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the History itself, by the necessary ex- with Sir Francis Drake at the fread, planatory documents contained in a who all came to deferved honour from Preface consisting of ninety five pages, having been cabin-boys. He likewise which we should have denominated an reprobates the foolith way of fighting introduction to the main subje&t. But in a line ; and we have lately seen the of the few defects, almost unavoidable advantage of departing from that genein a work of this magnitude, requiring ral rule, in the glorious' victories obindefatigable researches, the want or tained by Lord St. Vincent and Lord order and precision, which may be Nelson. Upon the whole, this is a remedied by giving with the promised valuable document, as it contains a supplement a copious index, are the curious account of the costume of the most striking. The principal contents Navy at that period. of the remainder of this dong Preface We are now arrived at Chapter I. thall be now briefly noticed. They of the regular history pursued through are, First, the heads of an intended the three volumes ; and its subject is, publicarion of a general Marine His: The Origin of Marine Architecture, tory, from the origin of the Nautical introduced by the following judicious Art, from a Manuscript in Sir Walter observations. “ Avarice, luxury, and Raleigh's hand-writing, preserved in ambition, have been the grand prothe British Museum, amongit the NSS. moters of all pursuits and discoveries of the Cottonian Library."
not Itri&rly innocent in themselves, or Secondly, " A Discourse touching the which do not mott unequivocally reft past and present itate of the Navy, com on the basis of philosophy only. Those posed by that ingenious Gentieman, which tend in the molt distant degree, Sir Robert Slingsby Knight and Bar: by their operations and effects, to pamronet Comptroller therefore-hearing per the pride, the sensual appetites, or date in the year 1669, and fulimitted to the luit of power in man, certainly de. the confideration of King Charles thieteriorate his character ; and however Second, and his Parliament."
Speciously it may be pretended, that in Thirdly, A most remarkable paper, in their first intention they applied only the form of a memorial, writtes with to the enlargement of the underítand. great spirit and unreserved freedom bying, or the ease of fuch supposed wants a Gentleman of the name of Giblon, as cultom has intinuatingly added to whose opinion appears to have been those of nature, it cannot surely be fpecially asked by Government on the denied by persons who advance this foregoing subjects, and about the lime excule, that their introduction, their period of time, though it is without progreslion, and their general use, have, any affixed date, or reference, to ascer in a regular proportion to their own adtain its authenticity. It contains, vancement, augmented the general in. however, several fhrewd observations, quietude of man, lesened that inno. and points out the causes of the failure cence and purity of mind he is fupof several naval enterprises before and posed to have originally pusfelled, and, at the time of writing it; and which finally, been the grand promoters of impeded that fuperiority at fea, which thore horrid scenes of daughter and the Navy of England acquired and bas defi.lation, which, during so many ages, maintained since the glorious Revolu- have disgraced the universe. The retion of 1688.
Hection which arises on seeing nation His chief complaint respecting the furiously arming against nation, as if management of the Navy in the reign in dreadful enulation which should of Charles the Second, was the appoint- prove thenıselves molt barbarous and ment of Gentlemen Captains to the moft cruel, must naturally lead the command of thips of war-perfons of philanthropic mind to lanent any disrank, who had not been brought up to covery that may tend to feed the fury the service, but were promoted' hy of content, although the advantages courtly or ministerial influence : thé derived from it, wbile confined within prumerous accidents at sea, and the loss a peaceful and innocent channel, miglic of many thips and feamen, are ascribed have very strongly contributed to our to those appointments, in Itrong terms, general eale, our comfort, and our enand exhibiisa Itriking contralt netween joyments. Among the foremost of Such Commanders and a Seaman, or there stands the science of thip-building, what he calls a tarrpawling Captain, the origin of which is certainly almost and gives a list of renowned Admirals, coeval with the existence of the world,
whilst confined to vessels of conveni. the sides, than it would have done on ence for the purposes of passing from the mere vellel itself, without this inone country to another, or of innocent genious aid. In order to preserve a traffic ; but when these were improved due balance between the head and itern, into thips of war capable of 'hostile which might otherwise have been attacks, and armed with those dreadful affected by the action of the water engines of destruction, cannon, bombs, on the hurdle, and, in some degree &c. the invention or discovery of such also, by the weight of it, as well as to baneful arts must have been regretted cause the boat to swim nearly with an by the true friends of the human even eel, a stone of confiderable magгасе.
