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ties of war, has, notwithstanding his mentioning little traits of manners and natural partiality towards his country- customs, which, either from inadvert. men, and his personal regard for many ence, or want of opportunity, he negof the Chiefs in the expedition, given lected to introduce into the text. The a fairer account of the treatment which translator, however, has taken the li. the natives underwent from their in. berty of breaking the Journal into vaders, than we are likely to receive separate Chapters, but without alterfrom any other quarter ; and, indeed, ing in the least degree the order of its by accompanying the division of the arrangement, and, in a few instances, French army, which was destined, un- of incorporating with the text such der General Delaix, to achieve the parts of the notes as appear to have conquest of Upper Egypt, he became been thrown to the end of the original the role modern historian of that won- work merely in consequence of having derful region, and on that account his been forgotten." narrative is of peculiar value.

As it is the octavo edition we are “ The taste and sound judgment of reviewing, it may be necessary to add, Bonaparte was on no occasion more as another recommendation, that the eminently displayed than in his selec- French original sells in London for tion of Denon to accompany the troops twenty one guineas ; a circumstance in this expedition ; for being both an which, to the generality of purchasers artist and a man of letters, the remains and readers of Englith books, muit renof the architecture, the sculpture, and der the cheap edition of a work on the paintings of the Egyptians, were which so great a value is set highly the principal objects of his attention ; gratifying; and they will readily adand thefe he has described, both by mit the expediency, on the part of the

, words and with his pencil, so as to proprietors, of omitting the picturesque render them highly interesting to all

views of battles, and of some other those who feel any curiosity about a transactions, which, from their very nation, from whom ancient Greece de- nature, muft be mere fancy pieces, and rived her sublimest philosophy, and of selecting the best of two or three which is inteparably connected with views of the same place from different the earlier ages of the Jewith hiltory." potitions, in order to avoid enhancing Thele are some of the judicious obfer. the price,-more especially as, by this vations of the respectable transator,

arrangement, they bave been enabled which we have selected as the best in- to give a liberal allowance of plates, troduction to the work ; other parts and to retain nearly the whole of those of his advertisement we pass over, engravings that represent the archiwilling to avoid censure, and to treat tečtural and hieroglyphical remains of him with more lenity than he has shewn Upper Egypt, which comprise the vato the renowned Commander in Chief, luable part of the decorations of that whom future historians may, perhaps, splendid work the Original. view in a more favourable light than The Tranflator's explanatory adver. Mr. Aikin has placed bim, even tisement is followed by Denon's prethouglı, like him, they may be free- face, which contains the discourie it born Englihmen.

was his intention to read to the InstiIt appears, from an accurate survey tute of Cairo, on his return from of the original with the English edi. Upper Egypt ; and is, in fact, a brief tion. now before us, that the Transla- analysis of the nature and design of the tor has made feveral judicious altera- work, and of his means of pursuing tions, which may be conlidered as real and attaining the objects he had in improvements ; and as he has modeitly view. No precise explanation, hownoticed them in the most concise terms, ever, is given of the plan of the Insti. we lay them before our readers as a tute; but we believe it to have been an proper recommendation of the whole assembly of scientific Frenchmen, contranslation.

fitting of Otricers of the army, the " The narrative, in the original, is French Consul, intelligent merchants, one continued journal, without division and literati brought iron France by of Chapters, from the embarkation of Bonaparte, whole buliness it was to the Author at Toulon to his landing investigate the state of arts and sciences at Frejus, on his return to France; in Egypt, to promote and improve their to this are added several notes, more cultivation, and to tranimit to the particularly illustrative of the plates and Government of Paris regular accounts

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of their transactions, more particularly Bonaparte in visiting the forts, when of such discoveries, inventions, &c. as they passed by Pompey's pillar, and might prove either uteful or on this spot it may be said that his mental to their native country. talents as an artist and an antiquary

In the first Chapter of Vol. I. we have were first exercised. But it being our a journal, commencing with Denon's intention to avoid going over the same embarking, on the 14th of May 1798, ground again, which we have formerly at Toulon, on board the French fri- examined with Sonnini, we ihall only gate La Junon, which, in company remark, that Denon assigns satisfactory with two other frigates, was to re- reasons for concluding that this monuconnoitre a-head of the grand fleet ment is not antique ; and that it may deitined for the invasion and conquest have been erected either in the time of of Egypt, and to take Malta in their the Greek Emperors, or of the Caliphs. way; the attack and capitulation of Of the erect obelisk called Cleopatra's which is the principal subject of the needle, and another thrown down at next Chapter. In the course of the its side, he maintains a different opifiege, some Frenchmon in the service nion, viz. that they formerly decoof the Maltese Government having rated one of the entrances of the palace been taken prisoners by General Reg- of the Ptolomies (Kings of Egypt), nier, when he made himself master of the ruins of which are itill to be leen Gozo, he sent them off in a boat to at some distance from thence. An Bonaparte, the Commander in Chief, inspection into the present state of on board the Orient, who, after having these obelisks, and the fissures which questioned them, said to them with a existed at the time even when they fteri. voicem" Since you have taken were fixed on this spot, prove that up arms against your country, you they were merely fragments at that should have known how to die. I period, “ and that they had been will not accept such prisoners : you brought from Memphis, or from Upper may therefore

