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to incite the conductors of those works, the natural history of the minute in. by every method which unlimited sect froin which those iinmente compower and confuinmate policy could mercial benefits are derived, together call into operation, to pay a ítrict at- with the ancient history of the Tugia. tention to the revival or extention of tive traffic founded unuu its produce : their several concerns, particularly the and in duing this, while we in the Manufacture of silks; which, he knew, first initance conder its various pro. was a prolific fource of national wealth, perties, and with attonithmet ref-et and consequently formed the fubitanti that the film, the goflume!, the thread, basis of an immense fyltem of national ten, nay firty, tires finer than a hair, aggrandizement. What 11.25 lately the exuviz ot a worm, thould, thruuga been the language of the confidential the inediuin of human ingenuity, be. paper of the Gallic admainitt:ation ?* come an article of the biy helt importUnquestionably such as tended to the ance in the goneral system; we may, fame purpose; language which serves to in the second, view it as the means of How in a strong point of view ide in exiitence to millions, and consequently portant light in which, on the other the tource of incalculable revenue to tide of the Channel, they confider. the kingdoms and states. Thit Man, fubjet. And la'lly, what has already though in many countries, particubeen done by them to carry this, their larly this, obliged to the Shee for favourite mealuire, into eifet What? great fiscal advantiges, and, in many but by an exertion of the only effo ts others, individually indebted to ulior in their power that could have effected warm clothing and numberiets siti. it, they have endeavoured to repreis cles of domeitic comfort and conve. the spirit of our Merchants, and paralyse veni-nce, thould allo to an intect, the arms of our Manufacturers; the which is the scale of creation feems former of whom were preparing to
lower than even a caterpiliar, owe procure the means that might enable many of the elegances of lite ; that the latter who, after their art had to from its covering the throne thould be long languished, congratulating them- decorated, the robe of dignity formed, selves upon the approach of better the attractions of beauty itill rendered times, were anxious to take advantage o more fascina ing, the arts and iciences of the revolution of public taie promoted, and with the n the elegınwhich, guidert boy good sense and at- cies of life, and consequenily civilitracted by the superior elegance of Zation extended; are circumitaiices that their fabricks, seemed to have decided mult Itrike us with amazeinent, and in their favour ; though without injury render us anxious to be informed to the Cotton branches which, I have whether the productions of a creature observext, and which the fourishing fo uteful have been improved by transstate of the trade proves, are :oo firmly plantation? Or whether it is not more eitablithed to be materially affected by likely that its quality, as is the case any circumitances extraneous or do- with every other animal and vegetable ineitic.
fubitance, is in a stiil higher state of Calculating the dinidvantages with perfection in countries to which the respect to our rivals, under which we inteet is ind.genous ? labour, or rather under which we are This, with respect to Silk, I hope I Supposed to labour ; for it will be the hall be able to prove, in favour of lidt business of thele speculaiions to show of Indottan; at the same time I hall that the evils we dread are in a great suggeit, that if there is any difference measure ideal; it will be neceilal y to for broad work betwixt this and the contemplate a little more accurately, Italian ; and that ibere is, I ain, upon
(Paris, Nov. s.) After a series of pretty liberal or rather illiheral abuse on a Nation, which is linguiarly enough termed the enemies of Europe, for doing what never entered into the inaguration of the most sanguine Anti-jacobin, this paper (the Moricana) goes on nih an exclamation, and concludes a dull paragraph in this way:-" By inele urans diey (the English) would have the very peculiar advantage of difturbing the excellent manufacture of Lyons, which is reviving trom its ruins, and which reicies an iron hand over the balance of Commerce, in (rder t mke it incline in favour of French indultry." The ingenivus editor leems on this and many other occasions prendre la lune avec les dents, and to think that we loo aim at impofiibilities.
the authority of every Manufacturer and Telemachus in Spárta, among other with whom I have conversed, willing articles for her employment, to concede ; it is owing to the superior « The Silken fleece, impurpled for the mode of twisting or throwing the article loom, into Organzine, practifed in Italy, &c. Rivall d the hyacinthin vernal bloomt." over that of Bengal, which mode I have no doubt, as it may easily, will The reins of the horses which drew soon be adopted both in the Eait and in the Chariot of Naulicaa were of the this country:
same substance : I have already observed, that the
“ Now mounting the gay seat, the sil. Silk worm, was originally brought to ken reins Athens and Rome from the land of Shine in her hand 1." the Seres, a large track of Asia betwixt Mount Imaus and China *; the people So, as we find by the Iliad, was the of which, in the time of Strabo, and vest of Helen : indeed for ages before, were famous “ The Goddess softly shook her Silken for the manufacture of Silk. From
veiti." this place, which abounded with Mul
As was also her veil: berry plantations, for the culture of which the foil was peculiarly adapted,
“ At this the fairest of her sex obey'd : as was the climate for nurturing the And veil'd her blushes in a Siiken worm congenial to that tree, it is more
ihade 1." than probable that Silk was introduced We also find that Lycophron *+ deCo China, Perfia, to the whole penin- fcribes the women that mourned for fula of the Indies, and in fact all over the death of Achilles as having laid the East.
