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without interrogation, which is made zerland. We very much approve in secret without other witnesses this division, as it. prevents the than the tipstaff of the tribunal, the confusion of subjects and adds to secretary, and, in case of inquisito the excellenee of the work.

The rial interrogation, of the execu first volume is not, however, detioner who applies the .rod. The prived of historical interest. It manner of whipping criminals is contains some curious anecdotes redifferent; sometimes the criminal lative to historical facts. He menstands before a column with the tions the military maneuvres of arms free, and sometimes he is sus Generals Sowarof and Massena to pended by his hands with his body take advantage of the best positions in the air. At the first blow the in the mountains, or to avoid the blood flows, and, in extraordinary dangerous roads, scarcely accessicases, they use sticks or the skin of ble even to Chamois hunters. M. an ox, instead of rods. The number Simond also relates, on the authoof blows is not limited. It is also rity of M. Ebel, an anecdote of customary to put the accused for French courage; when at the fafive, eight, or ten days, into a damp, mous passage of Simplon, in March, cold, and small prison, where he can 1800, General Bethencourt was sent neither lie down, stand up, nor see with a thousand men, in order to a ray of light; and the consent of clear the

way
for the

army. They the accused to his own condemna- arrived at the edge of a precipice tion is absolutely exacted by the sixty feet wide; the bridge of which law, even when he is clearly proved had heen destroyed by snow and to be guilty.”

falling pieces of rock.. A volunteer Since this work was written, a offered to attempt reaching the other modification has taken place in cri- side by the help of the holes in the minal procedures in the canton of rock, which formerly served to reZarich; and though torture is not ceive the heams of the bridge. Thus abolished, nor blows with the ox- passing his feet from one hole to hide suppressed, yet the number of the other, he safely arrived to the blows is not left as beretofore to opposite side of this frightful prethe will of the executioner, but is cipice. A cord, one end of which fixed by the special order of the he had carried over, was fixed on judge. This has been all that good the top of the two sides of the rock. sense and humanity could gain over General Bethencourt went after him custom and barbarity. The judges suspended by the cord over the preof the Russian tribunals are more cipice, resting his feet in the holes humane towards their serfs, than the of the wall. Soon after the thoumagistrates of Zurich are to their sand soldiers followed with their fellow-citizens.

arms and knapsacks. We think that the best way of Five dogs, who were with this appreciating the moral state of a detachment, fell down the preci nation is to ascertain to what de- pice ; three of them were carried gree of perfection its legislation is away by the impetuous torrent from arrived; and this subject, together the glacier : the other two struggled with matters relating to public eco against the tide, and landed on the nomy, form the principal features of opposite shore; they climbed up the work before us. The agricul to the top of the wall, and arrived tural institution of M. de Fellen. excessively hurt at the feet of their berg, at Hoswyl, particularly at masters. tracted the attention of our tra M. Simond's work contains many veller. He enters largely into the interesting anecdotes upon various studies of the young people under subjects. What particularly disthe care of this clever and jndicious tinguishes it from other producmaster, and upon the discoveries of tions of the present day is, its freethe learned agriculturist. We think dom from party-spirit. We shall M. Simond has already published add no qualification to this praise, this part of his travels in the Edin- though the author appears to reburgh Revier.

tain many prejudices relative to the ů. Simond devotes his second French revolution ; and he has, it volume to the history of Swit- appears, great reason to deplore

ner;

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its excesses. M. Simond has been Persia, the protection of the prince absent from France thirty years. Abbas-Mirsa, and the friendship of This long space of time has been Askeri Khan, formerly Ambassador employed by him in visiting the to the court of France, enabled this North Americans and England, officer to make some interesting obwhich has enabled him to judge of servations. Every thing relative to France, both as to her former and the military force of the Chah, his present state ; and therefore a man, government, the extent of his emso enlightened as he is, ought to pire, his last war with the Turks, bless the great political reforma his different connections with the tion, even while he sheds tears over Russian and English Embassies, are its accompanying misfortunes. treated of in a very satisfactory man.