return Malta, Egypt;" confequently they are anwhich is not yet in my pofleffion." tiques ; and as such, he was very deLet the indecent, the ill-timed de. frous to have them conveyed to France, claimers, whu obitinately persilt in the asserting that it might have been done grosselt perfonal abuse of the First without difficulty. Conful of France, in some of our pub- In the following curious observaa lic prints, read this anecdote, and com. tions on the present state of Alexanpare it with the conduct of other Ge. dria, we recognise the discriminating nerals in similar situations !

talents of an able artist and a learned After the surrender of Malta, he investigator, unbiased by an ordered all the Turkish and Arabian weening fondness for every object that Naves to be set free, and never, says wears the appearance of antiquity, our Author, was there a Itronger ex- yet anxious to give a satisfactory acpression of joy than that which they count of such remains of the grand and manifested." When they met the skilful workmanship of the ancients as French, gratitude was expreiled in are undoubtedly original, and not lotheir countenances in so affecting a phisticated by a mixture of modern way, that I repeatedly shed tears. It fabrication. 66 Subterraneous rewas to me a true feast of the soul. searches made on this ipot (near PomTo convey an idea of their extreme pey's pillar) might ascertain the lite of satisfaction on this occasion, it is neces. The city in the time of the Prolomies, sary to Itate, that their respective Go. when its commerce and fplenduur vernments never either bought or ex. changed its original_plan, and renchanged them. Their slavery was not dered it immense. That of the Caalleviated by any hope; and they could liphs, which itill exists, was but a dinot even dream of the termination of minution of the ancient city, notwiththeir sufferings."

standing it comprehends within itself, The third Chapter opens with the at this time, plains and deserts. This landing of the French troops, and the circumvallaricu being built of ruins, storming of Alexandria, on the ed of the edifices bring unceasingly to reJuly. On the 4th, in the morning, membrance destruction and ravage. the city heing then in the possession The jambs and lintels of the doors of of the French army, confiiting of thirty the dwelling houses and fortresses conthoutind men, Denon accompanied fitt entirely of columns of granite,

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which the workmen have not taken the barbarians have a sovereign contempt, pains to shape to the use to which they they made themselves certain of an ealy have applied them. They appear to victory, and forbore to hara's their have been left there merely with a view march, which was rendered sufficiently. to atteft the grandeur and magnificence painful by its length, by the heat of of the buildings of which they are the the climate, and by the sufferings of ruins. In other places, a great nun- hunger and thirst ; to which were her of columns have been applied to added, the torments of a hope conthe construction of the walls, to sup. stantly cheated, and constantly report and level them; and these co. newed. In reality, says our Author, lumns having refifted the rav.iges of " it was in the midit of heaps of time, now relemble batteries. In short, corn that our soldiers wanted bread, these Arabian and Turkith buildings, while they were a prey to thirst with the productions of the necessities of the image of a vait lake before their war, display a confusion of epochs, and of eyes. This punishment of a new de

various indufiries, more itriking and fufcription requires explanation, as it more approximated examples of which results from an illusion peculiar to this are no where else to be found. The country. It is produced by the reTurks more especially, adding absurd. flection of falient objects on the ob. ity to profanation,' have not only lique rays of the sun, refracted by the blended with the granite bricks and heat of the burning foil ; and this phecalcareous stones, but even logs of nomenon has so truly the appearance of wood and planks, and from these dif- water, th:t the observer is deceived by ferent elements, which have so little it over and over again. It provokes a analogy to each other, and are so thirst, which is the more importunate, ftrang ly united, have presented a mon. as the instant when it presents itself to itrous assemblage of the splendour of the view is the hottest time of the human industry and its degradation." day."

