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where they live, especially of that to Austria also conducted thither
of Hungary: this singular race pre- the Greeks, the Albanians, and the
fer a wandering life, exercising the Macedonians. These different na-
trade of fiddling, and committing tions are not very numerous, for
every where theft and robbery. there are scarcely an hundred fami-
Without having scarcely an idea of lies of them in Transylvania, though
music, they are very skilful in the they abound there more than in any
execution of their national and other province. These people, being
Hungarian dances and songs. Al. naturally industrious, have been very
most always wandering and travel. useful to Austria ; and the town of
ling, followed by their wives and Cronstadt owes to them the esta-
children, with their harps slung upon blishment of several important ma-
their backs and their Cythari" in nufactures. It is only in Moravia
their hands, they draw forth from that some Walloon families are seen,
those instruments melodious sounds, who remind us of that brilliant pe-
when they take their rest on the riod of her history when Austria
sides of the roads: and, in all the vil. . reigned over Spain as well as Ger-
lages through which they pass, they many. As for the Italians, there are
endeavour to interest the peasants none except in the provinces si-
and travellers by an afflicting repre. 'tuated on the coast of the Adriatic ;
sentation of extreme misery. The their numbers in the provinces, of
Czingarians, generally show more course, increases as those provinces
attachmeat to the Hungarians than approximate towards Italy. In like
to any other people, either because manner their numbers increase in
they resemble them more in manners, German Tyrol; beyond the city of
or because they are more protected Brixen, they become gradually
by them; they are rather partial to more numerous, and more especially
the Sclavonians, but they can not at Reveredo.
endure the Germans.

On the frontiers of Transylvania
Among the people of Austria, is the greatest variety of people in
.M. Marcel mentions the French, all the Austrian dominions. The
the Walloons, the Italians, and the manners of the inhabitants of Bu-
Armenians; but the first three are kovino are peculiar to themselves.
in such small numbers that they Towards the end of the third cen-
have no influence upon the po- tury the Turks ceded this country
pulation in general : the Arme to the House 'of Austria. It is
nians are the most numerous.- mountainous, and covered with fo-
Proceeding from Asia towards the rests. The inhabitants are employed
end of the seventeenth century, in tending cattle, particularly horses,
they fixed themselves in Transyl and they are, for the most part, of
vania, where there are now more .the Greek religion. The purity of
than eleven hundred families, most their manners, their sobriety, and
of whom inbabit the cities of Arme- the extreme simplicity of their mode
nienstadt and Ebels Falva; apd from of life, recall to our recollection the
them the former derives its name. tastes and occupations of the ancient
In the course of time many of them Patriarchs; they attain a very ad-
established themselves in Hungary, vanced age; in their dress they re-
not congregating in any considera- semble the Turks, but still more
ble numbers, except at Neugata, the Persians, on account of their
but scattering themselves all over large bonnet of black sheep-skin.
the kingdom, where they are still In considering, as it regards the
in possession of all the large farms. empire of Austria, the influence of
There are also some of them in Gal climate and soil


the manners licia, where they are sufficiently nu and characters of mankind, the merous to have an Archbishop, at author, after some excellent obserLemberg, the capital of that pro- vations upon this influence among vince. In travelling through Gal- ancient and modern nations, relicia, it is not a little surprising to marks, that there is in the poetry see the Armenians in their Oriental of the north of Germany, a vague costume, proud of the beauty and enthusiasm, a desire of something elegance of their clothes. The same which they can never obtain. causes that brought the Armenians The imagination of the Germans Bur. Mag. Feb. 1823.


in this part of their territory is as quire soft and mild habits, whilst
fertile as it is unlimited. Encircled the activity of their blood is. Ies-
by the mists of the north they sened. The slowness of their ac-
have never produced models, or tions, and the importance they at-
works attaining a high degree of tach to them, contribute to perpe-
perfection; for they cannot bear tuate their ideas of civility and
the restraint of rules in literature, hospitality, which they exercise
but lose themselves in vague ideas. without distinction, either towards
Every thing bows to the influence their countrymen or strangers.
of uncertainty ; power is as fluc- That goodness and generosity, which
tuating as thoughts and ideas, and pervade the minutest actions of the
enlightened men should take no Austrians, are very disagreeable to
more liberty with mental specula- the generality of travellers. At
tions than princes should take with every step you hear them say,--“ It
the produce of the earth.