There are many faults in the and a great many new and style of M. Simond ; and it is easy exact costumes form another merit to perceive that he is but little ac of this work. We regret that we quainted with Prench literature. cannot bestow similar praise on that He mistakes when he supposes that part of the work where the author Rousseau, in his Nouvelle Heloise, treats of Persian literature and makes St. Preux, on the rocks of poetry, and particularly the differMeillerie, see what passed at Cla ent kinds of writing, the Taalik, the rens. Rousseau was too well ac Neskhy, and the Chekesteh, which quainted with those places, which he calls Taleeb, Niski and Schekhe describes with so much warmth estab. But these slight inaccuracies and truth, to make such a mistake. are redeemed by many new and inIt is not Clarens but Vevay, which teresting details. the lover of Julia constantly observed when he was at Meillerie. Recherches sur l'origine des ordres These two places are directly, op de chevalerie du royaume de Daneposite each other, only separated by che: Jake. Nor do we think that marck, &c. M. Simond's opinion of Madame de Stael's style would be adopted by

Enquiries into the origin of the people of taste:

orders of Chivalry in the kingdom His work deserves to be read; of Denmark. "By Doctor Frederic much instruction, as well as interest

Munter. 8vo. pp. 132. and amusement, will be found in it, for the author has profited by the

The venerable author of these encelebrated precept-utile dalci.

quiries is well known to all Europe

for his very learned works; amongst Voyage en Perse, &c.

others, for liis treatise on the religion Travels in Persia in 1812 and 1813, of the Carthaginians, the second by Colonel Drouville, in the Rus edition of which, enlarged, we are

expecting; We were sorry not to sian Service, 2 vol. 4to.

find at the end of these inquiries a

list of all the works of M. Munter, This work treats of the manners, and of the very curious editions for customs, and religious ceremonies of which the public are indebted to him. the Persians ; their military state, He allows that the time is past when ancient as well as modern, and of discussions upon the orders of chievery thing relative to the regular valry might have had a political imand irregular forces of that Empire. portance. But all that relates to anNotwithstanding the excellent work cient manners, customs and privileof M. Joubert, which was read with ges, must interest philosophical obgreat avidity in France ; the work

servers, and those persons who are of Sir G. Ousely, so remarkable for fond of exterior distinctions, indeits numerous and learned quotations; pendant on the functions of public and Sir R. Ker Porter's travels, the utility. We are at a loss to conjecture first volume of which is so remark- the origin of the order of the Eleable for the beauty of its engravings; phant, and of that of Dannebrog. On yet, after all, these volumes by Co- these points we bave neither title, lonel Drouville must be read with monument, nor historical relation pleasure. A stay' of three years in cxempt from contradiction; but it

even

pears from the traditions collected by to the fraternities generally, and M. Munter, that probably these two even to individuals, as rewards for orders originated about the 13th real or pretended services, and century in one or two fraternities

as payment to hired spies, or religious congregations; one These public services ceased with created for the purpose of fighting the barbarity of the middle age in against the pirates, the other for which they originated; but confesthe defence of the Brog, or the great sions, communions, and useless prostandard of the Danish army for: cessions, are still left in catholic merly carried on a car upon a moving countries. Thus in France, if the altar. French chivalry also began by number of sinecurist knights be not fraternities of the virgin, instituted so numerous, yet still they are alto maintain public peace in the midst most all pensioned, and every one of public or private wars, at least of them decorated with orders, and during the days of La Tréve de subjected by a feudal oath to their Dieu, and to protect those who were king, although feudal law is aboin danger of being robbed by the lished. This is, in few words, the Great Men of that day or their exact history of European knightdependants. But the author assures hoods, and the reason of the contempt us that, in Sweden, there were no into which they are fallen. North robbers that infested the highway; America rejected, them, the constithat no Danish gentleman ever at tuent assembly of France suppressed tacked or pillaged any traveller. them; Napoleon thought necessary It was not thus in Germany, France, to revive them in order to facilitate and elsewhere. However it might his conquests, and the restoration be, the most ancient orders of chic of Louis XVIII. has confirmed and valry have every where derived their multiplied them. Throughout France origin from simple fraternities, con are seen innumerable persons who gregations, or ecclesiastical commu- belong to so many orders, that they nities.

