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them over,

shall receive a handsome reward. The that the two parties insulate themselves day after to-morrow will be sold by from all other individuals of their own auction, a large Crucifix, an image of sex, and consider the least cause of suspi. the Madona, and a naci.niento (a case cion as unpardonable; chained to the containing the infant Jesus, with two arm of his lady,the Cortejo must accomother perions of the Trinity, in wood, pany

her every where; at the Prado, at plaifter, &c.) This evening the pro. Mars, at the Theatre, at the Concession of the Rofary will set out about fessional, never must he quit her, and eight o'clock."

the whole weight of her affairs of every “ The Spanish women are distin. kind reits upon his lhoulders. This guishable for the warmth of their servile restraint contributes greatly to constitution, a fanatical enthusiasm for give a coldness and faineness to society; the religious fy:tem of their country, tor in all their assemblies, called Terpride that would bend every thing cullas, the Cortejo is placed by the fide beneath its yoke, a fingularity that of his female friend, and if a stranger, knows no law but its own will, a who is ignorant of the customs of the pallion for revenge in oppolition to country, makes any polite advances to which nothing is held lacred, and an the lady, he is treated with conunbridled love of pleasure ;" the com. temptuous titence, or haughty dirpendations for all these bad difpofitions, dain." are placed by our author in too fa The relation of a dreadful tragedy vourible a light; we therefore pals which took place during the author's

to proceed to a more residence at Madrid, and of the excorrect and striking trait in their ecution of the lady and her Cortejo, character.

for the assassination of her husband, “ Divided between religious duties leaves no doubt upon the mind conand the pleasures of sente, a Spaniih cerning a custom lo degrading to civil, woman seems to be in a state of con- society. General remarks on the tinual warfare between her conscience scenery of the country; 3 Itatement and her conftitution, yet, in spite of of the progress of literature and books; contraint, Nature at length overcomes a description of the royal and other the rigour of her principles, and the libraries at Madrid ; proofs of filthine's ends by quiering her conscience with in the perlons of the Spaniards, in their the idea of being able to expiate her Streets and houses; of their want of guilt by a mals, or a prayer. Hence it domestic industry; backwardness in is by no means rare to see a beautiful the mechanic arts; ignorance of public woman quit the arms of a lover to economy; and a variety of other mis. kneel betore a Madona, and, being cellaneous remark3, are the subjects of reconciled by this act of devotion, Letters 32 and 33. again hatten to give herself up to From Madrid io Bajadoz, our author pleature."

enjoyed a delightful journey of nine The custom of retaining Cortejos darys, passing through well cultivated to attend contitantly on ali muried fields of corn, and vines alternately wonien in the higher ranks of life at producing a very beautiful variery in Madrid, is accounted for by the mode the prospect. Bajadoz is a frontier town of contracting marriage, which is adjoining to Portugal, the Spanish generally formed upon a principle of territory extending only an hour beintereit, or convenience; feldoin by yond it, as far as a finall rivulet, where mutual inclination; and unhappy the Portuguese have on the opposite marriages are more frequent in Spain bank a post of dragoons. A conthan in any other country. The Cor. siderable contraband trade is carried tejo is generally considered as the lover on between the inhabitants of both of a married woman, yet, they fre. countries; those of Bajadoz buy whole quently have nothing but the name, cargoes of oranges, lemons, and figs, and serve only for etiquette ; however, at the Portuguele frontier town called it cannot be denied that they inore Elvas, and, in return, carry thither frequently enjoy all the privileges of a clandestinely, piastres, corn, oil, and huiband." Their fidelity and constancy; borricos, which are all prohibited to be on which our author bestows inuch ill exported from Spain, but address and placed commendation, is limited to bribery render every thing poflible. the Cortejo ; and this species of inti. The climate of the province of EAramacy is subject to such rigorous laws, madura, of which Bajadoz is the chief



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town, is a perpetua alternation of the at length approached the great and ce. extremes of heat and cold, the days lebrated city of Seville. At a distance being infupportable on account of the its grand and various piles of building, former, and the nights in consequence and its gilded (pires, in the midit of an of the latter; for however burning the extensive plain, form a highly pleasing fun may have been, the evening no object. We saw the magnificent Carfooner commences, than the cold is thufian Monastery, the garden of which most piercing. Bajadozis diftinguished is filled with a vast number of American in the present day, for giving birth to plants in flower, and at lait, we arrived the famous Minister of State, called at the suburb Triana, a part of the The Prince of Peace, who is descended town which its broad streets and magfron a family of farmers of the name nificent houses render very striking. of Godoy; his first promotion was to the In general, at Seville they found a rank of an officer in the guards; his certain degree of affluence and refined further elevation is too well known to neatness, even in the most trifling parrequire any additional information ticulars : in preference to all the cities founded on rumour.