is inipossible–I cannot do what you
In the south of Germany, where wish'—though it may be the easiest
nature is more calm and smiling, thing in the world; but, if you insist
the imagination is much less ex- upon it, they make no more difficul-
alted: power is less uncertain and ties but do what you desire, obey-
more concentrated. In the west of ing less for the hope of a reward,
Germany, the passions assume a than out of respect for power and
much milder character: it would a loud command. M. Marcel has
be the most fortunate country in often heard them say, " these devils
Europe, if the Government which of French make us do every thing
'directs it had not evinced a weak- they like: but how can we resist
ness which little accords with the them ? they insist upon it so stout-
dictates of wisdom. Temperate in ly."
climate, fertile in soil, and happy It is a very mistaken notion to
in its institutions, it continues in think every thing may be obtained
a monotonous state of prosperity, in Germany for money; they are
which can only be injurious to ac insensible to that powerful sti-
tivity of thought, but never to the mulous, but they never resist the
Irappiness of the inhabitants. The appearance of power and the de-
natives of this peaceful and fertile cided tone of command.
country only desire to live to-mor The custom of shutting them-
row as they did yesterday.

selves up in the winter in rooms, Every thing in Austria is done excessively heated by enormous more for the sake of duty than for stoves, and where the smoke of glory. A nation which has no other tobacco contributés still more to guide than the love of duty must be form a thick and unhealthy atmosa nation of real worth and integrity. phere, must, as the author observes,

The Germans in general, and par- render their blood heavy and viscous: ticularly the Austrians, have the the use of beer may also have greatest sincerity and honesty. some influence, as it relaxes the Their excellent qualities are as much nervous system. More than once derived from the excellence of their during his travels the author was institutions as from the goodness of obliged to stay in these warm rooms their hearts; their mild and peace some hours, and he never left them ful character, as well as their do without feeling very sensibly the mestic habits, ircline them to order effects of the heavy atmosphere to and union, from which they never w hich he had been confined. depart. In the winter, obliged to In consequence of their love of be united round their stoves in a order the Austrians are very clean room excessively heated, with an in their clothing ;t there is not with atmosphere hot and heavy, they ac them, as in many large cities in

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• All that the Author says in this place, and subsequently, on the manners of the Germans in general, appears to be particularly meant by him to apply to the inhabitants of Southern Austria.

† This observation more particularly applies to Southern Austria."

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Europe, miserable wretches covered ment of the academies of Munich and with rags walking by the side of Landshut, there did not exist a single elegance and luxury.' Every Aus- university or academy of the least retrian peasant has a clean coat, boots, pute; on the contrary, it is well known and a furred cloak for the winter : what lustre the universities of Gottintheir houses are as clean as their gen and Halle have given to the north clothes, and though nothing in their of Germany, and what influence these babitations bespeaks wealth nothing great establishments have had in the indicates misery and nakedness ; progress of knowledge. In Austria, they wear their clothes as long as where emulation has never been the French, but they take much directed towards the cultivation of nore care of them. The general letters, where literary success is no taste for cleanliness and decency is glory because it is supposed to erinced by not suffering beggars to weaken military spirit, and where the wear rags, and it is not one of the light of knowledge has scarcely pe. least benefits of the Austrian govero- vetrated, titles purely literary could ment, to have almost totally extir- not be of much importance. It pated them from the countries under must, therefore, easily appear that its dominion.

