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7 A SUNDAY AT WINDSOR *. sides the notorious indecency and ADDRESSED TO LIEUT.COL. POWNALL. scandal of permitting any fecular bus. Remember that thou keep boly the Sabbath ness to be transacteu on that day, in Day.

a country profefling chriltianity, and Windsor, Aug. 1793. the corruption of morals which follows more obfervant of the precepts of seven holy as a time of relaxation and our religion, or more ftrict and regular refrelhment, as well as for public worin the performance of the duties of thip, is of admirable service to the Chriftianity, than yourself, and as we State, con Gidered merely as a civil have frequently, in conversation, con- institution.” (4 Blackstone's Comfidered the influence which a proper mentaries, 63.) And therefore by the attention to the injunction which I 27 Hen. 6. c. S. “ All manner of fairs have feleied for the motto of this and markets on Sundays (the tour Sunpaper must have upon the civil as well days in harveft excepted) Thall clearly as the spiritual happiness of the people, cease, on pain of forfeiting the goods apon every systein of society, and every exposed to fale." mode of life ; I ain tempted, as well as You, Sir, have frequently remarked, my feeble powers will permit, to deli- that upon the Continent, particularly neate, for your inspection, a faint, in Holland, Flanders, Germany, and though I fatter myself a tolerably Switzerland, whether the religion of correct and accurate, sketch of the the country or district be Lutheran, manner in which the Sabbath Day is Roman Catholic, or Calvinistical, even celebrated, by the lower order of inha- in cities or towns devoted at other pebitants and our London friends, in the riods to the greatest gaiety, or the most town from which this is dated : but extensive commerce, the Lord's Day before I fully display to your view the is always considered as a day of the subject of which this is the outline, utmost decency, solemnity, and order. permit me to recall to your mind the The dawn is announced by the found opinion of that great commentator on of the matin-bell, and all the inhabit: the law of England, Sir William Black ants, who are able, are by the munici. ftone, as I do conceive it will appear to pal law, which is enforced by officers you a proper foundation whereon to appointed for that purpose, obliged to erect a watch-tower, whence I can ob- attend divine service, which, with the ferve the infringements made upon it, intermission of three hours, at different and its frequent violation.

periods, continues until four in the “ The profanation of the Lord's afternoon. During this time the gates Day, vulgarly, but improperly, called are locked, and if any one is observed Sabbatbbreaking, is an offence against in the Itreet, except he can prove that God and religion, punithed by the his absence from church was absolutely municipal law of England 7: for be necellary, he is subjected to a fine, and

* It may be necessary to hint to the reader, that the principal part of this fpeculation is extracted from a letter written in the year 1793, and which, of course, has, until this period, remained unpublished. Some modern allusions, it will eanly be perceived, have been added, and the whole thrown into a form fomewhat different from what was intended if it had been sent to the press at that time. It muit allo be observed, that the hints upon which it is founded art coliected from periods when a very extraordinary influx of company was attracted to Windfor by the grand reviews, or other public occasions and celebrations,

† Vide the itatutes 1 Eliz. ch. 2. 23 Eliz. ch. 1. Jac. i. ch. 22. 3 Car. 1. ch. 2. and 29 Car. 2. ch. 7. fe&t. 1, 2.

conveyed VOL. XLII. Nov. 1802,

U u

conveyed to the nearest place of public though unskilfully drawn, is, if there worship. At four the gates are be truth in the general outline, always thrown open, and every one is per- interesting. You, I know, will remitted to dedicate the evening, which ceive this effort with your usual canis supposed to conclude at nine, to dour ; I therefore proceed to inform healthful amusement and innocent hi- you that, as a proper preparation for Jarity.