and towns of the same order in Spain, In the journey from Bajadoz to Se it affords i he means of living cheap and viile, in company with a Spanih no. comfortably. Grapes, Figs, and Mebleman, fo early as the month of June, lons, are bought for an octavo (nct they found the country, people every quite the value of an halipenny where busily employed in getting in English) the pound, weighing eighteen the corn, which they cut with fickles Ouçes. The market, which is covered indenteil like a faw; and it is threred with tents, and the stails of the bread by making fix mules tied abreast, walk and meat markets, both in the city over it in a circle. The third day's and suburbs, are abundantly fupplied journey brought them to the province with provilions, even at night. The of Andalusia ; here, every thing ara bread is still whiter and lighter than'at sumed a new appearance. The men Madrid; it combines all the advantages wore theep-skins with the wool on, of the French and Spanish procesies, for culottes, and large white round and is fold for a penny or five farthings hats; the women light green per a pound. The white wine as well as ticoats with green ribbons, and hats of the red is excellent, and sells for about various colours; we saw carts made of five farthings the quall. House rent is lattice work, with wheels as liigh as the not dear, and for three piastres a month body; they were drawn by oxen, you may have a good apartment. adorned withi paper ribbons of different The pallage is short in a boat on the colours. Every thing in the boules river Gialalquivir to San Lucar, a small had the appearance of greater affluence pretty town on its bank; the fields here and comfort, and we could not avoid are entirely covered with beds of the feeing the industry of the inhabitants finelt Sandias, or water melons, which in in the cultivation of the soil.

Andalusia alone arrive at maturity. At fix leagues and a half distant From this town they proceeded by land from Seville, the road lies across a fer to Cadiz, a city lo well known and so tile plain, interspersed with small hills, fully described by Britiíh travellers, which afluined every moment a more we shall only observe that this author smiling appearance. The plantations has collected a few particulars which of olive trees, where the stone fences had esiaped their notice; the following round the young trees relemble basket is one-here are "sellers of Grasswork, have a very singular effect; the boppers, which are shut up in brais. fields of corn, the vineyards, melons, wire cages, to enliven the bed rooms of monafteries with terraces covered with those who are fond of them, especially orange, lemon, and fig trees, woods of the ladies.” cork, and extremely populous hamlets, From Cadiz to Valencia, our autier formed a pleasing and varied propest; gives his reades a journal, de criptive on each side of the road was a hedge of of a beatiful change of Icenery, in a aloes-their items were low, and with fone of twenty diy's, of leveral finali out flowers, but to an inhabitant of the towns, particularly Xeres, by us callesi North, the view was not uninteresting. Sherry, from the excellent wine of that Thus having passed through an infinite name, the produce of its vineyards,toid number of turnings and windings, and on the spot at three-pence the quart-leen innumerable charming spots, we of Cordova, once famous for iis ma


nufacture of ieather for shoes and boots, reigning Monarchi of Spain and his conbut now in a declining state, and fort, in a tyle oi magnificence, vying nearly deserted.

in pomp and splendour with the triThe great and populous city of Van umphal entry of some mighty conqueror lencia, distinguished fu its excellent of ancient times. For the particulars, organized Slik manufacture, is the fee Foreign Inteliigence, in our lait. Malubject of Letter 41. The climate is gazine, page 392. said to be extremely mild, “and almolt The 44th and 45th letters conclude throughout the year, the air is ex the tour with a voyage from Barcelona tremely pure, the sky always serene, to Genoa, and a description of the and the temperature perfectly pleasant. latter; the finale to which is worthy of The winter is like that of Hières or preservation in our miscellany, as a Montpellier ; but the Summer is free well founded judicious remark, that from the fuffocating heat experienced may be peculiarly useful to young in France. All the seasons seem lott students in the Schools of modern poin one delicious spring, and the changes litics and modern philosophy. of the acinolphere are almost impercep “ Genoa seems to have become what tible.". The extraordinary characters could never have been expected, a of the innkeeper and his wife, demon- department of France! Where then is strate the folly and wickedness to the luitre of the ancient Italian Rewhich blind fuperftition leads its vo. publics ? It has disappeared, it has taries, and furnith an entertaining made way for modern conceits! Let anecdote,

those who believe in the itability of From Valencia to Barcelona took up human establiments, learn to nine days, in the course of which they knowledge their fragility; let them met with alternate fertility, and barren, read history, and abandon their visiondreary {pois, wild and uncultivated ; ary absurdities. The Appendix con. of the former a remarkable circumstance tains proper directions for travellers is related. “Having got out of our through Spain, which cannot fail to re. carriage to enjoy the beauty of the commend the work. With respect to county, we were offered grapes on all the trandation, it bears evident marks of fides, and asked to gather what we hurry, and inattention to our phraseopleased ourselves. Our muleteer got logy, which we wilh to lee corrected such a quantity, that he gave fome in another edition, as well as the poverty to his mules, who ate them with avi. of the style, in many passages rendered dity."