there is more public spirit in the When a whole people are sensible north of Germany than in the south, of benefits and never forget them, where there is not that spirit of they deserve general esteem; and unity, although there exists but one such are the Austrians. If you sovereign power. Two causes, neveroblige them they always remember theless, excite a species of public it, whilst they easily forget the in spirit and patriotism in Austriajuries done to them. They have been the love of their country and their reproached for being too much attach- sovereign; and, in fine, the happiness ed to ceremony and etiquette, and which every one enjoys under promany foreigners have ridiculed them tecting laws. More addicted to huson this account, but unjustly: this bandry than trade, the Austrians are formal politeness is the consequence excessively attached to their native of the spirit of order and decency. soil;therefore the interests of the counIt must be confessed, that if etiquette try are more dependant on the labourand formality are more observed in er than on the merchant, whose Germany tban elsewhere, the prero- almost only aim is the success of his gatires wbich the nobility enjoy are, private speculation on which depends in a great measure, the cause. Though his precarious existence. Agriculthe demarcation of classes is more ture is much honored in Austria ; marked, yet there is nothing offen- and the sovereign himself feels of sive in this restraint, for good-nature what importance it is to an empire prevails in Austria even over the where the land is so fertile. pride of aristocracy.

The inhabitants of the south of GerThe universities in the north of many, and particularly in Austria, Germany have instructed the peo- have a mueh calmer imagination than ple in constitutional forms of govern- those of the northern parts. Generally ment, and have contributed to less given to contemplation, they divest the feudal system of its grind- are less susceptible of enthusiasm. ing and barbarous severity. Feudal A purer sky, a more genial soil, and slavery, however, still exists in se a less savage scenery soften rather veral Austrian provinces where the than rouse their imagination: if progress of knowledge has not yet they are little susceptible of enthuextended its influence, but it is gra. siasm in poetry and the fine arts, dually decreasing

they are more alive to the dangers Amongst the higher classes of so- of their country. Their native soil, ciety in Germany it is very common to the land of their forefathers, the long unite a great many literary titles, and line of kings who formed the hapthere are more diplomas in this coun- piness of their ancestors, and of try than in any other in Europe, and themselves, and recollections of an. there is more importance attached to cient and modern times, all are contithem; but this mania is much more nually present to their view, and spur common in western Germany than in them on to generous sacrifices; nor the south, where, before the establish- are these sacrifices painful to them


because they love their country: thus; and goodnature have a charm that though the Austrians have a calmer is peculiar to them; a mild sound of imagination than the northern Ger. voice, an air of candour and goodmans, they have notwithstanding a ness, flaxen hair, a dazzling comromantic tendency in their affections, plexion, and large blue eyes, would

The Austrian women are very render them too seducing, if their ideal in their sentiments; and their simplicity and modesty did not enheads are warm at the expense of force respect and temper, by the their repose. They love passionately, charm of virtue, the too lively imand with all the ardour of their pression caused by their beauty; nature; and, though christians, love they, please the stranger by their far from appearing a weakness to them sensibility, while they interest bim seems a virtue; they think it needs by their imagination. no excuse. As in all peaceful and Without cultivating the fine arts thoughtful nations, the Austrian and literature too much, they are not women abandon themselves without strangers to them; and, when their fear to their sensibility, and think confidence is gained, they evince connothing extraordinary that contri- siderable knowledge, of which they butes to the happiness of him they never make a display. Their prelove: equally generous and affec sence in society is as agreeable tionate, even when they are deceived, as that of Frenchwomen, and it they sigh in secret, but seldom may be said, that they seem to be abandon themselves to despair. It more necessary to it. The men are. has been thought in France, though less agreeable than their wives, and upon slight foundation, that the generally less amiable. The Austrian German women were easy of access, women speak with nearly equal faci. because some of them might have lity all the European languages; and been weak; but it was not considered French is peculiarly delightful in that they are not prepared like the their mouths. They have much less French women against seduction. influence in the world and in society The German women, in their simpli- than the French women, but hapcity of mind, cannot comprehend piness does not depend upon exthat a man of honour can ever feign terior. Family love and tranquillity sentiments he does not feel, or ridi- of mind never tire, and these alone cule the noblest affections of the are what they appreciate. The Gera soul.

man girls have much more liberty The Austrian nation is, perhaps, than the French; this liberty, which the most moral in Europe. If its they never abuse,gives them a greater political conduct has not alivays been knowledge of the world. It is to guided by honour, it may be justly be remarked that in general, women said of them, as of the English, that in Germany have a marked superithey are far from approving everyority over the men in society. It is act of their government. The Aus- astonishing how little agreeable trian people are much too grave to men, and even clever men, are in easily adopt that levity of manners, conversation ; neither their ideas, which is too common in other nations, nor their choice of expression can and which turns the arms of ridicule convey a conception of what they are against every thing that is sacred. capable of in silence, solitude; and The sanctity of marriage is still re- meditation. The most distinguished spected in Austria. The conjugal men are so little in the habit of conleads to maternal love, and the versing, that without women there Austrian women are all, or almost would be no society. all, excellent mothers.

