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fider drunkenness as a manly pleafure, haughty notions in the 'mind, and to blasphemy as' wit, and lewdness as à disqualify one for the common occupafpirit of noble enterprise! The pre? tions of life. To such it may be an. cepts of virtue will appear to him as Twered, that a liberal education, in tead the follies of a fanatic recluse, and of unfitting a man for ordinary avocareligion he will regard merely as the tions, prepares him for any situation quarantine of the aged. The Sabbath, in life, and teaches him the propriety which the wisdom of Providence has of applying himself with diligence to fet apart for the more immediate service whatever he undertakes. of our Maker, he will not employ in Learning will find enemies, too, in the sacred offices of devotion, but will a very confiderable part of the female dedicate to finful paftimes. Every sex, who would rather see the rising

action of his life will have a view only generation running out into all the to this world ; and he will, perhaps, fcoleries and extravagancies of fathion fink into the grave without learning than acquiring a habit of manly fteadithe purpose for which he was created. ness. It is true, that the serious itudent

If we turn our attention to the more will be apt to treat the fantaftic excelles respectable orders of society, we fall of the coxcomb with contempt, and here, too, see the advantages of a liberal that to some he may appear fretful or education. He, whose sphere of know. morose ; but surely the pedant, with ledge is confined, is always labouring all his stiffness, is a much more useful under that awkward timidity, which and respectable character than the airy the consciousness of ignorance never and superficial foppling. But it is far fails to inspire. Though presented by from being true, that learning is always Nature with considerable mental en- accompanied with cynical austerity : dowments, and though, perhaps, fur- its tendency is not only to confirm the nished with the lesions of experience, vigour and enrich the stores of the he can never deliver his opinion with mind, but also to add an amiable faciconfidence: however just and lively lity to the manners. After studying may be his ideas of the subject which the venerable pages of clasic lore, we he is discussing, his communication of rise pleased with our author and ourthem will be unpleasing to others, and selves, and with the best disposition unsatisfactory to himself. Initead of posible to be pleased with all around employing himself in the cultivation of Even after the images, which his mind, he will either fleep away his delighted us, have for a while receded hours in sluggish inactivity, or else he from our thoughts, still they leave bewill facrifice them to childish' amuse- hind them a vivacity and lightsone ments, or habitual ebriety, and will satisfaction, which will plainly discover

seek from the society of others that themselves in our demeanour. The pleasure which he cannot derive from biography of our own country abounds himself.

with initances of men, who have been A liberal education is admirably at once the most elegant scholars and calculated to obviate these important the most pleasant companions of the 'evils. Through its means we are en age. Although, in running back from abled to detect the errors of prejudice, the present period over the list of the and to enlarge and adorn the faculties nooit distinguished champions of litera: of our minds. It places a man, as it ture, we inay be somewhat disconcerted were, on an eminence, from which he bythe well-known acerbity of a Johnson, looks down with an air of superiority ftill this difficulty will be abundantly on the rest of mankind. But the most compenlated, when we recur to the important advantages which it pro illustrious names of Adlifon, Marvell, duces, are, that it teaches us to discein Verulam, and More. good from evil; it lays before us the Whilst the jovial crew fly to the acleveral duties of our situation ; it holds culomed resort, to beguile the loneforth to our hopes the rewards of vir- foineness of a winter's eveniog, and to tue ; it forewarns us of the rueful lole tben:selves and their cares in consequences of vice, and excites our drunkenness; whilst tlie lifterhood of admiration of that 'incomprehensible matrons smule rheinleives with terrific Being, whose glory shines forth in his tales, with scandal, or with cards ; works.

whilst the torpid lounger proves the Some will ohject, that the prosecu. comfort of an elbow.chair; the fiho. tion of literary studies tends to raise lar retires to his study to taste of plea.