nitude, pierced through the middle, “ The Egyptians and Phænicians was suspended by a rope from the stern; are the nations which stand foremost a contrivance which was found to as joint candidates for the honour of aniwer the purpose so well, that the · inventing Marine Architecture ; and unskilled navigators were enabled to it appears, that the first construction of pals to and fro, without either danger the Egyptians used on the Nile was. or difficulty." formed of small plauks cut out of the The abowe account of the Egyptian acantha, or Egyptian thorn, in pieces bark, together with a description of nearly square, measuring about three the vessels which Cæfar constructed to feet each way, lapt over each other like pass the Segra, in Spain, on a plan be tiles, and faltened together by a proper hard observed in uie in Britain, and number of wooden pins, nearly of the which were of the same kind, and lanie thape with the crenails of modern applied to the fame purposes, as our times. ''The hull of the vesel being modern punts or pontoons, induce the completed, a competent number of Author to make the following perti.' seats, or benches for rowers, were nent remark. “ Viewing, therefore, added ; and when the joints or feams and comparing with them, the marine were carefully caulked with the Papy. architecture of the various newly-disco. rus, so as completely to exclude the vered countries, where it may at this water, the floating fabric then became moment be considered in its origioal fit for immediate use. We muit not, and almost totally unimproved itate, however, forget to mention, that ex it is drawing a very fair inference to perience very early suggeited the ne say, that the human mind, directed to cellity of loine directing as well as the same point, has generally effected impelling power in aid of human its purpose nearly in the same way, libour. A mait, formed out of a ttraight whether the artist was an Egyptian, Itick of the acantha, and a fail made of an aboriginal Briton, an Esquimaux, papyrus, supplied the latter ; at the or an inhabitant of New Zealand. ParTume time a rudder, which is said to tial variations inuít indeed be admitted, have palied through the keel, or bot. but there are occasioned merely by the tom of the vertel, remedied the detect difference of situation and climate, as occasioned by the want of the former. well as the peculiar productions of the
“ These vessels being, as well from countries themselves. The inhabitane their conttruction as equipment, almost of the Labrador Coast covers his canoe incapable of stemming the current of with the skin of the seal, on which he the Nile, were generally towed up feeds, because the frozen region, in against it by perlons on shore, unless which he is destined to live, affords him the wind fortunately proved suficiently no other material fo fit for his purpose Itrong and favourable for the proposed others, whom we might with case select, courle to enable the tail to be used as a and who are placed hy Providence in a fubftitute. On returning with the more genial latitude, have been wile current, it was customıry for the Egyp- enough to make use of the bark of tians to fasten, with ropes across the trees, curioolly joined, a contrivance: prow of the vessel, an hurdle of tara. tu which they have been driven througir sisk, which heing let down into the the want uf implements, or toois fuitia: water, and Ateadied by ropes, or bands ciently hard to enable them to make made of twisted seeds, caused it to use of the wees thenılelves ; while the move forward with increased velocity, inhabitants of countries fortunately.cr in consequence of the stream acting ingenioufly fupplied with thele, as a with greater force on the surface of more durable and useful substance, bet.. she hurdle, which extended beyond ter, adapter to their puspole, have care
fully seized the opportunity of works of Britain in the early ages, and at the ing such light and buoyant woods as period of the destruction of the Hepnature had furnished them with, into tarchy by Egbert the First, Sovereign their rude and uncultivated first at of all England, are the principal fubtempts in the science of Marine Archi. jects of the twelfth Chapter. tecture.
Chapter XIII. is miscellaneous—The The second Chapter investigates the Russian naval expeditions, with a deknowledge of the science of Ship: scription of their vessels for commerce, building and Navigation poffered by and armaments for war, and an account the Chinese at a very carly period ; of their enterprizes against the Grecian assigns reasons for the little progress empire, are the prominent subjects of made by them ; gives an account of this Chapter. their skill in navigation, and method A summary account of the Naval of boat-building; asserts that the art History of England from the death of of navigation was understood by some Egbert to the Nornian Conquest, occu. individuals of other countries before pies the principal part of Chapter XIV. the time of the Egyptians and Phæni. The fifteenth resumes the Naval History cians; and news its influence and of the other Maritime Powers of Eueffect on colonization during the early rope, more particularly of the Nordians ages of the world.
and the Venetians. The same subject The third Chapter treats of the dif- is continued through part of the sixferent vessels intended for commercial teenth Chapter, which likewise comand other purposes not warlike, in use prises the Maritime History of the Por. among the ancients, and describes their tuguese, Spaniards, Neapolitans, Sara. form, their names, and the materials of cens, Danes, Russians, and Swedes ; which they were built.