the great duties of the Sabbath, many The Lord's Day is, as I have ob- of the indefatigable tradesmen of this served, celebrated in a manner widely town scarcely suffer the sun to rise different in England, particularly in before they have opened the greater this elegant town, where, notwith- part of their shops. Goods are exstanding the people have before their posed for sale at their dcors, and chapeyes the higheft and best of examples, men and women are crowding to purit is, in spite of municipal regulations, chafe different articles, particularly I ain sorry to state it, a day devoted to provisions and apparel †Every thing uproar and confufion, and so I fear it that was forgotten in the hurry, and will continue until there is a wall built perhaps inebriety, of Saturday night around the metropolis, and its inhabit. is now recollected, and our streets ants are hindered from pouring them. exhibit the appearance of a market day felves out, and spreading their abund. in a place of confiderable coinmerce. ant follies and vices over the adjacent The inhabitants who are disengaged counties. Devoutly as it is to be wished from this bustle are walking under the that this stream of profligacy, which Town Hall, or itaring out of their now overflows its banks might be windows, as their curiosity, or perhaps dried up at its source, the period when their intereft, prompts them, eagerly this will happen is, I fear, at a great expecting those Londoners who are distance. At present, I can assure you, fashionable and rich enough to make Sir, that Windsor is happily free from an excurfion to Windsor. Nor are all Roman Catholic, Lutheran, or Cal. their expectations disappointed ! Bevinistical restraints, and Sunday, al. fore the hour of ten, carriages of every though it is not with us quite what it description rattle along the pavement was by divine commandment ordained of Park-street, preceded and followed to be, a day of devout meditation and hy troops of equestrian fhopmen and corporeal reft, is certainly one in which apprentices, who are, I obferve, the the cares of this world feem to be escort of Young Ladies that have, like thrown aside; a day which we honour themselves, “ been long in populous by drawing forth to public view our cities pent," and now issue forth to gayelt apparel and most splendid equip. Spend the day in Ityle. ages, and by assuming every appearance The jockey carts which cross them of festivity, every trait of hilarity, that contain nymphs and lwains from the can mark a people, if not properly neighbouring villages,

who have had a thankful for, at lealt

' resolved to enjoy, touch of. the Ton fufficient to make the abundant blessings they receive. them resolve to do the fame. A long

Perhaps the best method I can take cavalcade now approaches, contitting to convey to your mind the pleasure of coaches, post-chaises, phaetons, hebdomada!ly enjoyed in this town is, as whiskeys, sociables, in fhort every carI have already linted, to place before ringe, except fulkeys.' These vehicles you a sketch of a feptenary period. enclose the respectable bodies of Mr. The picture of local manners, even Deputy Dry, and his colleagues the

• It will easily be conje&tured, that in this fatement I glance with a retrospective eve to the fituation of the cisplries alluded to before those eminent reformers the French regimenis had effecled their conver hon by planting the Tree of liberty, the fruit of which has the property of those deletericus productions indigenous to tropical climates, and not only intoxicates but poisons those that talte thereof. What the confequence of the fraternal embrace of the French Convention, or Consulate, has been to the harmless, nay virtuous, inhabitants of these countries, is 100 well known to need any further elucidation,

+ A great reformation has, I have been just informed, taken place in this relpect, in this truly beautiful and elegant town, since the year ninety-three, when this was written,

Livery of one of the Twelve Compa This speculation would swell to a. nies, their Ladies, and friends.

volume, if I were minutely to de cribe In this inquisitive age, when the the motley mixture that « hither wilds of Africa have, from a garret crowd to celebrate this weekly jubiat Leipfic, been explored by an Author lee." I must not,'Sir, however, forget who, as well as the great Abyllinian to mention, what you will easily cons Traveller, is suspected to be poffeiled, ceive, that the bustle, traffic, drinking, of second fight, the worthy Deputy and hallooing, scolding, and fwearing, the Co. who wilhed, like thele and many natural concomitants of fo large an other travellers, to see the world, and assemblage of beterogeneous characters, rather to disperse than discover mor has kept the town alive, not only at tuary gold, resolved, nem con, on a the hour of early prayer in the Castle, voyage and journey for these laudable .. but while (with a piety truly exempurpules. They let out yeiterday plary, and which I could wish to see morning from a port known by the more frequently imitated) the Royal name of Black Friars, in their superb. Family were repeating their devotion barge, attended by another containing in the elegant and magnificent chapel muhcians, who served as food for the of St. George. mind, and two more of greater im We, Sir, have often spoken of the portance, and far more heavily laden, negligence and laxity of cathedral wbich were appointed victuallers 10 worship. Here I think the manner the larger veliel. They landed at of performing the service would' merit Richmond; and all their sea store your approbation. We here see Ca-, (except water) being exhausted, it was nons, Major and Minor, in their Stalls, fortunate they made to hospitable a Prebends, Choristers, and Vicar's Choco:it. There they dined ; and having ral, observant of their duty. The be: taken in a large itock of provisions, haviour of the Singing Boys, whom we wine, &c. they went on board again, have frequently üblerved to be, in and sounding all the way proceeded to other Choirs, at least inattentive, is in Hampton Court, where their carriages this extremely decent and decorous ; niet them. This morning, being aili- I wish I could beltow the fanje unduous in the pursuit of the object of qualified praise upon the conduct of their journey, they came to Windsor. their occalional auditors. But the ob. “ Mine Hoit of the Garter” was ap: jects of our Sunday visitants being prized of their intended visit, and had curiosity and enjoyment, we the leis provided accordingly; therefore I am wonder at the rudeness and avidity happy to find, that there was a better that is observable among them. realon for the scarcity and high price of The hurrying in and out, from the provilions that prevailed in yesterday's, Chapel to the Castle and Terrace, and market than is generally assigned. froin the Castle and Terrace to the