sarres, to which the Bacchanalian, the creatures in a matter of such: serious Gossip, and the Idler, are alike el- importance ; and thole who bave them-. tranged. Here he either attends Ulyes felves felt the want of erudition, mult through all the dilalters and escapes. indeed be devoid of benevolence, who of his eventful voyage, or with Eneas would ungeneroudly luffer the next leaves the walls of Troy in queft of the generation to inherit the ignorance of promised seitlement, encounters all the their fathers. vicitlitudes of adverie fortune, avenges Agrejlis was unfortunate enough to the death of Pallas, and lays Turnus lose bis father wheu he was yet but a. proitrate at his feet; or, coming down few years old, and the care of his edu. to later periods, with Marlborough he carion devolved to his mother, with takes the field, with Anson circumnavi. whoin he spent the years of his childgates the globe, with Locke ascertains hood in a country: village. Her pride the faculties of the human understands could not long conceal from him that ing, or with Latimer experiences all he was born to an independent forthe horrors of religious intolerance tune; and the battery of tawning seryand relentleis perfecution. To fome ants Toon filled him with absurd no. his pleasures may appear tattelers; but tions of his own importance. He had he himself knows their value too well completed his twelfth year before his to barter them for any paltry, gratifică- education became the subject of her tion to be derived from noily merrie thoughts: the however began now to, ment. But, if we follow him to the be alhamed of s ignorance, and was latt stage of his existence, the fuperior convinced of the necessity of sending advantages which he enjoys will now him to schoul. Unacquainted with the crowd upon our view. When the discipline of public seminaries, and, vigour of manhood gives place to the without any, fufpicion, that his authoinħrmities of age, and the eagerness rity, which had hitherto been absolute, of appetite is exchanged for senile would now be restrained, the love of indifference, when alĩ the senseless novelty, to natural to youth, procured pleasures, which folly can devise or his confent. His tutor foon discovered, luxury enjoy, are now stripped of all that he was possessed of respectable their charms, the delights to which he mental powers, and through all the has accustomed himself, instead of be, humours of a spoiled child was able to coming loathsome or infipid, rife every trace a latent goodness of heart; he day in his estimation. He can reflect was therefore not without a hope, that with Pacisfaction, that no voluptuous the course of a few years' education intemperance has Sapped his conftitu. might over balance the ill effects of tion, no base pursuit attracted his, his mother's mistaken tenderness, and attention, no unmanly lethargy worn give to fociety an useful and a credit. away his days; but that his endeavours able member. The conltraint wiich have been uniformly exerted to improve was now imposed upon him, and the that inestimable gift, by which he is insults and injuries of schoolboys. subw distinguished from the brute creation. Atituted for the obsequiousness of meWhen illness confines him to his nials, could not but be extremely irk chamber, his books will be his ever- (one to the feelings of Agrestis. At plealing and unfailing companions: every interview with his mother, he when the tortures of pain provoke was not 1paring in complaints of the the murmur of complaint, the precepts feverity of bis tutor, and the cruelty of philosophy, with which he has pro. of his schoolfellows; and, after revided himself, will ftep forward to allay peated folicitations, he obtained her the rising turbulence of his mind, and consent to return home. The specimen to remind him, that it is his duty to which be had now had of school was bear with fortitude those trials which not such as to leave him any defire of are incidental to the sons of men. making a second trial. His mother

If such, then, are che advantages of frequently presled him to return to education, surely those institutions; school, but the weakness of her affeca which are calculated to extend these tien gained the afcendancy over her benefits to the lower orders of society, judgment, and, in compliance with his are entitled to our support. It is uapar. earneft entreaties. the evil hour was donable, in such as are happily acquaint :: continually deferred, till he at length ed with its value, to be backward in attained the eftare of manhood, and promoting the welfare of their fellow it was now too late. The little whimsin

waii: L'is which

which he had been indulged were now between drunkenness and deep. This hardened into habitual petulance ; and lamentable intemperance could not the transition was but too easy, from but be attended with the most woeful the authority which he had been al. consequences ; and he was cut off, lowed to exercise, to the imperioufness before he had scarcely reached the of domestic tyranny. The village ale prime of life. Thus fell ingloriously house became his constant haunt, and one, whose example, whose benevo. he associated with every worthless fel- lence, and whose talents, might have low, whose company and adalation been eminently beneficial to society; could be purchased for a treat. As but who, through the want of a Liberal his mind had never received from Education, was lost to others and to education any generous calt, his life himself! became a burden to him; and his

AURELIUS, time was at length regularly divided December 8, 1802.


(FROM AN AMERICAN PAPER.] TURNIPS are fo frequently deftroyed nip feed you intend to fow, in which

by a small fly which feeds on let it soak about twelve hours-the them, whilst quite young, thát farmers next day mix it with the bruised leaves, are, in a great measure, deterred from at- and a small quantity of alum-then sow tempting to cultivate that valuable root. all together.