disagreeable by the frequent repetition The 43d letter contains an ample and of the same words, where elegant subvery interesting account of Barcelona, stitutes might be readily found. lately honoured with a visit by the



Guineas an Unnecessary and Expensive Incumbrance on Commerce ; or the
Impolicy of Repealing the Bank Restriction Bill contdered.

Quid juvat immenfum te argenti pondus et auri
Furtim defoljá timidum deponere terrâ.

HOR. SAT, Lib. I. Sat. 1.

The singularity of the title of this task of refuting it, we must just notice

Political and Financial Pamphlet, the impropriety of the motto or device is well calculated to excite public cu- from Horace.-- Is our author to learn, riosity; and to stimulate anxious in that from one end of the United Kingquiry amongst the monied men of dom to the other, men of all ranks various descriptions, such as bankers, know how to employ gold, and the ftock brokers, money fcriveners, Ipe scanty portion of diver they can obculators, and merchants, to whom 'it · tain, to far other and better purposes holds forrb an alarming project. than to bury it timidly in the earth

It is evalently intended to feel the This irrelevant device, to totally inappulse of the publick on his novel plicable to a great commercial nation, opinion, that Guineas are an expensive and to the disposition of our monied incumbrance on the nation.

men, exhibits only a vain display of But before we enter upon the easy learning-a juvenile propenfity! The


adaption of the subject to the present people, which enables the former to juncture, shall be given in the author's obtain, and disposes the latter to con own words. As the great question tribute, very large portions of their of continuing the Bank Restriction Bill, personal estates, to supply the exi. or tuffering it to expire on the 21st of gencies of Government, on great March next, muit occupy the attention emergencies; upon the itrength of of the Legislature in the present Session obligations contracted and pronijied to of Parliament, it is presumed that every be punctually performed on the part of attempt to elucidate one of the most Government, at ftated future periods of abftrufe points in the whole science of time;" and in another part, he observes. political arithmetic, will be favonrably that the credit of Great Britain for received by thofe who are to decide more than half a century has been, upon a subject of such valt importance and still continues to be,greatly superior to the present and future generations." to that of any other European power, . Conlidering it in the fame light as owing to the inviolable honour of our the author, the writer of this review. Parliaments in keeping to their en. fatly contradicts the following itate gagements with the public creditors of meat It seems to have been received the nation, as well with foreigners as as a financial maxim, not to be disputed, with natives ; che interests on their that the precious metals are the only funded capitais being regularly paid true fign of prosperity; and the only half yearly, by means of which pur.c. legitimate medium, through which tuality, a public market is eltablished, public credie can be advantageoudly cir- for the sale by transfer of the capitals, cutated." In whatever confined circle or any part of them, which answers the of. uninformed persons this doctrine purpose, to individuals, of refunding may have been propagated and conveyed or paying off their capitals by Govern. to our author ; certain it is, that no ment. The French Government, on fuch maxim bas been generally, re the contrary, has often violated the ceived either by our eminent writers on conditions on which it borrowed inoncy tbe public credit. of Great Britain, for the exigencies of the State ; thereor by our opulent monied men; in other fore as long as the present happy Conwords, dealers in money.

ftitution of Great Britain exiits, the Our limits will not admit of pro- will constantly have the superiority in dueing a string of proofs trom succeilive obtaining loans on the trength of her authors, on the fubject, in the course public credii, not only from her own of the last fifty years, we ihali therefore iubcets, but likewise from foreigners only quote a palage or iwo from the of every denomination." Tbirteenib Edition of that weli koowo The fame author, in another work *, Treatise on the Funds, Sockjobbing, aptly quotes the fullo, ing just remark Public Credit, &c, entitled Evey of or James Sturt, in his elaborate Man bis own Broker." Whatever is Treatise on Political Economy. “The eltabhiihed by the autbority and com principles which influence the doc. mon consent of a nation to be the trine of public credit, are lo few medium of their mutual exchanges and fo plain, that it is surprising to see with each other, is properly the moni y of how circum'tances could possibly in. that nation. It may therefore contist of volve thein in the obscurity into which gold, Glver, and copper coin; or of we find them plunged on inany oc. paper; as bills of exchange, proiniilorycifions. Let the author of Guine as an notes, bonds, and other tecurities ior Inciwibrance, now compare the above fpecie; all of them answering one and the precite definirion and remarks fame purpose, GENERAL CIRCULATION.' public credit with his prolix Chaptei I.