But engiged with this interesting Chapel, the itamping, whispering, subject, I have suifered a number of crowding, and other enormities, which carriages, &c. to Bip by me. I now ob. are practised by the multitude, unterve à coach and lix, vhich moves checked and unawed by the presence with the celerity of a broad-wheeled of their Majetties, and indeed upre. waggon and eight. In it a Nobleman trained by the ftill more awful idea lolls at his eale: he seems to duze ; that they are in the presence of the people think him alleep; but we know King of Kings, I hall pass over, as that he shuts his eyes to allift cogita- 1 an conscious if they are repreffed it tion, and that he is pondering upon must be by Itronger means than animaffairs of itate. His Lady las just passed adversion. in a phaeton two stories bigh ; there But, my dear Sir, it is now time to re. fore, as there will be mcre spirit in the turn to the town, where the number of chase, we will pursue her. Observe empty carriages that line the street block with what fury her four mettlefome up and almolt impede the way of the fits fly up the Castle Hill; while, full ones that still continue to arrive. ftanding in her vehicle, the turns in Happy, indeed, were those who, like at the gate with the dexterity of a the provident Citizens, had bespoken Itage coachman. Sce, she is followed their dinners a week before. 'Alas! by equestrian nymphs, and female cha it is plain that all our vititors have not rioteers, who, though of inferior rank, been equally prudent. To this unare equally einulous of fame.

pardonable want of forelight it is owing 0 1 2


that we see large companies stowed The afternoon passed in this agree. in small boxes, packed as close as eight' able manner, let us now prepare for the in a stage, obliged to take their meal Terrace. The Caitle Hill is with diffiin bed-chambers, tap rooms, kitchens, culty inounted amidst a crowd of carbars, any where. The party of fixteen riages, horses, equestrians, and pedes. whom I have in my eye were peculiarly trians, tearing and running up and fortunate in finding accommodation down it. But you know, Sir, that wherein they might repose, wherein, difficulty, and even danger, vanishes as Dr. Johnson says, they might luxu- and melts into air at the touch of the riate, as they had only two beds in the l'ods of thofe magicians Curiosity and apartment in which they were obliged Fashion. We are at length arrived in to dine, and as there was the immense the centre of this motley assembly ; space of five feet betwixt those and the and did I not know the general princichimney, and also a paucity of chairs, ples of loyalty that pervade the boNecesity, a goddess who is said to be soms of our countrymen, I would fupthe Mother of Invention (his father, pose that many here had, before they I believe, was Poverty), hinted to left their inns, taken “a glass to con. them, that it would be extremely con- fusion," and wished to practise that venient to make seats of the one bed, doctrine which has been with such and a sideboard of the other. I was pains inculcated in another country, pleased with the idea, because where whose principal tenet is the Right OF there has been a mixture of young Man to level all distinctions. A barpersons of both sexes in such critical ber or a tailor may be a worthy and circumstances, you know, Sir, beds respectable tradesman, pertaps the have not always been used for such Monarch of his club; but itill I cannot laudable purposes.

conceive, that even this dignity, emi. But of all the places in which the nent as it certainly is, entitles 'bim to groupes seem molt congenial to the tread either upon the toes of a Duke, talents of Rowlandson or Bunbury, or the train of a Dutchess, nor indeed the coffee-rooms at the different inns to behave with that indecorum which exhibit, taking them in a general point we frequently fee practised by a great of view, the greatelt variety of charac- part of the company in the Sunday proters, situations, and occupations. Here menade at Windsor. a large and elegant party of London Well, Sir, after our London friends beaux and belles dining in great state. are satiated with staring, and have, There a dozen farmers smoking their perhaps, caused persons of the-firft pipes with valt composure. At one consequence to retire from the Terrace, table bucks and demireps drink- they think it time to retire allo. They ing bumpers of brandy. At another now hurry to their inns, where they Officers drinking tea. "Two tired tra. spend the evening in the enjoyment vellers alleep under the clock. Several of every luxury, except quiet, which, hungry ones (wearing at the waiters, as moit of them came abroad to be merry, and calling for their dinners. Some is deemed by them to be an enemy to of the parties laughing, others scold.' conviviality, and consequently baing; the attendants inceffantly bawl. nished. ing, Coming.! Coming, Sir !" Having thus attended them through “ Hand those jellies to Captain Lim- the day, and seen them crammed into ber !" “ Pipes and tobacco for Mr. two, three, and four-bedded rooms, or Justice Puff!”. “Coffee for Mr. Snug else dispersed in inconvenient and paland Lady, behind the Bar !”, “ Your try lodgings,let us leave them to that redinner, Dr. Snap, will be ready in five pose which seems to be neceflary, that minutes !" "Do you hear, you block. they may collect spirits for the enjoyhead, how the bells ring? they're ment of the new pleasures that await playing the devil in the Angel !" the dawn of the ensuing morning. in Bottle and bill for No. 4!" and a Attendance at Chapel, seeing the Castle, hundred other exclamations. There, rides to the Forett or perhaps an exSir, with the noise of the carriages cursion to the Review, the Races, or rattling in and out of the yard, the Camp, so fully occupy the short period confusion spreading from the hall, and they can allot to eachi, that, like Banthe iteam ascending from the kitchens, quo, they are obliged to borrow some combine to create an enjoyment which it hours of darkness, and indeed to ride is impossible for my pen to do justice to or drive hard to reach London by mid

