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النشر الإلكتروني

ARTS AND SCIENCES

OR

Fourth Division of “The English Cyclopædia,”

CONDUCTED BY

CHARLES KNIGHT.

VOLUME IV.

LONDON:

BRADBURY, EVANS, & CO., 11, BOUVERIE ST., FLEET ST., E.C

SCRIBNER, WELFORD, & CO., 654, BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

1867.

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F is a labio-dental aspirate bearing the same relation to the other Beasts' of Casti must be classed among the mock epic poems, although

labio-dental aspirate V which the letters called tenues, p, k, l, bear it may be said to consist of a series of apologues, each pointing to to the mediæ, 6, 9, d. It occupies the sixth place in the English as in some particular error, or abuse, in the state of society, and in the the Latin alphabet, thus corresponding with the digamma of the old conduct of men. It is probable that the older and simpler mytho. Greek alphabet, and the vau of the Hebrew. In power and form it is logical fables of the gods and heroes among the ancients were originally likewise closely related to those two letters. (ALPHABET.)

intended by the early patriarchs or priests to illustrate by allegory the The letter F is interchangeable with the other aspirates ch or h and attributes of the Creator, the phenomena of nature, and the progress th, and also with the lip-letters p and b.

of social life; but that in course of time people lost sight of the moral, 1. F in Latin corresponds to h in Spanish, as Latin formoso, beau- and believed the fiction in its literal sense. tiful, Spanish hermoso ; Latin femina, female, Spanish hembra; Latin The oldest collection of fables in any European language is in fugere, tly, Spanish huir. Other examples may readily be found in a Greek prose : the fables are attributed to Æsop, but much doubt Spanish Dictionary under the letter h. The same change prevailed exists as to the real author or authors of them. (Æsopus, in BIOG. between the Latin of Rome and the Sabine dialect of that language. Div.] Babrius wrote a metrical version of Æsopian fables, some of

2. F in Latin corresponds to th in Greek, as Latin feru, a wild which were used as materials for prose versions of the Æsopian fables beast, Greek Onp. Latin fle, weep, Greek Ope, as seen in Oprvos. by the mediæval writers; a few were always common, and a large Indeed this interchange prevailed among the dialects of the Greek addition to them was recovered by Minoides Minas, and published in language itself as in oυφαρ and oυθαρ; φλαν and θλαν; φλιβω and θλιβω. | Paris in 1842. [BABRIUS, IN BIOG. DIv.] The fables called the This however seems to depend on the proximity of the letters fables of Bidpai or Pilpay [PilPay, In Biog. Div.) are derived from a l and r. (See L.)

collection in the Sanscrit language, and Lokman is said to have written 3. F in Latin corresponds to b in German and English, as frang-ere, fables in Arabic; but several of the fables attributed to the latter brech-en, to break; frater, bruder, brother; fago, buche, beech, &c. appear to be the same as some of those attributed to Æsop, and it has

4. F in English and German to p in Latin, as pelli, fell, fell (comp. been supposed that Lokman and Æsop were one and the same perfellmonger); ped, fuss, foot; pug-na-re, fechten, to fight, &c.

sonage. (LOKMAN, IN Biog. Div.] FABLE, Fabula in Latin, in its general sense means a fictitious Among the Latins, Phædrus, who lived under Tiberius, is the most narrative, but it also means more particularly a species of didactic celebrated : he professes to have taken his subjects from Æsop. The composition, consisting of a short fictitious tale inculcating a moral MS. of Phædrus was not discovered before the end of the sixteenth truth or precept. As such it is divided into two sorts, the parable and century. Avianus, or Avienus, who (supposing the twn names to the apologue. The former narrates some incident, which, although it mean the same individual) lived under the elder Theodosius, wrote may not have happened exactly as the narrator supposes, yet could

a collection of fables in Latin verse. (* Avienus,' Leyden, 1731, have happened at any time, there being nothing impossible or with a 'Dissertation on the Identity of Avianus and Avienus.') improbable in it. Of this description are many of the parables con Faerno of Cremona, who lived about the middle of the sixteenth tained in the Scriptures, and especially in the New Testament, it century, made a collection of Æsopian fables, which he turned into being a favourite mode with our Saviour of illustrating his precepts by Latin verse, and which were published at Rome after his death in similitudes. When, for instance, he spoke of the master who, before 1564. He was accused of plagiarism, as having found a MS. of setting out on a long journey, intrusted certain talents or sums of Phædrus in some library, and borrowed his subjects from it. The money to each of his three servants, he did not mean that such a fact fables and fable narratives of the middle ages have been well described, had occurred at any particular time, though it might have occurred, and their characteristics discussed, by Jacob Grimm, in a preface to but he chose this figure as presenting the ways of God with regard to his edition of 'Reinhart Fuchs,' published in 1810. the mental or spiritual talents he has gifted men with, and which he Among the original writers of fables or apologues, in the modern expects them to cultivate and render useful in proportion to their languages, La Fontaine may be fairly placed at the head. Among the capacities. The second species of moral fable, called apologue, relates English, Gay and Moore have written fables. The Germans have had facts which are evidently untrue, and cannot have happened ; such as Lessing, Gellert, and others; and the Spaniards Yriarte and Samaniego. animals, or even inanimate things, speaking, but which serve as com Among the Italians, Firenzuola, Crudeli, Baldi, Capaccio, in the 16th parisons for the actions of men. Such was the well-known apologue of and 17th centuries, wrote chiefly translations or paraphrases from the Menenius Agrippa, addressed to the plebs of Rome, who had revolted Greek and Latin fabulists. In the 18th century Pignotti, a native of against the patricians, in which he told them of the various limbs of Tuscany, wrote original fables in verse, which were published at Pisa the human body having once revolted against the belly. (Livy, ii. in 1782, and have been often reprinted since. Bertola also wrote fables 32.) Most of the fables which are called Æsopian are apologues, (Pavia, 1788), with an essay on fables. Luigi Fiacchi published, under although some are of the parable kind; for example, that of Æsop the name of Clasio,' a collection of fables (Florence, 1807). and the villain who threw a stone at him. (Phædrus, iii. 5.)

FAÇADE, in architecture, a French term of modern introduction The apologue is one of the oldest forms of composition, being well into the English language. It expresses the face or front view of an calculated to strike the minds of men in a rude state. Homer's War edifice, as the facade of the Louvre, or the façade of St. Peter's at of the Mice and the Frogs is a composition of the nature of the Rome. Façade was applied originally to denote the principal front of apologne; only being extended to a considerable length, and including a building. The Italians apply the term Facciata for the most part to a succession of incidents, it is classed among the heroico-comic poems, such fronts as have a principal entrance. whilst the apologue, or fable properly so called, points out only one FACIA, a term used in architecture, or in ornamental construction, particular incident from which it draws a moral. In the same manner, to express the subordinate bands of an architrave or of a frieze. It is in modern times, the · Animali Parlanti,' or Court and Parliament of worthy of notice that in the best examples of Grecian or of Roman

ARTS AND SCI. DIV. VOL. IV.

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