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of his employment. He therefore vi- deserves to be recorded, as it thew's sited every ipot near the river, both his sensibility of the danger to which above and below London Bridge, the workmen were expoled and the where there was a probability of find religious tendency of bis mind, namey, ing a place suitable to the great under that he never would lutter che turnaces taking with which he was charged. to be opened until they and the ipeciiAfter maturely considering the advan tors had joined with him in prayer. tages and disadvantages attendant upon These pious effufions, as I have oirevery ftuation that was pointed out to served, of his ingenious and scientific him, he at last fixed upon the Warren, efforts, were rewarded by the accuta at Woolwich, a place which he con- racy and satety that uniformly attender' ceived to combine every convenience the hazardous procesles of the works in that he wished, for the prosecution of which he was engaged. this important work. Here the found.. When he retired from his situation, Ty was erected, and its first specimens which he did some years before bus afforded such satisfaction, that Andrew death, he resided at Charlton, Kent, Schaich was nominated and continued where, at the advanced age already Nalter-Founder for a series of (I think)' stated, he ended a life of pubiic utility more than fifty years. And what was and integrity in a manner which the wed very extraordinary, from his scientific the gradual operation of time upon a knowledge and attention, he had not, mind long trained to the habits of se during this very long period, a single Alection and composure. accident, but, by the late and certain This short anecdote naturally leads operation of these works, derived great us to reflect how frequently chance, honour to himself, while they were as it is termed, fixes the fortune of immensely advantageous to the coun an individual, and in a manner fome. try.
times unaccountable, even to himself, He lived to about the age of ninety, places him in a útuation where his having, in the indefatigable pursuit of faculties, which would, perhaps, in any his art, acquired a very large for other sphere of life have lain dormant, tune. · He had one daughter, who or, by taking a wrong direction, have was married to General Belford, of impeded his progress, are called into the Artillery ; who has left many action, and his merit rendered confpidescendants, that are all most lionour
But this case presupposes a ably and advantageoully fettled. As foundation both of talents and inare also all his collateral relations, dustry, or the superstructure of fortune many of whom were Officers of con will soon fall to the ground. Schalch fiderable rank in the Artillery, &c. had from an education under a father
There was a remarkable circumitance who inherited the piety and virtue, attendant upon the operations of the as he did the living, of his grandfather Royal Foundry in his time, which the paltor of Shatthausen, the founder
This venerable Clergyman, who was also the great grand father of the late G. M. Moser, Esq. and consequently, the ancestor of the reporter of this anecdote, vus fo remarkable for his piety, learning, philanthropy, and ingenuity, that his name is itill recorded, and his memory still revered, by the inhabitants of this small canton (Shaffhausen), who have been impreded with a traditional refpe&t for his virtues. I have an admirably executed print of him, which is preferved with the greatest care by the descendants of his parishioners, and is considered as such a valuable appendage to their furniture, that it is ftill to be found in many houses, and even cottages, in the district.
This portrait, which was finely painted, exhibits a figure truly venerable ; the face, hair, and the beard, which is white and flowing, display a specimen of engraving of almost uorivalled excellence : the following is the inscription under it : “ Admodum Reverend' et Doriss*: Vir, D: Joh, Georgius Scalichius “ Eiel Schaffufiana' Paftor et Antistes Vigilantiffimus
• Ætat 68 Ministerie 45 An 1677
dation of religion and the medium for of Bird, Stone, and many others, exhithe improvement of his talents laist in bit, fuffered considerably in the opinion bis mind. He had, in prosecution of of those vittuosi who had formed their an excellent system established in that taste upon the claffical purity and ele. Canton, by which, as I have observed, gant proportions of the Athenian moevery person is obliged to travel at dels, nay which indeed had been de. least three years before he can practise spised (with what realon Heaver in any art or profession, an opportunity knows !) even by those connoifieurs to consider the progress of his, in va that had been used to the eccentric rious countries and various points of designs, fiutter, and false taste, of the view, and ultimately accident afforded artilts who have, during the reign of him also an opportunity to adopt the Louis the XIVth, and perhaps, in ideas he had collected, and introduce France, to a later period, contributed those improvements, which bis obser- to immortalize absurdity. vation and genius fuggelled, to the advantage of himself and the nation STAVELEY, THE BARBER. by whom he was patronized,
This man, who kept a shop in Wych
street, was so much the type of Mr. ROUBILLIAC, THE SCULPTOR.