alice their rich acuire, or glittering Silks, The exact period when Silk hecome ornamented with gold. known in Europe as
an article of
Though Silks are mentioned in de. Commerce, is, I fear, too closely en- scribing ihe natural ttate of Jerusalem*I veloped in the thick veil of antiquity it is uncertain whether they were in to be discovered, were it material for use in the time of Moses, but it is cer. us to be informed of it; which, more tain that they were known to Solomon than merely for the indulgence of who lived about a century antecedent curiosity, it certainly is not: but to the age of Homer, and that they although the original transmission of came to bim, with other costly comit, in a wrought itate, be thus obscure, modities, from the East Indies, the and it is certain that the worni was not trade to which has in all periods been introdnced until about the age of a source of riches to those that engaged Auguftus, there are traces that the in it. ule of it, in ancient Greece, Alia, and It was by paying attention to this Africa, is of high antiquity, for we lucrative branch of traffic, that this find in the description of Helen's en- wile Monarch was enabled to attract dance at the conference of Menelaus to bis dominions those immense trea.
118 chief Cities, most of which were manusacturing, were, according !o the ancient Gexigarpliy, Serica, Ifledon, Asmira, Damna, Piada, Ortorocara, &c.: it was formerly deered a part of Scvehia, of which Serica was considered as the callern extremity. It may be worthy of observation that these countries are in the same latitude with Spain, Italy, France, &c. t camino, B. 4, p. 47.
I B. 6, p. 88. § Venus. Miad B. 3 V. 479.
q V. 520. of Caliand. V.859, nosirur:que ibi commentariuin consieli. Though this poet, from the trouble he has given to the learned, of which the judicious annotations upon his bork in this Magazine are a fufficient f; ecimen, uas terined the mysterious or dark, I think, with segard to this reference, he has been dermed by commentators luthciently cltar, at lealt for the purpose of this qucration. This lire, it is a singular circum. liance, I have chlerved, since the writing the preceding, has been commented on in the last Magazine: page 368.
** Ezekiel, C!12p. 16. V 10. The word Mefchi is trandated Silk ; so is the Schericbork (Itaiah, v.7.), which is under/tood to be a very valuable Silk. Solomon, freaking at a viriuous w.ma, faith "Her cloathing is Şilk and purple," Proverbs, C. 31 : V.22.
sures * which enabled him to build the of Good Hope, the course of commerce Temple of Jerusalem. David had, by was reverted, and this country, in his conquert of Idumäe, . become common with many neighbouring na. master of Elath and Egongeber, two tions, shared the benet of a branch of towns situated on the eastern coait of traitic, in which, hy persevering induf. the Red Sea. From these ports, so try, a fpirit of adventure, and other convenient for commerce, Solomon concomitant circuintances, it has risen fent his tleets to Ophir and Tarhlich, superior to any ; while those countries which returned laden with the richeit of Alia and Africa, which had so commodities of Pertia and Indoitan. largely profited by the tranlit of coin, When the Syrians regained Idumäe, modities, have declined in the same they enjoyed this traffic for some time, proportion. but by one of thore fluctuations of Thus we have seen that from those human affairs, of which every age has quarters of the globe, which h.ve been almost furnished initances, and to termed the cradles of science and art, which commerce is ever liable, it was not only the knowledge, but materials from them transferred to the Tyrians. for practing in and improving that
The merchandize of thele, conveyed knowledge, descended to us; leaving by the way of Rhinocolura, was diitri. the mythological fables of antiquity, buted over the Weitern hemisphere, and the myiterious original in which and their returns, though coarse, being their infancy was enveloped, and reuseful to the people of the Eattern, lying only upon the sure guide which gave them the full poilellion of the the light of the Holy Scriptures has trade, under the favour and protection given us, we shall find that God of the Persian Monarchs. Of this, (among other manufactures) had, loon wrought Silks formed a very considere after the deluge, discovered to manable Branch, and were, through this kind those of ipinning wool and flax, Channel, with aromatics, precious and weaving them into ituffs and lifoncs, &c. diffused over Europe, long nen, and, to name no more, that of dybefore an idea was entertained that ing ilks and ituffs of the most beautiful the insect might be nurtured in the and vivid colours I. climates of Greece and Italy.
