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resorted to by some one or other then fitting at the table. This uninteresting egotist therefore was the more unpardonable, as he shut out every topic of curious and amusing information, which could no where meet a happier opportunity for discussion.

He was endured for a considerable time with that patience which is natural to men of good manners and experience in the world : This encouragement only rendered him more insupportable; when at last an elderly gentleman seized the opportunity of a fhort pause in his discourse, to address the following reproof to this eternal talker.

“We have listened to you, fir, a long “ time with attention, and it does not ap

pear that any body present is disposed to

question either your independance, or the • comforts that are annexed to it ; we re"joice that you possess them in fo full a

degree, and we with every landed gentle. “ man in the kingdom was in the same

happy predicament with yourself; but we are traders, fir, and are beholden to our ' industry and fair-dealing for what

you “ inherit from your ancestors, and yourself “ never toiled for: Might it not be altogether

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as amusing to you to be told of our ad* ventures in foreign climes and countries; “ of our dangers, difficulties and escapes ; “ our remarks upon the manners and cus* toms of other nations, as to enclose the « whole conversation within the hedge of “your own estate, and shut up intelligence, “ wide as the world itself, within the nar“ row limits of your parish pound? Be“ lieve me, fir, we are glad to hear you, * and we respect your order in the state, * but we are willing to hear each other also i “ in our turns ; for let me obferve to you in " the stile of the Compting-house, that con

verfation, like trade, abhors a monopoly, « and that a man can derive no benefit from

society, unless he hears others talk as well " as himself.”


I was in

was in company the other day with a

young gentleman, who had newly fucceeded to a considerable estate, and was a good deal struck with the conversation of an elderly person present, who was very deliberately casting up the several demands that the community at large had upon his property." Are you aware,” says he, “ how small a portion of your revenue will

properly remain to yourself, when you " have satisfied all the claims which you " must pay to society and your country for

living amongst us and supporting the cha“ racter of what is called a landed gentle“ man? Part of your income will be stopt, “ for the maintenance of them who have “none, under the denomination of poor

rates ; this may be called a fine upon the partiality of fortune, levied by the law of

society, which will not trust its poor “ members to the precarious charity of the “ rich: Another part must go to the debts




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" and necessities of the government, which “protects you in war and peace, and is also a fine, which


must be content to pay “ for the honour of being an Englishman, “ and the advantage of living in a land of

liberty and security. The learned pro« feffions will also have their share ; the “church for taking care of your soul, the * physician for looking after your body, and “ the lawyer must have part of your pro

perty for superintending the rest. The “ merchant, tradesman and artisan will have “their profit upon all the multiplied wants, “ comforts and indulgences of civilized “ life : these are not to be enumerated, for

they depend on the humours and habits “ of men; they have grown up with the “ refinements and elegancies of the age, “ and they will further encrease, as these “shall advance: They are the conductors, “ which, like the blood-vessels in the hu..

man frame, circulate your wealth, and

every other man's wealth, through every " limb and even fibre of the national body: “ The hand of industry creates that wealth, “ and to the hand of industry it finally returns, as blood does to the heart."


If we trace the situation of man from a mere state of nature to the highest state of civilization, we shall find these artificial wants and dependences encrease with every stage and degree of his improvements ; so that if we consider each nation apart as one great machine, the several parts and springs, which give it motion, naturally become more and more complicated and multifarious, as the uses to which it is applied are more and more diversified. Again, if we compare two nations in an equal state of civilization, we may remark, that where the greater freedom obtains, there the greater variety of artificial wants will obtain also, and of course property will circulate through more channels : This I take to be the case upon a comparison between France and England, arising from the different constitutions of them and us with respect to civil liberty

The natural wants of men are pretty much the same in moft states, but the humours of men will take different directions in different countries, and are governed in a great degree by the laws and constitution

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