Murphy's Barber in The Upholsterer, This artist, when he first came to that many were inclined to think that England, worked, as I have been in the ingenious Author, who has in his formed, for Carter. He had been here pieces to accurately copied the absurdibut'a Mhort time before a circumstance ties of nature, and founded his fame happened which, combined with his upon that species of bumour which genius, laid the foundation of his future is derived from eccentricity of chafortune.
racter, ratlier than upon individual Being one evening at Vauxhall, he, buffoonery, had him in his eye when as he was returning, found a pocket. he wrote the farce in which Razor book, which he took to his lodgings, makes fo conspicuous a figure ; for and, upon examination, discovered it certain it is, that there was a ftrong to contain a great number of Bank characteristical coincidence betwixt notes, and other valuable papers. This the real and fictitious Barbers, as will book he either immediately advertised, be obvious if (after invoking the ge. or took such other means to ascertain nius of Plutarch) I can finif my pathe owner, as were attended with suc- rallel to my satisfaction. cess. The Gentleman who had loft Like friend Razor, poor Staveley's this property, pleased with the inte appetite for news was so great, that grity of the Sculptor, and struck with he had by it been driven to in sanity, his genius, of which he exhibited fpe- and, when recovered, “could not sleep cimens, not only gave him a considere at times for thinking of his country." able remuneration, but promised to. This inordinate delire to learn what patronise him through life ; which pro- was doing above fiairs, as he termed its mise he actually performed. Under used to rouse him at an early hour, his auspices, as I have also been in- and impel him to the pamphlet shop of formed, Roubilliac took the house in probably one of his customers, in the St. Martin's-lane, in which he resided neighbourhood, where, after havirg till his decease, and, assisted by him, ftored his mind with the events of the he was enabled, at the beginning of day, collected from those eminent and his career, to undertake some of those elegant specimens of the literature of great works which have not only inde- the age, the diurnal newspapers, he libly stamped his fame as a Sculptor, used, till like Razor, to take his round, but have contributed to raise the cre and retail the knowledge he had col. dit of the English School, which, from lected among his other customers; I the time of Bernini, had, by those had, forgetting for a moment the di. immense monumental piles of diftor. vorce that had been effected betwixt Lion, and littleness which the works, the two professions, almost said his
u Deftitit ac : Audax molior inqit opus,
patients. Among the former was the or war, settling the terms of the triple celebrated representative of his antirype alliance, 'thewing in what manner the Razor, Harry Woodward, who had · Minister of the day ought to drive the chambers in the New Inn, and who State coach, wondering what urgent had certainly caught his ideas of this business could call the consumer's of character from Staveley. The fame oats * together fo frequently, arranging mode of poking his head ; of holding the attairs of the Britith fishery, openhis arıns; the Tame feeble enervated ing or shutting the Scheld, making a fanable in his gait ; the lime kind of delcent on the French coast, railing banyan; and, inore than all the reft, the supplies, liquidating the national the same wig, which seemed the dif. debt, directing the Parliament, advising cariked, disbanded, dilhevelled tie of a the Judges, and a hundred other matBarrister, cut down to the standard of ters of equal magnitude. How often a broad-bottomed Bob. In fact, there has he alarmed his friends with hints real and fictitious Barbers were to like that the improvement of our streets each other, that a person much more was a tory scheme to pave the way for accurate in his ideas than young popery; while on the other band, to Faulkner might have made the fame ihew his impartiality, he has observed, mistake that he did when he headed that there was something so whiggilta a party to hiss Foote for taking off bis in demolilhing the posts, and so puribrother George.
