, I think, two synagogues, ornaments; as, in the second article and a number of houses not more noted of the Decalogue, “ Thou shalt not for the cleanliness than the morality of make to thyself any graven image." their inhabitants.
Upon that term, or the second of gild.
ing, there can be no difficulty, as they ST. JOHN OF JERUSALEM..
are sufficiently explanatory of the ideas This priory, church, and house, they were meant to convey ; but I do seemed to flourish in consequence of not imagine tbe description of enamelled the fuppresion of the order of the ornaments to be quite so clear, and shall, Knights Templars ; for although they therefore, say a word or two upon the were founded in the year 100, they subject, as they will refer to an art pwed their splendour to the revenues which, I conceive, in the morle of of this religious and military society, application meant by the author with whose lands they were endowed. alluded to, is nearly loit. It would be deemed useless to repeat Enamelling, by the ancients termed the history of a place which has been encaustic *, is known to be an art so frequently noticed in our civic an- of very remote antiquity ; as early as
the Encaustica Pictura. Pliny. • Pliny also observes, that tips were painted resolutis igni coris ; from which an
the age of Porsenna*, King of Tuscany, been last mentioned, and, like the ware we hear of exquisitely-formed vases, of Raphael, &c. ougit more pluperly made of earthen, or potters ware, in to be termed glazing ; that in a prohis dominions, and enamelled with va. gress of its esecution was, in ihe first rious figures : we have also heard, and instance, the formation of very large. perhaps seen, some, inferior, as it is plates of potters, or, perhaps, what is faid, to the others, the production of now termed Stuurbriuge clay, which manufactures at Faenza and Castle was less liable to crack in annea.n5;. Durante, in the dutchy of Urbino, these might be form d of any snape, in the time of Raphael † and Michael and adapted to any situation ; uron Angelo, supposed to have been painted them there was then laid a ground by these celebrated artists, and since of soft white glass fluxed with lead, well known by this name of “Ra. they were fired, perhaps, in a common phael's ware." There are also some tile-kiln, and afterwards painted with Specimens of large enamelling upon colours prepared with the lame kind of dishes and plates extant, which were flux, and some essential oil, which renfaid to be executed in France about dered them as free from the pencil as the age of Francis the First ; but I common oil colours. Afterwards they have heard of few of a later date. This were again returned to the kiln, or mode of enamelling upon earthen ware reverberatory furnace, where the coand porcelain, has been lately, by Mr. lours were melted; which probably Wedgewood and others, brought to a finithed the work. perfection unknown to any
age I have many years since feen speci. or country ; that of painting portraits mens of this kind of coarse painting in and historical Subjects upon plates of enamel, which, I believe, from its duragold and other metals, has been car. bility, would have been more used by ried to a height of beauty and cor our ancestors in external decorations, rectness that causes the works of Peti. had not the difficulty which attended tot, and other artists of the seventeenth its execution impeded the progress of century, to be no longer considered as the art. Of this composition, I have inimitable. But it will be recollected, no doubt, were the enamelled pictures that even the ware of Raphael, the vases said to adorn the bell tower of the of Wedgewood, and the specimens of Priory of St. John of Jerusalem. Many the Dresden manufactory, were com of my readers will recollect, that some paratively small. The portraits of very excellent vestiges of this art were Zinck, Spencer, Meyer, and the beau- exhibited upon, and were indeed a tiful hittorical compositions of Moser considerable ornament to, the gate that (many of which his Majesty now has in once stood cross a part of the highway his collection) were miniatures. The betwixt the Treasury and the end of enamel pictures that are said to have King-street, Westminster. This gate, adorned the bell tower of a church which is by historians faid to have been must bave been of a very large lize, built in the reign of Henry the VIIIth, and the consequent difficulty of form- but which, I Mould conjecture, was ing the ground plates, and firings, as it ftill more ancient, was adorned with is termed, i. e. melting the colours, several of those pictures in enamel, when laid on the work, must have representing portraits of Kings, &c. heen immense. Revolving this sub. They were, I have been informed, ject in my mind, it occurred to me, admirably executed in soft colours 1, that the enamelling here alluded to upon a ground of potters, or Stourwas, in a considerable degree, different bridge clay, baked in a kiln : indeed, in its operation from that which has the whole of this building (which had ingenious philosopher, who wrote upon the subject of encaustic painting some years Ince, inferred, that the said ships were enamelled ; a term which might with almost equal propriety have been applied to the paying our thips with pitch. • An V. C. 246.