The following methods are recom Turnip-feed is generally covered mended for prelerving the plant : with a brush harrow; take elder bushes

First-To a quart of turnip-feed, for this purpose. add one ounce of brimstone finely If, not withstanding these precautions, powdered-put both into a bottle large the fly, should attack the young plant, enough to afford room to shake them draw elder bushes gently over them. well together every day, for four or If turnip-feed is fown while it five days previous to fowing, keeping rains, it does not require to be har. .the bottle well corked.

rowed in, and the young plants shoot Second-Take fuch a quantity of so strongly, that they soon gain strength elder leaves, as, when bruised, will beyond the power of the fly. yield juice sufficient to cover the tur


RECEIPTS FOR MAKING INKS. A Mr. W. Close has made a great with a little oil of lavender, oil of tur.

variety of experiments, in order pentine, or alcohol. For red inkto ascertain the best method of making 4 Take of oil of lavender 120 grains, ink, which fhall not be discharged by copal, in powder, 17 grains, red ful. time or chymical proceffes. As the phur of mercury 60 grains.” Both result of his inquiries, he recommends, these compositions poffels a permanent

for black ink : « Oil of lavender 200 colour; the oil of lavender being diffi. : grains, copal in powder 25 grains, pated with a gentle heat, the colour is

lamp-black from two and a half to left on the paper surrounded with the three grains : with the affistance of a copal, a fubitance insoluble in water, gentle heat, dissolve the copal in the spirits, acids, or alkaline solutions. A oil of lavender in a small glass phial, manuscript written with them, may and then mix che lamp-black with the therefore be exposed to the process folution upon a marble hlab, or other commonly used for restoring the colour (mooth surface." The composition is of printed books, without the smalleit to be put in a bottle, and kept from injury to the writing; and, in this the air. If, after a few hours, it be manner, all interpolations with com. found too: thick, it muft be diluted mon ink may be removed.

ON INTEMPERANCE. It drives wit out of the head;

Elbows out of the coat; of ;

And health out of the body, Wind out of the bottle ;








Travels in Spain in 1797 and 1798, with an Appendix on the Method of

travelling in that Country. By Frederick Augustus Fischer. Trandated

from the German. 8vo. The chief merit of this work, as it cluding reflections on the character and

respects our Countrymen, con. language of the Gascons, merits parfills in its being the most recent account ticular attention, but our huliness of the actual itate of Spain, that has being with Spain, and not with France, appeared from the English press; and we must take the liberty to pass the may be of great service to those whose Pyrenees, and halt at Bayonne. The interest or inclination-who' for profit commerce of this sea-port and fronor pleasure, may be disposed to visit tier town belonging to Spain has de. the different provinces and celebrated clined considerably of late years, and cities, accurately described by this during the two laft wars, the mertraveller; who has likewise taken care chants mostly employed their capitals to give a pleasing account of the man in fitting out Privateers, and the Birners and customs of the Spaniards. cayans being excellent seamen, and not From this outline it may also be in- deficient in valour, they were more ferred, that to those Readers who wish successful than the French. Chocolate to add to their stock of intelle&tual being a conliderable article for ex. knowledge and mental recreation, it portation from this place, not only to will furnish the means of pasling a few France, but to most of the Northern hours in very agreeable company. countries of Europe, our author takes

The author profeses that his object occasion to describe the various qua. in this work was to exhibit the frit lities of that manufacture, to point out impreilions of a traveller, and to give the excellence of the Bayonne, and to a lively picture of the country. For expose the mode of adulterating it in the accomplishment of this design, ocher countries; and we are glad to: “he has endeavoured note those find that the tranllator in a note of his particulars which have escaped other own, of which there are many containwriters: the reader will therefore con- ing useful remarks on the original, has sider these sheets as a series of practical given due commendation to the su. notes to Bourgoanne, and other works," perior mode of preparing chocolate in on the same fubject..