tanical in the destruction of the hgns, Staveley, who (like Razor) was one that it is supposed to the day of his of chole volunteer Statesmen which death he never gave his consent to these have been so frequently and so admira. violent measures. This I can the more bly described by Steele, Addison, and readily credit, because until this period other fatirists, had so worn himself I can remember his pole, though I think down by his political exertions, and it “fell with him, unwilling to outlive consequently flarvings, for the good of so good a matter." Staveley had allo his country, that he was literally “Vox another propensity, which I think was et preterea nihil ;" exiftence without also predominant in the mind of Rasubstance : yet although this poor tri zor : He had heard of Sacheverell, and bute to his memory is (if it may be so was continually apprehensive that the termed) all the reward he ever ob- Church was in danger ; for which tained, he continued his labours to the reason, I believe, he feldom went into latt. I have, wben very young, fre. it. This reason, I fear, operated too quently seen him tuttering through upon some of his cultomers, who might the New Inn, with his pewter baton be laid to pin their faith upon his and napkin under his arm, and ewer dleeve : but as many years have elapled in his hand, stopping, if he met an since his and their deaths, and the acquaintance, which, as he knew the church and churches, notwithstanding whole parish, he frequently did, tó they have been rudely ajailed, have reenquire after, or to report, news. How mained invulnerable, it is devoutly to often has he suffered his water to cool, be hoped that their fears will have no and the pallions of his customers to be influence upon the minds of our com. inflamed, while he was eagerly discus. patriots. ing the important queitions of peace
OBSERVATIONS ON THE WEATHER, AND THE USE OF THE BAROMETER,
WHEN APPLIED TO IMPROVEMENTS IN AGRICULTURE.
The many advantages arising to the ther, and the example fet us by the
industrious farmer from a fore. ancient writers on Hulbandry, are knowledge of the changes of the wea sufficient inducements for endeavour.
At this period an advertisement frequently appeared in the public papers, ftating, that the Consumers of Oats were requested to meet on certain days at the Ram Inn, Smithfield. This was repeated so often, that it excited curiosity, and was, I think, mentioned by Razor on the Stage. Whether the Consumers of Oats were of the Houyhom or Yaboo fpecies, it is of litcle importance to enquire ?
ing to draw the attention of Husband- are at prefent rather in disgrace with men to observations which inust be modern philosophers, who, finding highly useful to them.
that they cannot trace out the causes It might have been expected, that as of the changes in tlie height of the fucli great improvements have been barometer, an instrument which they made in natural enquiries during the can have constantly under their eyes in two last centuries, a
their closets, thence too haftily con. account of weather might have been clude, that no useful inferences can be attained ; yet the earliest writers on drawn from obfervations on the wea. bufandry feem to have 'establified ther: however, Mr. Claridge, who in more certain prognostics of the changes the year 1744 published The Shepherd of the weather, peculiar to their cii. of Banbury's Rules 10 judge of the Changes inates, than any have done for ours; of the Weather, was of a very different though it may be presumed, that the opinion, when he expresses himself as operations of nature are set in a much follows : clever light to us, by means of the “ The Mepherd, whore fole business many discoveries made by the mo it is to observe what has a reference to derns,
the flock under his care; who spends The ancients,observing that the wea. all his days, and many of his nights, in ther of each lezion set in nearly at a the open air, and under the wide-Spread itated tine, imputed the qualities of canopy of Heaven ; is obliged to take the weather to ihe influence of some particular notice of the alterations of Itars which happened then to rise or the weather : and when he comes to det. In after times, monks and designs take pleasure in making such observaing prietts, being willing to procure tions, it is amazing how great a proevery merit to their faints, transferred gress he makes in them ; and to bow the supposed influence of the ftars to great a certainty he arrives, by mere the faint whole commemoration har. dint of comparing signs and events, pened near the same tiine. The mo and by correcting one remark by anderns, being senable that the incon- oiher. Every thing, in time, becomes ceivable distance of the fixed stars, ind to him a sort of weather age. The the finalloess of our nearest planets, Sun, the Moon, the stars, the clouds, mult render their i:fluence on the winds, the trees, the flowers, and atmosphere of no effect, and baving almost all vegetables and animals with little faith in faints, have, perhaps in which he is acquainted, all these bejudiciously, rejected the observations come, to such a person, instruments of of the ancients, without duly confider. real knowledge."-What Mr. Claridge ing, that the facis might have been fays of the shepherd may, with nearly discovered first; and ihe stars and equal reason, be said of the farmer. laints only called in, to account for 'The flightest observation will conthese facts. The ar cients indeed acted vince every man, that each year, and more rationally than the monks, in not the various seasons of the year, have a fixing the changes to a day, but only to peculiar chiaracter, as to rain, drought, stated times of the year, as appears
heat, cold, &c. and as the quality of Columella and Pliny.