+ There was, at the time when Keyser wrote his travels, among an infinite Dumber of beautiful specimens of the art of painting in enamel, in the palace at Dresden, an apartment filled entirely with vestcis of porcelain, said to have been painted by Raphael.
I That is, mineral or metallic colours, mixed with a lux of ceruse, iitharge, or or piment.
been used as a state paper office) was so The night hint which I gathered admirable in its conitruction, that when from an ancient description of the it was to be taken down, I have heard Priory of St. John of Jerufalem, has, that the then Dukeof Cumberland pure almost unawares, led me to descant on posed to have it removed, and again an art of which few fpecimens were erected at Windsor : this, although I originally made, and consequently few think the late T. Sanby, Fiq. has made vestiges remain. If this brief notice drawings of it, was, I believe, never should lead those whose habits of life, executed.
and fuperior intelligence, are better The tatte of the age having within adapted to the pursuit, more accurately these last forty years run much in to investigate the subject, their refavour of painting in enamel and upon searches may, by exrending the circle glals, which was an art that had nearly of human knowledge, be, I am in. funk into oblivion, till revived by Jer. clined to think, both in a fcientific vais, Pearson, Eggington, and some and a commercial point of view, renother eminent artists, I have often dered beneficial to the country. wondered that some attempts have not been made to introduce the kind of
CROSBY-HOUSE. painting which I have described upon a large icale, as the colours, Nuxes, &c. Passing through Bishopsgate-street, are now so well known, and as, if and seeing the name of Crosby-Square brought to perfection, it would have painted upon a gateway, I was natuthe durability of that mode of copy- rally attracted towards a place which, ing the works of celebrated matters from the historical and poetical figure which is termed Mosaic, and would that it makes in our literature, may be fix, as may be faid, the fleeting and termed cloljic ground. Entering the gate, evanescent tints of oil * or crayon it was with concern I found, that of pictures, by a process that could not be the magnificent palace wherein Richard attended with a hundredth part of the the Third, when Duke of Gloucester, trouble or expence that must be conco was formerly lodged, the only remainmitant to the accurately copying any ing veftige was part of the ancient subject by arranging small pins of hall; for I conceive the inner gate and glass, or other vitrified fubitances, stairs may, in comparison to the buildto as to blend and connect the high ing, be deemed modern. Of this fabric, lights with the deep Dhades, middle though only one fide is to be seen, the tints, dome tints, reflexes, &c. and to mall specimen till standing is fufti. unite and harmonize all the variety cient to give to an eye uled to this of colouring, preserving, at the same kind of obfervation a tolerable accutime, by this mechanical process, the rate idea of the architectural style of grace and correctness of contour, the the whole edifice, which was erected perspective, keeping, and every other at a period when it appears, by more appendage and attribute necessary to perfect buildings of nearly the same form a perfect whole.
date, the purity t of the Gothic talte • A treatise, published by a Mr. Muntze, near forty years lipce, on encaustic, in which it was proposed to render colours more durable, and fix crayons by the means of wax, has long been forgotten.