The fame iruthor gives the following on the fame subject, and then canconcise and clear detinizion of Public didly ask himself, Agamit whom the Credit-“Public Crelit, as it respects charge lies of publishing duwery money tranfactions, and particularly Speeches and dogmatical pamphlets, the lystem of finances, or the admini. replete with unproved aliumptions and Atration of the revenues of kingdoms, consequent deductions, fpecious in ap. · means no more than that mutual con pearance, but unfounded in fact is fidence between Government and the See Introduction, page viii.

• Lectures on the Elements of Conunerce, Politics, and Financer, hy Thomas Mortimer, Esq. Otiavo, 1861. Altered and unproved from the Quarto Edition



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of 1772.

The following propofitions are sub- ' in a counter appeal to the publick enter mitted to the confideration of the pub- fully into all the necessary details, and ·lick by our author, “the result of much produce the proper documents to reinquiry and obtervation having pro. fute by facts, a novel and dangerous duced a conviction of the truth of Opinion founded solely on that very thein," in his mind,

ab tract theory, which he condemns in ist, “ That public credit and na others : all we can do within the nasa tional prosperity do not depend upon row compass alligned to our review de. metallic money."

partinent, is to itate proposition against 2dly, “ That the maintenance of a proposition, and to produce more than sufficient ttock of lpecie, to enable the olsumptions in support, Firf, of an opiBank of England, and consequently all nion on which the author himself ac. private bankers and others, to meet all knowledges, “that all parties seem demands of that nature, involves a molt agreed, viz. that the Bank thould reenormous expence and loss,which, how. sume its payments in specie, as soon as ever diffused through the community, it is in a condition fo to do." is a positive charge upon the nation." condly, that without the effential aid af

3dly, “ That paper money is the a liberal circulation of nietallic money, true criterion of public credit; equally or specie, the public credit of the nalale, far more convenient than fpecie, tion could never have been ettablished, and maintained at, comparatively, no nor have attained to that degree of expence.'

prosperity, which has enabled Govern. Upon these grounds, the continu- ment, under the pressure of the most ance of the Bank Restriction Bill is re extraordinary emergencies, tu fubiti. commended, not as a measure of tem. tute paper muney in the place of im porary expedience, but as a permanent mense quantities of specie, and to regulation of prudence and found policy. make it país as currently. Thirdly, to

This is the great object of this lin. far is it from being true, as it is afgular publication, which has more in fumed by our author, " that in proview than meets the eye; fortunately, portion as the circulation of Guineas however, the author has laid down cer. has decreased, public credit, and with rain general rules, by which the merits it the trade, commerce, and resources of his own caule may be fairly tried. of the nation, increased and acquired “ Abitract theories have, alas! pro an extension and energy unparalleled duced milery enough. It is time to in the annals of the kingdom," that return to the good old maxim of ad. the very reverse is proved by the premitting nothing capable of experiment fent depreciation of the price of the in science, which cannot be proved by funds--remove the restriction, and obe experience and matter of fact; and the lige the Bank, which it is more than writer having no intereit, no imbition enabled to do, to pay all their notes to gratify, is only desirous that the under Ten Pounds in specie, and in less question may be decidet, not on the than fix months the 3 per cent. Confols, principles of uncertain fpeculations, in which fand the mais of the people but by the test of experience, and the posleiling finall sums of unemployed evidence of facts,"

money generally vest them, and they This fair and candid declaration has will ride five or ten per cent.; whereas, induced the Keviewer to exinine care. the indiant the measure was to take fully every page of the pamphlet, for place recommended by the author, of proofs founded in experience anri mat. making the present restriction permater of fact, that Cuineas are an unnecef- nent, they will alluredly be conlidersary and expensive incumbrance on come ably lower—the pledging of the last merce ; or, as he alieres elsewhere, on loan at the Bank, the lois, ingead of the nation ; but, on the contrary, he an expected premium, suitained by the has found nothing throughout the purchasers of it from the original subwhole, but groundless assumptions cal. scribers, could not have happened, if, culated to mnille::d the judgment, by instead of a free circulation of Guirendering "abitrufe and coinplex" the ne?s, the fales of the Scrip from one to fimplejl and clearejt points in the another had not been made partly in whole science of political arithmetic." such commercial paper as could not This being the case, we can only ex- finally be received in payment of the press a with that some able writer may several jutalments. Such paper was Eake the important caufe in band, and readily discounted when there were


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