Scandal, which is but too often They are not more ostentatious in the subject of conversation in our their attachment to their children societies, would soon have destroyed than in their tenderness for their that politeness which distinguished husbands. Divorce, which introduces the German women, if they had into families a species of anarchy, fallen into this vice so common to has never been allowed by the Aus. little minds ; but they have preserved trian laws ; and this is not the least the purity of their primitive manners advantage of their legislation. The through the goodness of their dispoAustrian women in their simplicity sitions, as well as the excellence of

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their institutions. They are never capital, which might otherwise re. bigots or fanatics; their religion is: main for ever in obscurity and almost as pure and simple as their hearts, unknown, acquires celebrity by proand supports them in the miseries of ducing learned men. Gotha, Weimar, life. What has been said here of and Gottingen are become the Athens the Austrian women relates to the of the north, and the centre of inhigher classes of society.

struction to the greatest part of As to the lower orders of women, Europe; in a short time the same M. -Mancel knows none who have may be said of Munich. purer and better manners. It is very Å nation generally good, and

posrare in a village to find a single sessing integrity, can not be otherfamily that is not in the most perfect wise than charitable, and no nation harmony. Maternal love is so for was ever more so than the German. cible in these good countrywomen, In the large cities there are fewer that it preserves them from faults mansions and fine private edifices so common elsewhere; their work than in France, or especially in and the duties of religion entirely Italy; but charitable establishments occupy them, and thus they are pre are greater in number and better served from all the vices that idle superintended. Many of these esness engenders. In some cantons, tablishments, founded at first by however, they may be reproached associations of individuals, have for, being too much addicted to acquired by degrees immense riches, strong liquors, which destroys their which are employed in the service health and fortune.

of the sick and indigent. It is said The Austrians, like the Germans, that at Vienna there is one hospital are rather serious than gay; and the capable of receiving, in case of men of superior intellect have more emergency, fourteen thousand beds. genius than wit,and more originality In spite of this prodigality of assistthan taste. It is to this want of tact ance for the indigent, which apthat the monotony of the society in parently would encourage idleness southern Germany may be attributed; and consequently mendicity, there but this monotony is not apparent are but few beggars in Austria; in the familiar iatercourse of domes where every man, who can work so tic privacy.

as to gain his livelihood, would be When a person is fortunate enough ashamed to live at the expense of to be admitted as an intimate friend others. The different charitable into a family, he finds a charm and establishments, and the workfascination that the stranger cannot houses which exist in almost all meet with, who only sees the Ger- the cities, and sometimes even in man in circumstances where their the smallest villages, have greatly natural timidity and respect for cns contributed to extirpate mendicity. tom, restrain and paralise their fa The cleanliness of the Germans, culties. In seeing them as they which charms all travellers, has the really are, it is delightful to meet happinest effects upon their chariwith men of such pure and excel- table institutions; it preserves health, lent hearts in an age so demoralized. diminishes the causes of mortality, It is necessary to see the Germans and favours the love of economy: frequently and long, to find out the the people are indebted to it for a extent and solidity of their know- kind of dignity closely allied to deledge. The stranger finds more cency and propriety; for cleanliness pleasure in the society of the inhabi- favors, as much as food and climate, tants of the north of Germany than the development of the human of the south. The gentlemen of the powers. Perhaps it is chiefly owing northern provinces are not satisfied to this cause that nearly all the with seeking the society of the Germans are tall in stature, with literati, for many of them excel strong and well proportioned limbs in the sciences and in the higher and fresh florid complexions; but classes of literature. Princes, and they have in general no delicacy of even sovereigns, have rivalled each feature, and but little expression of other in their efforts to give that countenance. Though there are lustre to letters which they claim but few ugly men amongst them, from, civilization. Thus any little yet there'are still fewer really hand

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