and concludes with the naval events Chapter IV. contains a dissertation in the Maritime History of England on Commerce, and its tendency to from the Conquest to the death of promote Marine Architecture. The Edward VI. and the fate and pracKfth Chapter proceeds to the advance- tice of Marine Architecture at that ment of the art, and its application time. to the purposes of war ; and this sub. The seventeenth and last Chapter of ject expands itself, and branches out this volume relates the rapid decline of into a number of interesting circum- the Eastern empire; the rapid progress stances, and descriptions of vessels of of the Turkish consequence ; the redifferent nations, in the three ensuing fusal by the Turks of a passage up the Chapters. In the ninth, we find cur- Hellespont, now called the Dardenelles, sory remarks on the rapid improve. to all nations ; the liege and conqueft ment of Marine Architecture among of Constantinople by Mahomet the many of the ancient nations ; the state Second, effected by transporting the of it with respect to the Romans during lighter vessels of his feet and his milithe reigns of the Twelve Cæsars ; the tary stores over-land. Next follow's naval history of that people continued; the wars of the Venetians and Genoele; the cautes and period of the decline of the battle of Lepanto ; an account of its marine. &c. &c. &c. Chapter X, the Venetian naval arsenal, docks, and gives an historical narrative of the ex. bucentaur, and the decline and fall of peditions of the Goths and Vandals; the Venetian naval power ; of the fallen the destruction of the Roman Navy; state of the French marine at the conand concludes with a description of the clusion of the fourteenth century; armament equipped for the recovery of Maritime History of Europe continued. Africa, and sent thither under the Conclusion-Attempts made by the command of the celebrated Roman Scots towards the attainment of mari. General Belisarius. This subject is time confequence ; causes of the quicontinued in the next Chapter, and escent state of England in respect to an account is introduced of the origin naval affairs, from the acceflion of of the Venetian State, of the Venetian Richard the Second to the time of the Galley, and its magnificence conipared defeat and death of Richard the Third, with that of the more early ages.
We shall now dismiss this important The origin of the Saxons, and of article with a list of the principal plates their becoming a maritime power; the in Vol. I. and assuring our readers, invitation of Hengist and Horfa, their that as this is a work which is likely to Chiefs, into Britain ; the Naval History become an ornament to all the public,
and many private, libraries of the by Tomkins. $. An Heptereme, said to united kingdom of Great Britain, we have belonged to Pyrrhus, King of tall pursue the fame mode of analyging Epirus, by Newton. 9. A Bireme, the cwo remaining volumes.
with two tiers of Oars, by Newton. No. 1. is an elegant miniature Front. 30. Draught of an ancient Gálley, from ispiece, representing Britannia seated the model preserved in Greenwich Hof. on fhore, with a fhip at sea under fail, pital, by Tomkins. 13. A Vessel, or designed by Weft and Serres, and enlarge Boat, used by the Ancients for graved by Sbipfter. 2. Draught of an the purposes of Commerce,
by Newtor. Englith Ship of War. (1578), taken 14. One of the ancient Liburni, or from the tapestry hangings in the Bri- Gallies, having a fingle tier of Oars, tish House of Lords ; engraved by Newton.. 15. An ancient Trireme, or Newton. 4. A Balza, or South Sea Galley with three tiers of Oars, Ditto. Raft, by Hall. 7. Form of a Galley, 18. The Bucentaur, the grand State baving forty banks of Oars, belonging Galley of the Venetians, Ditto. M. to Ptolemy Philopater, King of Egypt, (To be continued in our next.)
Youth, a Poem. By J. Bidlake, A. B. Chaplain to his Royal Highness the Duke
of Clarence, and Mafter of the Grammar-school, Plymouth. 8vo. pp. 29.
MR. BIDLAKE, in the commencement Proceeding, he draws some happy
of bis Poem, briefly sketches, in sketches, among which the School, pleasing lines, some of the amusements miffress (" learning's harbinger") of infancy, and then addresses thus ftrikes us as particularly worthy of those whom he calls “ full-grown notice : babes :"
“ In elbow.chair the fat, in rigid Aate,
With pow'r and jealous consequence « Ye fons of pedant pride ! feverely
[bled round, wile,
Ab! how we urchins Ohrunk, how tremWho ev'ry trife, save your own, despise, If from caprice, or household cares, The Awhile to childhood's simpler tales at. frown'd!