+ My architectural friends will pardon me for applying this epithet to a ffyle which has, in comparison with the Grecian, Roman, and more modern Italian schools, been much deprecated. It would be very easy to fly with the reader from this subject to the temple of Diana at Ephesus, of Thereus at Athens, ramble round the ancient and modern world in search of examples of beautiful structures, from the Tower of Babel to Somerset Place, and after a vast expence of time and ingenuity, return as wise as we set out. The question, which is preferable, the Grecian or Gothic ftyles of building? though often agitated, never has, nor never can be fettled. Each has its intrinsic merits, adapted to situation, climate, ule, and a hundred other local circumftances : cach, too, has its particular fyftem. We have seen architecture, laid to be of the Grecian schools, which could not with propriety be claimed by any school at all : we have likewise feen clumsy and eccentric Gothic : but whomfi ever has contemplated those buildings in Westminster, and many other places, where the ftyle is carried to its acme of perfection, must allow there is a purity in the talte of them adapted to the purposes for which they are appropriated, equal, if not superior, to that of any other mode of building.
of architecture was a little fullied by spectator, at entering from Bishopsgatethe adıniffion of heterogeneous mould. Itreet, is itruck with the tingularity of ings, cornices, and adventitious deco- the building, which confits of part of rations, which in consequence of the what was, I believe, once an octagonal revival, though unfettled itate, of the tower, at the northern extremity, and arts in the fifteenth century, began to the lide wall, the windows in which be very profusely adopted.
seem to have been in a taste at least The manfion under confideration equal to many of the fame period ; was built at this period, namely, about a light of steps on the left hand of the year 1446, by Sir John Crosby, who the door leads to this apartment, but was one of the Sherifts, and an Alder. I exceedingly doubt whether this was min of London, in the year 1470, the principal entrance to the palace, knighted by Edward the Fourth in probably the grand front was toward 3471, and died in 1475, leaving five the garden ; that the part I am now hundred marks for the repairing the condering was only a wing which parish-church of St. Helen, where he had a corresponding one with a fimilar was buried.
entrance on the south fide, leading, The finall part which remains of this, it is not unlikely, to a chapel and octaeditice mily, as I bave obferved. be gonal tower, while a magnificent gate confidered as a fair specimen of the in the centre opened into a lower hall whole ; and as from a limb, nay indeed upon the ground floor, chat had, (as it is faid) from the finger, of an an- through another of equal dimensions, cient statue, a skilful fculptor could communication with the garden, which, delineate the proportions of the whole it appears from records, extended froux figure, lo from this veftige a conjecture the east fide of the palace to the fouth may be formed that this tabric was once corner of the priory close, where it was of large dimentions. I am not enthu- bounded by a lane or paffage running tialt enough to luppole, that from what betwixt them to ofñces, &c. ftill more remains the original plan could be dif. remote. covered, or the original building re Of the priory dedicated to St. Helen, fured, but only mean to observe, that once the residence of a fociety of black luiticient traces are still apparent to nuns, the only parts wbich reinain are warrant the conjecture, that its ancient two or three linall pieces of broken and fite extended to the convent of Little dilapidated arches adjoining the hall of St. Helen's one way, and on the other the Leatherlellers Company, and the lide included the whole of the ground church, in which there are fufficient on which Crosby-square (built in 1677) attractions to arrest the attention of is erectert.
the antiquarian 1pectator. The house There, I believe, were the primary to which they belonged, or were adboundaries of the demesnes of Crosby juncts, is, with its appendages, totally House; but in the 34th of Herry the dettroyed, and even the materials enEighth, it appears, by a grant of this tirely removed. place to Andrew Bonvice, a rich Itz In reviewing a spot once so famous lian merchant, that they were much as the fite of Crosby House, the mind more extentive, and consisted of gar: naturally recurs to former ages, to dens, lanes, mesluages, void pieces of former systems of morals, religion, land, &c. Of all these, as I have itated, and government, and contiders cheir the only remaining veltiges are a part operation upon persons and things; of the hall, now converted into a it naturally, or rather ideally, rebuilds packer's warehouse, which extends to the palace, recalls its inhabitants from Great St. Helen's, in which part of the theii tombs, and contiders the various hide wall of the edifice, and a linaildoor, fituations in which they have been probably leading to the lower oices, placed, and the various scenes in which are itill to be seen, and the site of the they have acted. The aid of the hittosquare, which was unquestionably a rian or poet is folicited, and we con. small part of the garden.
template with double pleasure places With relpect to the fide of the an which have attracted their attention, cient ball, which is till apparent, the such as the house which I ain nuw cun
Though the building, as it now ftands, on a cursory view, anpears plain, fufficient marks may be discovered. upon a more accurate investigation, which theve that it was once inuch more ornamented.