the seasons has a moft fenfible effect on As some of the planets, especially the productions of the earth, it is eviVenus and Mars, are observed to dir. dent, that it must be of the greatest turb the motion of the Moon, and as advantage to the farmer to foresee the the Moon acts so powerfully, on the changes that may be expected ; be. tides, it has been thought probable by caule he can thereby regulate his some moderns, that the Moon and plae labours accordingly, nets, together with the Sun, might be When the character of the season the cirules of the most confiderable is once ascertained, the returns of rain, changes in our atmosphere, while or fair weather, may be judged of with others, with perhaps more reason, leek some degree of certainty in soine years, for these causes in the earth itell. In and but scarcely guefied at in others, all doubtful matters, in which experi by means of the barometer ; for in gements or observations can be called in neral we may expect, that when the to our aid, experiments or observations mercury rises high, a few days of fair dould decide the question. Accurate weather will follow. If the mercury journals of the weather seem to be here falls again in two or three days, but the proper vouchers; but even these foon rises high, without much rain,
we may expect fair weather for several celestial, the effects would be univer. days; and in this case, the cleareft fally the fame, except wiere varied by days are after the mercury begins to the situations with regard to feas, fall. In the same manner, if the mer mountains, &c. As this is not the cury falls very low, with much rain, case, the causes must probably be rise's foon, but falls again in a day fought for in the earth. This opinion or two, with rain, a continuance of is tavoured by the observations of bad weather may be feared. If the miners, who have been generally fenfecond fall does not bring much rain, fible of soine prognosticating circumbut the mercury rises gradually pretty itances in mines, before any change of high, it prognosticates settled good the weather appeared in the air. weather of rome continuance. When Even the limited fore-knowledge, a heavy rain has fallen upon the mers which is pointed out above, would be cury's finking, and its continuing itea- of service; for instance, at that featon dily low, the weather is sometimes of the year, when it would be of confifair, and promises well; but no pru. derable advantage to judge when hay dent farmer thould trust to fuch ap- should be cut, with a prospect of fair pearances. There is indeed a caution weather to make it ; and at all seasons of this kind, which the pooreit may of the year, in order to get ready every profit by. When the mercury rises thing necessary for carrying into exehigh in the barometer, the air sucks cution the works usual in every seaup all the moisture on the surface of fon. the earth, even though the sky be over Mr. Du Hamel has very judicionsly cast, and that is a sure sign of fair wea. added to his journals of the weather, ther ; but if the earth continues moist, an account of the itate of all the vegeand water Itands in shallow places, no tables or animals useful in the farm ; trust thould be put in the clearelt iky, or, what is the fame, of the effects of for it is in this case receitful.
the weather on them. The character of the seasons is less 'The ancients have observed, that the steady at the equinoxes, and niore re. early or late arrival of birds of paffage gular during the intermediate months. indicate the nature of the approaching Those who favour the celestial influ- season; whetl:er it will be early or late, ence on the atmosphere, think, that severe or miid. Linnæus has, in the the changes of the weather are much fame minner, advised huibandmen to regulated by the Moon's place in the mark the firit signs of a beginning zodiac, or by her situation with regard vegetation of plants growing wild, and to the Sun ; but observation has not natives of the climate ; for that such, yet ascertained any thing on this head. by their early or late tooting, inform
Whatever the caules of the changes the attentive farmer of the approach of in the weather, or, what is nearly the spring. He advises the husbandman to fame, in the motion of the quicklilver extend there remarks to different plants, in the barometer, may be, whether whose vegetation has been observed to celestial or terrestrial, their effects are coincide with the times of Towing nargenerally felt over a considerable ex- ticular seeds. These are objects higlitz tent of country at the same time. Every worthy of a place in a journal of tha one may be assured of this, by compare weather; as there facts will, from year ing accounts, kept at distant places, of to year, remain a regiiter of the state of the play of the barometer. They will every article, which in any degre find, that the great falls or rises happen relate to rural economy. I shall readily nearly at the same time, in almost all send you what observations occur to the northern countries of Europe ; I inyself on these subjects, and shall be fay nearly, because a difference will be glad of those of other observers, that observed, usually attending the direc- every possible light may be calt on these tion of the wind. If these cautes were fubjects *.
In the latter end of March, or generally in the beginning of April, the barometer forks very low, with bad weather ; alter, which, it ichom falls lower than 29 deg. s min. till the latter end of September or October, when the quick lilver falls again low, with stormy winds, for then the winter constitution of the air takes place ; from October 10 April, the great falls of the barometer are from 29 deg. § niin. to 28 deg. $ min, sometimes lower ; whereas, during the luminer constitution of the air;