From this we may infer that as flax When the Ptolomies made them. was a plant much cultivated in Egypt, selves masters of Egypt t, they, by fo was the worm which produces filk building Berenice, and other ports on much nurtured in Alia, where, I have the Western coast of the Red Sea, obferveil, the manufacture of this ar. attracted the Ealt Indian trade to ticle hus from the earliest periods of them : the emporium for which time been encouraged. It may there'they fixed at Alexandria, which, in fore very naturally and muft neceffarily consequence, became the most com- he implied, that in a loil fo well adaptmercial city in the world, and for ages ed for the culture of the mulberry after continued the grand channel of tree, and in a climate fo congenial to traffic; the principal Tink of that im- the nature of the infect that feeds upon menfe chain, which, extending its conits leaves, the lilk thus produced muit,or nexion from the Persian gulf to the it would be exceedingly different from mouth of the Nile, bound together every other animal or vegetable fub. nations, cities, ports, and vefsels. The ttance, have suffered by transplantation. commodities of India, Pertia, Arabia, It is certain that the climares of the and the Eastern coat of Africa, when Eat, though lying under the fame deby these means collected, were con- grees of latitude, differ very much from veyed over the Ilthinus of Suez on the climates of the West, and yet Silk canals or in caravans, and again set has been produced in many, nay, moft afloat on the Mediterranean. By this of them ; the same inay be frid of Eu. medium they were dispersed all over rope. Silk has been brought to a Europe, till, by the discovery of the confiderable, though interior, degree of passage to the East Indies by the Cape perfection, as to its original state, in
• In one voyage the produ&t is stated at 450 talents of gold (2 Chron. 8. 14.), which amounts to three inillions, two hundred and torty thousand pounds, sterling.
+ The immenle importance of which this country was considered in ancient, atfords an ample field for fpeculation in modern times. I Rollin's Ancient Hist, Vud. II. p. 468.
Sicily, in Italy, from the extremity of and consequently to add to the riches, the kingdom of Naples to the extre- of those Colonies i I fear that the an. mity of the Dutchy of Savoy ; in Spain, swer would give as little satisfaction to and the fouthern provinces of France; the ingenious and benevolent projector and, what is very extraordinary, Silk of this plan, as the process has to equal to any of these has, according to those that have tried the experiment. the Philosophical Transactions, been, Yet it is hardly to be doubted but that though in a small proportion, produced Silk has been produced equal to the in England.
Italian, though from the manner in · That mulberry trees will fourish, which it was twisted or thrown into and the inlect that feeds upon them Organzine it may have appeared infewill exist and spin in climates whick, rior, but certainly iníerior in its ori. though in nearly the same latitude, are ginal texture to that which is the foreign to its natural one, is certain ; growth of Persia and Indottan. In. but I think it is equally certain, rea- deed upon the art of the throwser, on foning from the analogy attendant upon which I fall have occasion to oblerve the transplantation of other animal and in future, teems in a great degree to vegetable productions from Alia to depend the criterion by which the ma. Europe, and vice versa, that these, nutacturer judges of the value of the although removed into a climate nearly article; though I fhall with great difthe same, or made the same by art, den tidence fubmit that this criterion ap. cline in their growih, lose their co- pears to me to be a falte one, and that lour, flavour, Itrengeli, and every other its intrinsic worth can only be apprevaluable property : fo I shall contend ciated froin a comparison of the va. do the Silk worms in Europe, whose rions fpecies in a state perfectly raw. produce in its original taie is, I have That the Silks of Perna and Indoftan no doubt, far inferior to that of the are, in this fare, superior to those of fame in feet in Alia; and the only ad- Italy, may, to continue the analogical vantage the European have over the mude of reatoning, I think be interred, Indotan fiiks, is owing to the furierior by a comparison of the ther proskill of the first manufacturers. But in duditions of nature, in the Eait and in order to show that this reasoning, the Wett: the various moths and but. though analogical, is not merely fpe tertiies, for instance, how beautiful is culative, it will be necessary to quote the formation ! how large the lize ! an initance where the attempt to in- how vivid the colours of those insects troduce the cultivation of silk in cli- in Ala, when placed in a comparative matts as congenial to the nature of the point of view with those of the fame worm and tree, as one would íuppose ipecies in Europe! The same obfer. any part of the European to be, has vation will equally apply to the pluproved abortive.