This nice disquisition may serve as a We are informed, that no idea of it complete justification of every future could be conveyed by a drawing, as it attempt to disunite, remove, and pre- would be only the representation of a serve in other countries, those precious resemblance, but that a philosophical remains of antiquity which a rude and description and analysis of this extraunlettered race of mortals know not ordinary optical deception will be how to convert to the noblest purposes, found in the memoirs of the Institute the elucidation of ancient history, and of Cairo, as delivered in a report to the embellidhment of modern edifices. that fociety by. Citizen Monge, and

Let it not, however, be imagined, publithed at Paris by the elder Didot. that we mean to justify the acquire- Pistachio- nuts were the first relief ment of these valuable curiosities by which the soil of Egypt afforded to invasion and plunder ; opportunities the troops, and of this fruit they never may hereafter occur to obtain many ceased to retaina grateful remembrance. of ihem by purchase and other peace- On reaching the Nile, they plunged able means.

into that river

without waiting to In the journal of the second day's undress themselves, to allay their thirft march of the French army, a most by the absorbent vessels. affecting anecdote, exhibiting the do- On the 19th of July 1799, the army mestic Tavery of the eastern nations encampedat Amm-el Dinar, from whence and the atrocious effects of jealousy; it let out on the following morning, and another of the lavage cruelty of before day-break ; and, after a march the Arabs to their French prisoners ; of twelve hours, it reached the vicinity will make the reader shudder, and, of Embakey, where the Mamelukes had in the moment, wish for the total collected their force, having an enextermination of such inhuman mon- trenched camp, surrounded by a clumsy iters.

moat, and defended by twenty eight This march to the interior of the pieces of artillery. As soon as the country was not interrupted by the enemy discovered, the army Mamelukes, the most formidable ene

and when Bonaparte had mies the French had to encounter, for given his final orders, be laid to the having observed that the French army soldiers, pointing to the Pyramids, was entirely composed of infantry, a " Puchon, and recollect, that from description of soldiery for whom those the summit of those monuments forty

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centuries watch us." Enthusiasm in ants, in the first place, brought in war has a similar effect to enthusiasm perfumed water, pipes, and coffee. in religion ; it operates with amazing Half an hour afterwards, a carpet was force on the lower orders of fociety ; fpread, and on the outer part three and a more forcible incitement to extra- or four different kinds of bread and ordinary valour could not well be con- cakes were laid in heaps, the centre ceived, or comprised in more energetic being covered with small dishes of and concise terms. On recollecting the fruits, sweetmeats, creams, &c. the pathetic harangues of this fortunate greater part of them pretty good, and General upon other occasions, we can- very highly perfumed. This was connot but consider him as much indebted lidered but as a light repast, which for his success to the revival of this was over in a few minutes. In the ancient military custom. The total course, however, of two hours, the defeat of the Mamelukes, commanded fame carpet was covered afresh, with by the famous Murad-Bey, who had large loaves, immense dishes of rice, threatened to cut up the French like either boiled in milk, or in a rich gravy gourils, ensued.

soup; halves of theep badly roaited; A digression takes place, in this part large quarters of veal ; boiled heads of the volume, in which Denon gives of different animals : and fifty or fixty an account of his accompanying Gene: other dishes all crowded together, conral Menou (who had remained behind fitting of highly teasoned ragouts, vethe main army, at Alexandria, on ac- getables, jellies, sweetmeats, and honey count of his wounds) in an excursion in the comb. There were neither chairs, into the Delta ; and having embarked plates, spoons, forks, drinking-glatles, on board an advice boat in the new nor napkins : each of the gueits fquatharbour of Alexandria, he has an ted on the ground, took up the rice in opportunity to make a drawing of the his fingers, tore the meat in pieces with fortress (engraved Plate V. fig. 1.) his nails, dipped the bread in the raconstructed on the Illand of Pharos, gouts, and wiped his hands and lips on the site of that celebrated monu- with a flice of bread. The water w 1$ ment, equally useful and magnificent- ferved in a pot ; and he who did the of that wonder of the world, which, honours. of the table took the first after having, taken the name of the draught. In the fame way, he was the itland on which it was placed, has tranf- firit to taste the different dishes, as well mitted that appellation to all the mo- to prevent his guests from harbouring numents (light-houles) of the same ang suspicions of him, as to how them description.

how strong an interest he took in their Menou's division having subdued a safety, and how high a value he set on party of Arabs, who had opposed their their persons. The napkins were not march, and let fire to one quarter of brought until after dinner, when each the village of Salmee, which they like- of the greits washed his hands. He was wise delivered up to plunder, the neigh- then sprinkled over with rose water, bouring diftrifis submitted quietly, and the pipes and coffee were again and the General having etabliihed an produced. ordinary post in the other parts of the The glorious victory obtained by village, this expedition was concluded Lord Nelton in the engagement with by making a circuit through the coun- the French Heet in the Bay of Aboukir, try:

which totally subverted the grand obAnd here it may afford some relief ject Bonaparte had in view, of eitablishto the melancholy reflexions on the ing a French colony in Figypt, and a horrors of war, which may have agi. communication with. India, is described tated the minds of our readers, to in a partial manner, as might be exintroduce our Author's account of an pected from a French writer ; but his Arabic entertainment given to the most affecting relation of his vilit to French Officers at this station.

the lea-lide at midnight, after the action “ A house of public entertainment, which had tarnihed the lustre of their which had almost invariably belonged arms, and had restored the empire of to the Mameluke, heretofore, the Lord the Mediterranean to the English, and Master of the village, was furnished atones for every defect in his account in a moment, according to the fashion of the bloody 'conflict; and demonof the country, with mats, carpets, strates, at once, the goodnets of his and cushions. A number of attend. heart, and his fingular talent for pa.