[ev'ry look ! tend,
[fures end. How watch'd her eye ; how dwelt on And say, how foon our sweetest plea. Of ev'ry scowl, of ev'ry smile partook ! Ak pow's, or niggard wealth, or learned How panting sunk each' heart, when forth Atrife,
[drew And all adult'rate hopes of busy life, The terror-waking birch the dreadful Are they so pure as dreams of fervid Her own importance well the knew to
youth So warm as blissful ignorance of truth With awe to chill, or elevate with praise. Hard is the heart that knows not how to Haw was the penny priz'd when, new melt
and bright, When buly mem'ry paints what once it It met, a proud reward, the exulting fight Ard how the muling mind delights to Of him who, after toil, and time long dwell
spent, On hours of innocence, ye feeling, tell ! Could con his letters all to her content ! How grateful 'tis to live o'er youthful Sacred whate'er She own'd: her antique days ;
(rays. chair, Guilt only funs refle&tion's wakeful Her shining platters, and her linen fair ; Yes! manhood's pride, his ev'ry anxious The cruel ferule, nay her very nod ; care,
We own'd her justice, and rever'd the Is only hollow folly dreft more fair.
[cat, Poor vanity decks out her pompous joys, Her tell-tale pigeons honour'd, e'en the And cheats the full-grown babe with That, often krok d, beside her elbow fat.
gilded toys. (tals plan, At church me thone with undiminih'd What are che schemes that reli less mor. grace,
[sacred place, But specious baubles, cheating childish And look'd self-conscious round the man ?
(plain, How proud her boast, that 'twas her Less innocent, less pure, we hence com.
[to read! That all below is empty, all is vain." To hear him preach whom he had taught
Methinks, VOL. XLII. JULY 1802,
Methinks, tho' time hath run a length of Candour, and faithful pride, that ne'er
Feels merit when the good and wife be. The Schoolmaster succeeds ; and the The meed deserv'd ! nor cold reluctant hours of relaxation are prettily con
[bays! trafted with those of Audy; but while Denies to honest toil the well-earned other boys
Ye anxious worldlings ! ill can ye con.
(give. “ Climbid with a squirrel's spring the The pure delights the virtuous Muses tow'ring tree,
Yet would not they, indignant though ye The lofty barrier leap'd, flew to the race, smile,
[guile." Or cleav'd the lucid flood with fečtile Their innocence exchange for earth-born grace," &c.
The Author then in strong language he tells us :
describes the sufferings of the lesser and “ Me thought sedate more pleas'd : weaker boys at schools, under the ty. the shelly More [folemn roar,
ranny and oppression of those who are
older or stronger. To range, and hear the wild wind's To view the foaming terrors of the We thall conclude our extracts from form,
[rious form; this poem with the following lines Or call the weeds, and note each cu allurive to the more advanced stage of Or when the halcyon summer on the adolescence : deep
[fleep, Hush'd ev'ry wave in clear, cerulean -“ danger's season soon, too soon To watch the fish within the walte
[ttream ; With riper funs vice spreads her ranker Or count the pehbles thro' the cryftal Ah ! then farewell the unreproachful Mid rural meads to wander many a mile,
[power ; Or time bende a murm'ring brook he- New passions rise with all imperious guile;
(mead, New hopes then beam and ampler pror. Or mid th: grove, or pacing now the peets spread,
sted. Oft ling'ring at the wood-lide itile to And million claims bud forth, by passion
(pow'rs Farewell the careless breast, the thoughtThen, tho’unskilled, the pencil's minic
less day, Tracèd nature's forms, and charmid the The changetul visions that in fancy play ; vacant hours ;
[fair, Farewell the genuine joy, the heart-born Then Smild (weet Poesy, harmonious sinile, Of ardent eye, and wild enraptur'd air ;
And all that childish vacancy beguile : Sweet Poesy, that folitude can cheer, Approaching manhood comes with look And iniooth the wrinkled brow of woe
austere, severe :
Ambition proud pursues and care severe ;
[cious smiles, Of fordid int'rent, and delusive hlaze Guard your young hearts, Tulpear falla. Of golden light, that lead your feet aftray Slun, run the lawdry harlot's wanton To dark destruction's vniuspecied way!
[tray'd, The foris of genuine verse low art dif- Ah! Mun the wretch, betraying, and bedain,
Whose front is fallehood, and deceit And fear above the atmosphere of pain.
whole trade ; Soul-conscious freedom theirs ; 'hope Pollution Turks in all her painted charms, ever bright,
She hates thee, e'en when folded in her Inspiring radiance of celestial light.