night. We must, however, go back without any 'extraordinary stretch of in idea to Windsor, as, before our imagination, conjecture, that this eleguefts can leave us, a point of some gant mode of life is continued until, importance remains to be settled.

notwithstanding the enormous taxes “ Then comes the rec’ning when the they lay upon their customers to fup! banquet's o'er,

port it; a WHEREAS, in the Gazette, “ The dreadful rec'ning, when men

confines their persons, or at lealt cir..

cumscribes their rambles. smile no more."

This, Sir, is, in this age, considered But this is by no means the case of our as a trifle : tradesmen of genius and Sunday visitants in general; for as molt fpirit, though for a while enveloped of thein are in business, they are care in a cloud, frequently rise, like the less of the expence; fo that' the thing phönix, from the ashes of their former be done genteelly. Perhaps their cre- fortune, and inttead of a hired carriage ditors would - smile no more," did and hebdomadal frolic, jump all at once they know with wliat elegant profusion into an equipage of their own, and are their money was squandered.

perhaps driven to their elegant villa, We well'know that it is a vile bore, where they vie with their most opua thabby vestige of the Old School, lent neighbours in profufion, or, as for a Gentleman to item, or even cast, they term it, hospitality, whither they a bill ; no one would like to be treated invite all their jovial companions, and fo unpolitely himnself. All that a man furnith their tables in a style of luxury of spirit has to do with, is the total. ridiculous in them, and indeed proOur waiters, oftlers, chaiseboys, cham- fuse, io my opinion, even in persons of bermaids, bootcatchers, &c. &c. &c; the largest fortunes. are also such a disinterested and respect Arrived at this degree of conse. able community, that it is scarcely quence, when they make an excursion possible to reward their eminent fer- they blaze indeed. You, Sir, have, vices too liberally. Therefore you may as well as myself, seen many of thele obferve, Sir, that, as they know their characters crowding the watering: patrons, they are prepared to pay their places at the head of bands of emi. London friends the clofest attention, grants, who, from the overgrown mewho, when they ascend their vehicles, tropolis, disperse themselves around or mount their horses, are sure to be the country; who, as I observed at surrounded by the whole houfhold, the beginning of this epistle, spread with the matter and mistress at their their extravagance, follies, and vices, head. These itand in the porch, bowfar and wide, and wheresoever they go ing.to the ground, until the carriages, render that day which both divine &c. drive off; when the laugh, which commandment and human laws hath they have with difficulty restrained, ordained for a period of ceffation from bursts forth ; and instead of commend- labour, and fet apart for meditation, ing their lare guelts for their liberality, piety, and devotion, a festival dedic you may gather from their jokes and cated to noise, hurry, confufion, luxIneers, that although they have largely ury, dissipation, and debauchery. benefited by their generofity, they are I have already too much exceeded of opinion, that they have either foolthe common limits of a letter to ob. ithly parted with their own money, trude upon you any more observations or knavishly with that of other persons, respecting our Sunday celebration. As in order to display their taste, and make you, Sir, have also been witness-to the a blaze that renders folly and kravery scene of confufion which I have endeamore conspicuous.

voured to delineate, your memory will It will be scarcely worth the time furnish you with a far better idea of it that must be lost in the chase, to pur: than any which you can catch from the fue these our feptenary visitants to dalhes of a pen that is not pofleffed of London : We, Sir, can very eafily graphical power adequate to the subwithdraw the hypothetical curtain, ject, and suppose them in due time to arrive You know, my dear Sir, that I re. at their several places of destination. tired into the country to seek repore, We may also suppore, that in the course and prudently endeavoured to find it of the week they have ingenuity suffici. amidit the noise, bustle, and business, ent to enable them to plan another of a market town, and the illuminaexcursion for the ensuing Sabbath, and, tions, Iquibs, and crackers, of an elec

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