have a great deal of trouble to fulfil The pope and the king authorised the rigorous duty of wearing all them by diplomas, and both honored their insignia. To ease their conthem with peculiar marks of distinc, science in this respect, and to dimi. tion. The members of these corpo

nish the trouble and expense of rations were clothed in a sort of their daily costume, it has been ne, uniform indicating their fraternity, cessary to invent variegated ribbands and confessed solemnly, communi. with colours almost invisible, and cated, walked in procession, and even little metal hooks to suspend their rendered themselves useful to the crosses upon. Many stupid erudites, state by public services, and most contemporaries of past times, seri. of them gratuitously. But everyously employ themselves in the thing changes with time! Some- endeavour to discover the first traces times their public services only of these brilliant bagatelles in the consisted in inaking processions; rus monuments of the ages of igand rents and pensions were assigned norance and oppression. Oh! vanity.

ENGLISH BOOKS.

Pereril of the Peak. By the selves disposed to question the conAuthor of Waverly, &c. Edin

clusion which the literary world and

reading part of the community have burgh, 1823. 4 vols. 12mo. pp.

come to upon the subject ; and least

of all, we conceive, can the author It would be supererogatory, at be inclined to disturb their decision; this period to enter into any critical for it has allowed him a fame which analysis of the general merits, and we imagine he must acknowledge demerits, of the author of what are to be at least commensurate with called the Scotch Novels. The pub- his deserts. We must, bowever, conlic judgment has long been passed, cur with our brother critics in passand we think accurately passed ing our severest censure upon the upon these works. We are not our carelessness and rapidity, with which Eur. Mag. Feb. 1823.

Y

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this fortunate author protrudes his right of these Scotch novels is exworks upon the market; and we pired, they will be abridged to less condemn yet more seriously the than half their present bulk, and eking out of volumes by the intru- that the abridgment will throw the sion of uninteresting details and original works into disuse. How vapid dialogues, and by the weari- different in this respect are the soine dilitation of every part but works of Fielding, where almost those primary, scenes upon which every thing is expunged that is not the author seems to be aware that absolutely necessary to the condact the success of each publication must of the story, or the few superfluous depend.

parts are made the vehicle of his Under the first head of this humourous satire ! charge the author appears to us to . The present novel is preceded by be niore guilty in the present novel an introductory letter of thirty-two than in any of his preceding publi- pages, written in a style of attemptcations. The work is replete with ed wit, which we must confess hardly instances of most culpable careless- compensates for the trouble of readness and negligence. Numerous ing in thirty-two pages what might sentences are inaccurately, as well have been compressed into ten. But as inelegantly, constructeil; vulga- the object of the letter is to defend rity of idiom often offends our taste the author from the reiterated charge and judgment; the dialogues are of violating the sanctity of histosometines Inaded with the super- rical truth, by selecting from hisfuous replications of “ answered tory, subjects for the ground work she," " said he," " replied he,” &c. of his novels, and for not strictly Tliere many misquotations; adhering to the original. This is such, for instance, as a notorious a point which has been strenuously passage from Romeo and Juliet at urged against his writings, but the bead of the first chapter in the which, we think, has been swelled second volume, attributed to Ot- into unnecessary importance. No way; and there are yet more dis

person,

however dull or perverse of graceful errors; such, for instance, understanding, can enter upon these as printing “ predecessors" instead works without immediately perof " successors” (page 53, vol. 2), ceiving that the plan is foreign to and “portmantle" instead of “port any precise conformity to historical manteau," (in page 215), and in facts. The author transports himother places of the same volume. In self in imagination to the times short, we much question whether and scenes in which his plot is laid ; more than the leading parts of this he sketches the characters of the author's works are written by him- day with some reference to their self, and whether the interstices are actions in history, but in a manner not often filled up by some board. congenial to his imagination, and ing-school relative.

suited to produce a dramatic effect; But of the second part of the and his incidents are often of a charge, that of spinning out the vo nature, and always filled up with a lumes by almost endless dilitations, circumstantial minuteness and deit is the rock upon which this writer's tail, which obviously never could fame will ultimately be, if not ship. have been transmitted to us by wrecketl, at least most seriously in history. The apprehension that jured. The same sort of tedious readers may confuse their notions filling up of connecting, but unin- of history by a perusal of these teresting, links in the chain of works, therefore, appears to us just stories has already so nearly con as absurd as the charge of moral signed Richardson's novels to obli- turpitude against Chatterton for his vion, that the few who now wade literary forgeries; or as absurd as through them, form, in the esti. the supposition that the readers of mation of booksellers, a class of Tom Jones and Joseph Andrews readers sui generis, and are techni. should expect to find the Westeros cally called in the trade “ The and Sir Thomas Booby identical perreaders of Richardson !" We are

sonages in the history of Somerconvinced that, as soon as the copy setshire.