magt of the Eastern birds ; to their It is well known that the Society for fruit, towers, and every other producthe Encouragement of Arts, Nanu- tion which demands the torrid ray, or factures, and Commerce, will thirt is, by the operation of a tropical lun, Juudable zeal and true philanthropy forced into the utmost extent of exwhich has, ever once their fuit eitab idence, or the most fiorid Itate of culo Jienent, itimuiated them in their en tivation. This must be peculiarly nedeavours to benefit not only their own cesary for the growth of silk in large country but mankind in general, more quantities, and iherefore it follows as than thirty years since ottered pre- a consequential deduction, that the niums for the culture of silk, in those quaiity of the Alatic mult be superior provinces of America, where, from the to that of the European. Imilarity of climate to those in the Old Silks, as they are indigenous to, seem World, in which it had succeeded, there by the all wile decree of Providence to was a great probability of its being he particularly adapted for, the climate productive.
in which they were first cultivated, More than thirty years have pailed which from its warmtb demands a away, and, alıhough the political state lighter and thinner fabric than could of char country buas changed, the na- be conltructed from wool. The fame tural till remains the same ; we might may be laid of cottons, the plant trom therefore ask, what has been the event which they are manufactured being of this philanthsopic attempt to ex- alto a native of Perhia and Indoftan, tend the Manufactures and Commerce, ind I do conceive that it would be as
prefumptuous for a merchant of those not only into the fiscal consequence of countries to attempt to vie with us in the article, and the manner of prethe exhibition of wool, and to put paring it for exportation, both in Bentheir scanty fleeces, which have the gal and Italy, but allo into the grounds coarfenets and bad qualities of horfe- upon which merchants and manufaca hair, and are nearly incapable of be- turers have formed their opinions, and ing manufactured, into compariton of the neceflity (which has arisen from with ours, as it is for us to say that, political circunstances, but which may in the lighter and more elegant article prove highly beneficial to commercial) silk, they are not superior to the tu. that there now is for the combating ropean.
and reprellion of that prejudice. Thele • If this is granted ; if the superiority points, together wiib che prospect of of the Silks of Indottan, in a raw itaté, a furber extension of the Silk Manuis establithed; whence, it may be facture, ariling froin events in anasked, ariles the prejudice againit them other country, to which I have just which has, and I fear does itull ope- alluded; the cogent reasons that our rate in the minds of the artificers in Gallic neighbours have to wish for its this country, with respet to their ca. repression in this kingdom, and a furs pability, it properly thrown into Or. ther confideration of the advantage to ganzine, of framing a warp equal to be made of their late prohibition wird the Italian?
respect to the raw and organzined mar This is a question of the utmost im. terial, &c. i will form the subjects of portance in the present itate of the ma- future speculations. Aufacture, and will lead to an inquiry
Turner, in consequence of which he A Miss Brown, from the Margate blood
upon the face. He, however,
emitted a conliderable quantity of Theatre,
first time at Drury lane, as Amelia Wildene continued the contest for some time in baim, in the play of lovers' Vows. She this itate, the appearance of which pros is young and well-proportioned in duced the utinolt alar'm among the perion, and her manner' was marked audience, who, on the dropping of the by appropriate fimplicity.--Cherry, in curtain, infifted upon knowing whe. the rhyming Butler, was very divert
ther Mr. Turner wis seriously hurt. ing.
On this, Mr. C. Kemble came for.
ward, and allayed the general alarm, 27. Mr. Turner, a Barrister, who hy alluring the house that Mr. T. was a few seasons ago made an unsuccessful
but slightly wounded. attempt ai Covent Garden in the chi
15. Mr. Stephen Kemble closed his racter of Macbesh, appeared at Drury- c?! eer, for this featon at least, at Drury, 13.9e, as the reprefentative of Richard Jane Theatre, with the performance of 111. ; and, though we cannot consider Shylock, for his own benefit, and reit on the whole as a firit-rate pe: form- ceived much applause. ance, yet it evinced his having dili- After the play, having changed his gently pursued the path of improve; dress for that of Tajieff, Mr. Kemble, ment, and acquired a degree of skill which entitles him to a relpectabie ita- sibility, delivered the fullowing
with a Itrong expreflion of gratefui sen tion on the boards of a London theatre.
ADDRESS, He was much applauded.
WRITTEN BY HIMSELF. Dec. 2.
Mr. Turner repeated his To carry coal to Newcattle--absurd pertormance of kichard IIl. and a real Who has not oft this hackney'd adage tragedy was likely to have resulted ;
heard ? for in the fighting-scene between Yet it implies at least some share of wit, Richard and Richinond, at the close Thither to go Coal-laden from this Pit. of the play, Charles Kemble, who per- • What ! on a London audience Falstaff formed the latter part, accidentally
[chequer rob thrust his foil into the inouth of Mr. Sooner, perliaps, thou migheit : Ex