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thetic delineation of scenes of human with the Arabs at Scha-abas- Amers, misery.. Few readers, we believe, will and the return of the party to Rosetta, perule it without a tribute of tears to are the subjects of Chapter vil. the manes of the wretched victims of From Rosetta, a fresh voyage up the the day. It begins thus_" The Mhore, Nile to Cairo enables our Author to to the extent of four leagues, was co- describe the Pyramids—the general vered hy wrecks, which enableil us to face of the country-the manners of the form an estimate of the loss we had inhabitants of Cairo-he kindness of fustained at the battle of Aboukir."- the middle orders of the people, and See the remainder from page 180 to

other circumitances, concurring, for 183 of this intereiting volume. ihe most part, with Sonnini's relation

We have now reached Chapter VI. of the fame subjects ; but distinguished which contains an account of the anni. by three elegant views of the Pyraversary feast of the Arabs on the birth mids, and a beautiful distant view of of Mahomet, the stratagem of the Cairo, in one plate, illustrating the Mufti to avoid it, and General Me. narrative of incidents in this division nou's positive orders that it should of the Journal, Chapter VIII, be folemnized as usual of the music In the next Chapier, we have a cu. of the Egyptians-various races of the rious account of the Mummies of the people in Rosetta-of the Copts, Arabs, Ibis, the facred bird of the Egyptians, Turks, Greeks, Jews, and Abyslinians above tive hundred of them being found -Adgis, or Pilgrims from Kecca – in a sepulchral cave, in the vaults of and Egyptian women. The portraits Saccara, in feparate boxes, two of of two of them are engraved, Plate which were given to Denon, who, in XXXV. figures 1 and 2. An anecdote company with Ci:izen Geoffroi, fet of the first exhibits a specimen of their down to open them : the result affords libidinous manners : “ She was a na- a learned dissertation on these birds. tive of Rojetta, and married to a Frank. See Chapter IX. p. 298. To this She spoke Italian, was handsome, of Chapter likewise belong a curious de. engaging address, and fond of her scription of the juggling tricks of husband.

He was not, however, so the Psylli, a fect of Egyptian Priests, amiable, but that the could beltow a who pretend to an absolute command part of her affection elsewhere ; and over ibe serpents in that country: the jealousy which ensued on his fide of the tents, superstitious ceremonies, was the occafion of perpetual strife. &c. of the Bedouin Arabs-the march She was all submission, and never failed of General Defaix's army to Upper to renounce the object of his suspin Egypt in pursuit of Murad Bey-the cions. On the following day, how. desperate battle of Sedinan, and fighe ever, there was a fresh complaint: of the Mamelukes—allo, Views of old the Lady again wept and repented: Cairo) ---of the Port of Boulac-of the yet, the husband was never without great Canal leading to Cairo—and of some motive for scolding her. The the tombs of the Caliphs at Cairo. house in which this couple lived was

The volume closes with General opposite to mine, and as the street was Delaix's return from Upper Egypt to narrow, I became very naturally her Cairo for reinforcements --an account confident, and the witness of her cha- of the Convents near Bonefuef -- of the grins. The plague broke out in the Canal Julef and other works. The emcity ; and my neighbour was so very ployment of Denon, and the troops left communicative, that the could not fail to escort him, during the absence of either to give or take it. Accordingly, Delaix, was to reconnoitre the coun. The caught it of her last lover ; be- try, to make a progress through it, towed it very faithfully on her hut and to levy contributions for the supband ; and they all three died.' port of the army. In the course of

The Author's further progress to this rout, he visited the lake Mæris, the centre of the Delta-his description examines the fertility of the province of the number and populousness of the of Faium--the Pyramid of Bilahun, and villages--of the Almés, or Female other antiquities; and when Delaix Dancers, at Metubis--of Desuk, a large rejoins him with a corps of twelve village, which has a mo'que refurted hundred cavalry, iwo hundred infanto twice a year hy all the nations of try, and a train of artillery, our Author the Eait, in which two hundred thousand indulges the hope of arriving the first fouls pay their devotions-a skiimih at Syeie, of realizing all his projects,

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