1

Sir Geoffry Peveril of the Peak is absurd, and eqnalled only by a a descendant from William the similar folly in the picture of lordConqueror, and the knightly pos- ly bravery in the infant Buccleugh sessor of an estate near the Peake, in the author's poem of the Lay of in Derbyshire. The time of action the Last Minstrel. The delicate, is the reign of Charles the Second, yet resolute behaviour of Lady Pewith some episodial references to veril, upon Bridgenorth's attempted the more brilliant reign of Crom violation of the asylum of her house, well. Peveril is a staunch Epis to the Countess is very finely drawn ; copalian, and, of course, is in the but the sadden and violent traninterest of legitimacy; but he is sition from friendship to hate in drawn as a brave and loyal country Sir Peveril against Bridgenorth, gentleman of that era, rather than upon his hearing of the circuinas the chivalrous cavalier which stance, is we hope unnatural, at his rank would lead us to antici- least it appears

so in the page pate. He is loyal, brave, choleric, of description. The child, Alice hospitable, large and powerful of Bridgenorth, in consequence of this body, and rude and boisterous of quarrel is now taken from the care manner. His neighbour is a Major of Lady Peveril by its father; and Ralph Bridgenorth, a sectarian, and Sir Geoffrey Peveril's son Julian is a supporter of the Parliament ; a about the same time sent to the Isle man cool and circumspect, and na of Man to be brought up with the turally of a kind disposition and young Earl of Derby by the Counof upright principles, but render- fess, governing the Islands. After a ed at first melancholy and after laspe of years, with the usual prowards malignant by the fanaticism bability of romance, Julian diseoand the perversions of Christianity vers Alice rearing in the family of which distinguished that era. Be the widow of the late Colonel Christween him and Peveril no sympa tian; who had fallen beneath thy could exist, but nevertheless the vengeanre of the Governess of in the time of the triumph of the the island. His infant love for Parliament, the natural equity of this companion of his boyhood now Bridgenorth's disposition had be- of course becomes love of another friended Peveril, and had created description; and, whilst in a stolen an intimacy between them. Bridge- interview be is pouring out his north has successively lost the whole soul to the oliject of his passion, the of his children by disease; and at father, as if by the wand of the harlength his wife dies in giving birth lequin, interrupts their converse. So to a sickly child. An habitual me far from the lovers meeting with the lancholy and despair seizes upon parental violence, which is usual in his mind, during which Lady Pe novels upon such occasions, it turns veril takes his infant ander her out that the cool and calculating care; and by her maternal offices Major Bridgenorth earnestly wishes establishes the child in health. The the union of the families, but for friendship, created between the par. the impediment of the religious ties by this reciprocity of services, differences existing between them; is suddenly interrupted by Bridge- and it is now his object to persuade north's atiempt to seize the Coun- Julian to embrace what the enthutess of Derby, whom he unexpect- siastic Major considers the only edly discovers in Lady Peveral's cas means of salvation. All this part of tle, and who, as reigning sovereign the novel, with the exception of one of the Isle of Man, had executed a scene between Alice and Julian, is Colonel Christian, the brother-in- very beavy and dull. We have morelaw of Bridgenorth, and a con ever introduced to the reader in this mander in the parliamentary inter- part of the story, a character of est. The introduction of the Coun- Fenella, a female dwarf, both deaf tess through a sliding door of the and dumb, whoin the Countess of apartment is inartificial; and the Derby had bought of a set of strolldilated description of hereditary ing rope-dancers.

We are cloyed bravery in a child, of five years of to surfeit with these unnatural and age, seeing what he couceives to be a absurd creations of a disordered ghost coming from the pannel, is fancy, which are to be found in

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