England, by a double cylinder, for an The narrative is conveyed to the exact trituration of the cocua nut, so publick in the form of letters, and oc that no oil appears in the solution. cationally, during the traveller's pro. The next arrival of our German tragrels by land, through the interior velier is at Bilbon, the capital of the parts of the Spanith territories, it province of Biscay, which, from his assumes that of a diary. The first leven description of it, could not give him letters relate to incidents at Sea, in a any favourable opinion of the Biscayan voyage from Rotterdam to Bourdeaux, buildings andaccommodations--"Every and contain nothing new or remarkably object around me here has something interesting, yet they are displayed with very singular in its appearance, and much oitentation in the table of con their forms are quite original and tents. The description of Bourdeaux, foreign. The rooms are covered with the subject of Letters 9 and 10, in a floor-cloth representing Bull-fights ; VOL. XLII. Dec. 1802.



the seats mean, old fashioned, and particulars are given in a kind of extremely low; the floors are brick, diary, in which we discover but few and the walls full of Saints and incidents worthy of notice, except the Crucifixes; and, to the astonishment and change in the appearance of the coundisgult of strangers, they find certain try, after he had passed the frontier conveniences placed in the kitchen, close custom house of the province of Alava. to the chimney.

“ Here the cultivation began to deWith relpect to the buildings, Ke cline, the country to spread, and the diltinguishes between the old and the costumes and countenances to assume a new town; in the former the houses inore foreign air. The climate too are moitly of wood, in the latter of became rougher, the villages were a brick; the first are deftitute of art or mere heap of huts built with earth convenience, but in the second, he often full of holes- the Cburcbes, howa found a prodigiousimprovement of tatte, ever, were always large and mag, particularly in three broad streets, all nificent nor was there any scarcity of ending at the arenal or promenade along Convents. The fields were mostly un. the river Ybeyzabal (which in the cultivated, and, as far as the eye could Batque language fignifies the narrow extend, we perceived neither tree nor river); the houles being all built of free ihrub; in lieu of mules, we frequently itone, and fome of them are even mag. met imall asses, called borricos; our nificent. The variety and richness of sleeping places became lets clean, and the scenery of nature around this town the bread as well as the water bad ; is described in captivating terms, for but the wine was better and cheaper. it is said to equal the molt ravishing From the ample and satisfactory prospects in Switzerland, perhaps to account of the capital of the Spanilh be fuperior to it, on account of its Monarchy, we have taken the liberty vicinity to the Sca, only three hours to select fome descriptions of the mandistant from it.

ners of the inhabitants, their character, But the most extraordinary circun &c. as specimens which cannot fail to itince, not noticed, we believe, by any induce che curious reader to refer to preceding traveller, is the political the work for further information. conftitution and privileges of the The public squares are used whole province of Biscay, which ac- throughout Spain as promenades and counts for the crowded population of piaces of assemblage. The most freBilluit, “where, at first sight, there quented at Madrid, is the square called appears to be scarcely room for 8000 the Puerta del Sol, which is situated in inhabitants, yet it contains 13000, and the centre of the city, and is decorated the houfes, which are four and five on one side by the great and mag. itories higli, are filled even to the nificent building, the Post Office, but rocfs. The fact is, that the province the otkers are full of disgusting old is not properly denendant on, but only houses, still it is the general rendezvous under the protection of, the Spanish of the inhabitants of all descriptions

It is indeed a kind of political “ The clock has struck eleven, and a c.noncły to see a (mall Republick thus troop of officers of the guard with united to such a Monarchy as Spain. brilliant accoutrements, monks in But, however unlimited may be the black cloaks, charming women" ia power of the Kings of Spain in veils embroidered with gold, holding thcir other provinces, it is a truth, the arms of their Cortejos (gentlemen that in Biscay, they have only the ushers), and a party coloured crowd thadow of donsination. Here are nei- of all kinds, wrapped up in their thier garrisons, cuitom houtes, Itamps, cloaks, pour froin every street ro nor excise; in thort, of all the royal read the advertisements and postingtaxes, they know none but the donativı, bills (noticias sueltas)- To-day there or gratuitous donation." On the man will be a sermon and mufic at the Franners and general character of the Bir- cilcans; there will be an opera, and cayans, particularly of their batred of such and such playsm0-morrow there the French, the ainulements of Bilbo., will be a ball fight, or the vovena of &c. our author ffords ample intors San Felipo commences. Lost yesterday mation in the course of seven eater at the Prado, a little girl, and this taining letters.

morning a chapler. Stolen obree days The journey from Bilhoz to Madrid, ago such and such a Jewel; it is has which is comprised in Letters 26 and been taken through want, and if the 27, wis performed in ten days, and the thiet will reitore it by his confedor, he



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