Gidering, and which the historic record, stances of life have been exhibited, but still niore the poetic pen of Shak a house whose diftinguilhed occupants speare, has, although the greater part of have long since receded from this busy even its walls, and every trace of its scene, have long fince become infenfi. magnificence, have long since mould- ble to the pains and pleasures attendant ered into duit, indelibly fixed in our upon humanity, and have left in these imaginations, by having recorded it in vestiges another example of the instabi, the interview betwixt the Duke of lity of unbounded opulence, and the Gloucester and Lady Ann; a scene futility of inordinate ambition. wherein he, with great poetic art (for it is entirely the art of the poet), ST. ANDREW UNDERSHAFT. dissuades her from attending the funeral of Henry the Sixth to Chertsey, and
JOHN STOW. prevails on her to repair to Crosby Happening the other day to go into House, where they were afterwards the church of St. Andrew Undershaft, married.
Leadenhall-Street ; indeed with a view How long the Duke resided here is to inspect an edifice which, from having uncertain. When fie usurped the been the place where the city appren. Crown, we find him in Baynard's tices, and other dissolute persons, assemCattle; though it is ftated by Seymour, bled on evil May Day 151), at the Shaft that his interview with the Citizens or May Pole, from which the church was at this palace.
derives its additional distinction, and Crosby House, it has been already whence they commenced their deprementioned, became in the reign of dations against aliens, &c. has made a Henry the Eighth the refidence of a considerabie figure in our civic histomerchant. Ti next came into the ries; I was struck with the neatness, poffefion of William Bond, Alderman, beauty, and elegance, of its interior who made confiderable additions to the decorations. There have been so frebuilding. In the year 1586, we find it. quently described, that it would be a occupied by Henry Ronielius, Chan- waste of time to enumerate them ; cellor of Denmark'; then by Sir John I shall therefore only observe, that the Spencer, Knt. who kept his mayoralty window over the altar, containing in in it. The ist of James the First, compartments the pictures of the five Monsieur de Rosny *, Grand Trea. Monarchs, viz. Edward the Sixth, EliTurer of France, was its tenant. After. zabeth, James the First, Charles the ward, the youngest son of William First, and Charles the Second, affords a Prince of Orange, Monsieur Fulke, fair ipecimen of the art of painting on and the learned Monsieur Barnevelt. glais in the seventeenth century; while Sic tranfit gloria mundi. This palace, a figure of St. Andrew lately finished, that was once the habitation of royalty, and placed in an upper compartment the scene of gaiety, festivity, and iplen. of the same window, ferves also to thew, dour, wherein Pinces, Nobles, Am- the progress which that art has made balladors, and the first of Civic Magif- at the close of the eighteenth ; or at trates, have resided, has been, through lealt if it should not be deemed one of a long period of years, declining, and the most elaborate effufions of this in its present dilapidated ftate has be. fyftem of painting, it certainly marks, come a warehouse for merchandize, its in a very peculiar manner, the differremaining chambers probably converted ence betwixt the ancient and modern to counting-houses, and its once mag styles. nificent hall dedicated to the reception
I think the brasses formerly upon of bales of cloth. Such are the tranfi- the monuments of Nicholia de Nale, tions of terrettrial grandeur, the fluctua- buried January 1566, Henry Mann, tions of property, and such the revolu. D. D. buried October 1566, and pertions of a house wherein, as in a thea. haps many others, have been torn tre many of the good and evil circum. away ; a circumftance which, whether It appears, as itated in No. 1.
these Vestiges, that this Nobleman first occupied a house of the Count Beaumont, in Butcher-row, and then removed to Arundel Palace. Whether bis refidence in Crosby House, which is fated upon the authority of Stow, who himselt lived near the spot, was before his removal to Arundel Houle is uncertain. I raiher think it was, as his residence there was cer. tainly in the fist of James the Firit.